ANALYSIS OF THE USE, CAPABILITY OF TEACHERS AND LEARNERS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This research work assessed teacher and students‘ competence and the use of Information Communication Technology in Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State in Nigeria. The statement of the problem was the challenges of integrating information and communication technology ICT into tertiary institutions was a very big task, many teachers and students still lack adequate training and competence in using computer as a tool for effective teaching and learning. Six objectives of the study, determine the extent of use of Information and Communication Technology by teachers in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria; find out how often Information and
Communication Technology is used by students for learning in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria; Six research questions To what extent do teachers use ICT in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria What is the extent of students ICT use in learning in the tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria and six hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study reviewed two theories:
Vyotsky‘s Theory and Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) and social learning theory. It adopted descriptive ex-post-facto design. The instruments used were questionnaires the population of teachers was 2234 and that of the students 5801 from tertiary institution while Simple random sampling was used to sample out 322 teachers and 380 students. The IBM version 23 SPSS (statistical package for social sciences was used for the analysis. The X2 square was used for testing the hypotheses. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The summary of the major findings in the use of Information and Communication Technology frequency of usage in teaching ICT was high especially as majority could shut down and start up computer on their own safely and use it for typing of examinations and tests. Majority of them could operate and use computer system with software packages and they also acquired skills to operate word processing. In conclusion, P Value 000.0 is lower than 0.05, there is significant difference existing between teachers and students on the ICT level of usage; the teachers have higher level of ICT usage than the students. All the six hypothesis are rejected. The study recommended that policies need to be put in place by the Federal and State Government for the improvement of ICT infrastructure, and provision of uninterrupted power supply for effective use and skills competence in the development of ICT. Contribution to knowledge information communication and technology shall lead the teachers and students to human progress, lifelong education, future career, which was employment and knowledge based education in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an organized combination of hardware, software, communication, networks, and data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in an organization. In as much as the classroom has become congested, there is the need to move from the congested classroom which has become obsolete or old fashioned to a modern system of the use of ICT to enhance and improve teaching and learning. Having the competence in ICT skills for teaching goes beyond just knowing how to operate a system, but having the competence in the skills to facilitate teaching and learning. The researcher is of the view that even the very few computers and ICT facilities available are not used for teaching, but are mainly used for day to day administrative and managerial activities as most departments do not use computer laboratories, except departments that trains students in this discipline. The National Policy on Information Technology (2001) stressed that the trend today is moving from learning to use information and communication technology to using information and communication technology to learn. and that what most teachers posses was Computer Assisted Instruction Skills, and this computer assisted instruction has hardly been part of the teaching content or course content therefore, it necessitates a more focus teacher target and information and communication technology teaching content which should be freely delivered by these tertiary institutions of the study since that is what is now needed by the teachers and students respectively.
Therefore it is necessary for teachers and students to undergo training to be competent in the use of ICT and to have the right potentials to enable them to know how to operate and manipulate ICT for the teachers in their professional practices and for the students in their contextual task. The study therefore assessed the use and competence of teachers and students in information and communication technology in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Overtime, teachers and students have used various technologies before the advent of ICT, they used technologies ranging from chalk board, black board, slide, projector, print media, overhead projector, which have proved to be obsolete. The evolution of ICT came a long way which led to globalization of ICT and the level of sophistication of modern technology increased by moving from the use of crude tools.
With the tremendous technological changes in the last two decades of the 20th Century, it is expected that there should be movement from using ICT to using it to learn. Therefore, it is imperative to integrate the use of ICT into the tertiary institutions, so that it can be used to learn, and to move from the traditional book material which the students are still using and for the teachers of ICT to embrace the course content to improve the teaching and learning of ICT in the tertiary institutions. It is a fact that enormous increase in the use of electronically controlled equipment has substituted for human judgement in a wide range of skills from middle to low level. It is in the light of this that Coulter, Feldman and Konold (2000) opined that (ICT) is beginning to play an important role in Education. They further stresses that (ICT) provides available and rich sources of information to students: in content for learning in most course areas which allows the users to engage in enquiry by exploring nearly unlimited resources available on the ICT. They also articulated that Textbooks are often outdated, but most website resources are often current and updates frequently. Instruction is less teacher centered as students‘ curiosity drives their learning. Allow students to learn at their own pace and that the (ICT) can be accessed anytime of the day.
In recognition of the programmed role of Information and Technology in advancing knowledge and skill necessary for functioning in the world, there is an urgent need to integrate information and communication Technology (ICT) into education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria Today, the demand for educational technology is high, and when technology is used thoughtfully, the results, are gratifying; it is technology that enables people to learn and to interact in all fields of educational endeavours.
When ICT is used in teaching and learning in education, the learning shift from the teacher centered model to a learner centered model (NTI, 2006). Haddad and Jurich (2002) observed that when ICT is used in teaching and learning in education, the teacher becomes less the sole voice of authority and more of facilitation, mentor and coach: from
―sage on the stage‖ to ―sage by the side‖. Man power development has been revealed to depend on tertiary institutions they produce both the technical, administrative and research components that drive the economy produce, food and services in the society.
The world is fast moving into a global village where the language of Information
Technology is very vital and essential in all areas of human endeavours. Information Technology has brought about new ways of doing old things in all spheres of human activities. Effective and efficient utilization of ICT in the developed world has greatly improved research in all areas of human endeavours: agriculture, education, security, science and technology, economy, communication, health, trade and so on.
The world of today is characterized by revolutionary advances powered by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The world is being reduced to a global village through the use of information and communication technology thus, ICT promotes national development and better relationship with other nations. ICT refers to the electronic and communication devices associated with human interactive materials that enable users to employ them for a whole range of teaching and learning process. Today, it is an increasingly powerful tool for participating in global markets, promoting political accountability, improving the delivery of basic services and enhancing local development opportunities (UNDP, 2006). ICT facilities influence and affect peoples‘ private and corporate work life in one way or the other. These ICT facilities are all encompassing in areas like technology, socialization, politics, economics and education, for global transformation. Therefore, it becomes pertinent for teachers, who serve as key implementers of the nation‘s educational policy, to be well-informed and adequately equipped with ICT facilities in order to function productively in this age of information explosion and technological advancement.
The Federal Ministry of Education (2010) identifies the role of ICT policy on education
amongst others as:
The policy provides the needed guidance on what is expected in the entire process of ICT integration in education to all stakeholders in education. Its’ implementation, therefore, should lead to a speedy transformation of the teaching, learning and administration of education. This in turn will foster the production of graduates in the education system that can survive in the contemporary society, sustain national development and compete globally (p.3).
The realization of this policy statement lies basically in the capability of the key implementers of the nation‘s educational policy that is, teachers to integrate ICT-Driven instructional aids effectively through Computer Assisted mode of Instruction (CAI) in their day to day classroom activities for effective pedagogy. It is clear that ICT is a world of its own, it has various diversified aspects. Communication is the process by which people exchange information, or express their thoughts and feelings. Most communication is done by the use of words. In driving conversation and other person to person communication, we use our natural voice. But when our thought and feelings have to be heard at long distance television, telegraph, the internet and satellites. Each of these means of communication has solved the problem of communication at one time or the other. Information and Communication Technology is about the discovery of new ways of communicating faster and more easily at anytime in human life. In the past, information could only be passed from one person to another by word of mouth then letters, telegrams, telex and Telephone came into use, now fax, Global System of Mobile Communication (GSM) and the internet are used. These means arose as needs of society demanded that the present day communication are electronic based.
The need for this study became paramount in that the classroom is no more conducive enough for teaching and learning, because of moving from traditional method of teaching and learning to a modern method which is the Information Communication and Technology. It is therefore necessary to introduce new method like chalkboard and whiteboards which can improve teaching and learning in the tertiary institutions.
Peter, (2010) it has revolutionized the way in which people communicate with each other.
Users can search for information about any topic using the ICT today, important part of our day to day life the ICT is used in diverse fields, education, communication medicine, defense, engineering and sports (Okebukola, 2008). Information plays a key role in the formation and structure of societies, no matter how small. Therefore with the introduction of computers and communications with their managements to yield information
Technology, result in their being bound to be profound in societal impacts, Information Technology has the world‘s largest broad band which embraces all networks which has changed the face of the world we live in. (FGN 2001) Information Technology has hold more impact on administrative service and the private sector as they are used for admission, registration, fee payment, purchasing than on the fundamentals of classroom teaching and learning.
In view of this fact, the Information Communication and Technology is yet to revolutionize the classroom. According to Gambari and Okoli (2007), it is changing the learning experiences of students by relaxing time and space constraints as well as providing easier access to information on line, journals and E-book. Tertiary institutions refers to third in order rank or importance, the tertiary sector is, the area of industry that deals with services rather than materials or goods, Tertiary education refers to university or college level. Information is needed in virtually every field of human thought and action. Information is needed to plan meals. Make purchases while organizations need information to make decisions. Data are raw facts or events or activities, which no meaning had been attached to (Okiki, 2011), its education is today regarded as a commodity. There is the need for teachers and students to be competent in the use of ICT in the tertiary institutions. The researcher is inspired by the sophisticated level of globalization by the innovation of ICT in the world today. Also by the speed with which the future that seemed unknown is known today. Today, there is teaching and learning at almost everyone doorpost, even the most remote rural areas because of the introduction of ( ICT ) Life is somehow becoming easier than the old times in human endeavour. The term telecommunication is a combination of two words ―Tele‖ which means from far, while communication implies transfer of message, code or knowledge. Telecommunication therefore implies communication over far distance using modern media such as computer, internet, handset or cell phones, television radio and so on. The timing of the communication revolution though belated, was apt as Nigeria had been transited to a democratic dispensation, headed by President Olusegun Obasanjo (1998). The use of ICT is inevitable as large volumes of data known as information gloat, complexity of information need ways of easy processing, in banking, examination offices. All other sectors of Nigerians economy are in dire need of technological (ICT) innovation if Nigeria is to meet up the global technological advancement. For Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to meeting the needs of the 21st Century, teachers and students require technology driven environments. ICT has brought into the system new and emerging technologies that have come to replace or challenge the traditional methods involved in the teaching and learning process. There is need therefore for proper integration of ICT in instructional delivery for purposeful and experimental learning to take place. In this era of ICT, the focus in the use of computer the teacher to be able to utilize ICT he/she needs a personal computer desktop or laptop, central processing unit. Monitor, keyboard, uninterrupted power supply and printer the knowledge acquired will serve as a foundation for further advanced knowledge like internet, e-mail and more.
The researcher observed that it is necessary to take up these study based on the observation that the challenges for teachers and students in tertiary institutions is no longer in covering the course contents or adopting appropriate teaching pedagogy, but it is in having access to Information and Communication Technology and using it to embrace teaching and learning Olaofe (2005) argued that such a grasp of Information and Communication Technology should be within the capabilities of most people, regardless of age, area of discipline, gender, or educational experience. Competence is defined as the ability to combine and apply relevant attributes to particular tasks in particular contexts. Houghton (2008) points, to increasing use and power of computer technology in tertiary institutions, and advised that educators most know the capabilities of educational software. This is important because when the teacher is able to understand the role of software in the classroom and has positive attitude towards its usage in teaching and learning in tertiary institutions becomes easier.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The world is fast becoming a global village, as a result of the development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The challenges of integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into tertiary institution is a very big task many teachers and students still lack adequate training in used and competence in using computer (ICT) as a tool for effective teaching and learning in tertiary institutions. On the relevance of ICT for teaching and learning, the Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) observed that government should provide facilities necessary. Infrastructure for promotion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) at all levels of the education system (FGN, 2004). The level of sophistication of (ICT) innovation came in with an intention to improve and impact knowledge to teachers and students in tertiary institutions but its absence or insufficiency in the existing tertiary institutions in Kaduna State has made teaching and learning difficult. Therefore, it is against this backdrop that the researcher assessed the use and competence of teachers and students in (ICT) in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria. (ICT) is an important source of information in all fields of endeavour being a new in technology to teaching and learning and its nature of sophistication the researcher is of the view that many teachers and students still lack adequate training and competence in using computer as a tool for effective teaching and learning.
In recent times, the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in teacher training programmes has been the topic of much debate, in the tertiary institutions educational systems around the world are under increased pressure to use the information and communication technologies (ICTS) to teach student‘s knowledge and skills they need in the 21st Century. Teachers in education institutions are faced with the challenge of preparing a new generation of teachers to effectively use the new learning tools in their teaching of practical (UNESCO, 2002). Thus, teachers have been affected by the penetrating influence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The fact that ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and research in traditional and distance education around the world cannot be over emphasized, ICT literacy, in concrete terms has enhanced teaching and learning. Through its dynamic, interactive and engaging content and has provided real opportunities for individualized instruction (New house, 2002).
The challenge in Nigeria today is not only shortage in the availability of teachers who are ICT – competent, but the need to moving from learning to using ICT to learn. There is a need for capacity building to improve and update the quality of the existing teaching force, and also to ensure that teachers education programmes integrate content, pedagogy technology. (Hughes, 2005, Koehler, Mishra, & Yahaya 2007).
The challenges in the use and competence of ICT in the tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria it is obvious there is little or no use of ICT at this level of our educational system, most institutions does not have the necessary (ICT) facilities for teaching and learning neither do the teachers possess skills in (ICT) for effective classroom interaction. The level of competence and skill acquisition is still low among the teachers and students to perform their professional practice and contextual task in their various discipline and the use of ICT facilities and equipment is worrisome ICT has been widely embraced by teachers and students in Nigeria Institutions. However, there are many whose use and competence of ICT is questionable what could be the underlying reasons for the slow attitudinal change in fully embracing ICT are teachers and students really competent in the use ICT and how frequently do they use ICT. These are questions that need to be answered to ensure that ICT is fully targeted in teaching and learning in Nigerian Institution. The researcher is of the view that there is under usage of ICT, by teachers and students, bureaucracy, unavailability and inaccessibility of ICT resources, has been discovered to be another problem that hinders teachers and students competence in the use of ICT in existing institutions. In Nigeria, others problems include scare of opportunity to use computer which is the reason why teachers and students were slow in the ICT update. There is the issue of lack of experience and training at in usage, lack of ICT teachers, teachers trainers or encouragement, and lack of confidence on the part of the teachers and students and their trainers in computing skill especially in computer assisted instruction teaching content, or course content which accounts, for the low ICT. The researcher observed that traditional method of lesson delivery with ―Chalk and talk‖ system of teaching and learning is more of a teacher-centered approach than learnerscentered as practiced in some tertiary institutions today. The use of ICT in the Nigerian tertiary institution is comparatively low looking as its position on the continent the mode of teaching and learning process today is expected to shift from the conventional method to a more dynamic and flexible one, which is the learner. Centered or students-centered (Ezekoka & Okoli, 2012). The government should make effort to provide the necessary facilities, supply of constant powers, trained teachers on the use of ICT in the tertiary institutions. The study therefore assessed the use and competence of teachers and students in ICT in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of the study are the assessment of the use and competence, of
Teachers and students in tertiary institution in Information and Communication Technology in teaching and learning in Kaduna State of Nigeria. The specific objectives
- determine the extent of use of Information and Communication Technology by teachers in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria;
- find out how often Information and Communication Technology is used by students for learning in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria;
- identify the level of skills competence in training, operation, and manipulation among teachers in the use of Information and Communication Technology for teaching in tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria;
- examine the degree of skills competence in training, operation, and manipulation among students in incurring Information and Communication Technology for learning with Information and Communication Technology in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State Nigeria;
- identify the challenges the teachers face in the process of changing to embrace the innovation in the use of Information and Communication Technology to enhance teaching in their professional practices in tertiary institution in Kaduna state Nigeria; and
- identify the challenges the students face in the process of changing to embrace the innovation in the use of Information and Communication Technology to enhance learning in their contextual task in tertiary institution in Kaduna state Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The research was guided by the following research questions:
- What extent do teachers use Information and Communication Technology in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria?
- How often information and communication technology is used by students for learning in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria?
- What are the level of skills competence in training, operation, and manipulation among teachers in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria?
- What are the level of skills competence in training, operation, and manipulation among students in learning in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria?
- What are the challenges the teachers face in the process of changing to embrace the innovation in the use of Information and Communication
Technology in teaching in their professional practices in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State?
- What are the challenges the students face in the process of changing to embrace the innovation in the use of Information and Communication
Technology in learning in their contextual task in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State?
The following hypotheses were formulated in the study:
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers of polytechnics, universities, colleges of education on the extent of use of Information and Communication Technology in teaching tertiary
institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of students of polytechnics, universities, and colleges of education on the how often Information Communication Technology is used by students in learning in tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers of polytechnics, universities, colleges of education on the level of skills competence in training, operation, and manipulation among teachers in information and communication technology in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of students of polytechnics, universities, colleges of education on the level of skills competence in training, operation and manipulation among students in information and communication technology learning in tertiary institutions Kaduna State of Nigeria.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers of polytechnics, universities, colleges of education on the challenges the teachers face in the process of changing to embrace the Innovation in their professional practices in teaching in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
Ho6: There is no significant difference in the opinions of students of polytechnics, universities, colleges of education on challenges students face in the process of changing to embrace the innovation in learning in their contextual task in tertiary institutions in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions
- That tertiary institution lack adequate Information and Communication Technology software for instructional materials for teaching and learning in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- That where ICT is applied effectively, it can impact positively on the understanding of teaching and learning.
- That teachers and student have competence of manipulating the ICT for teaching and learning.
- That concept of ICT and its effective utilization for teaching and learning will provide a significant shift from the old traditional method of teaching which is teacher centered to the student centered method, which enables more interaction, actively and exploration in the teaching/learning process.
- That with seminars, workshops, conferences, course on ICT in the tertiary institution will enhance teaching and learning if carried out periodically.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The result of this research will be of significance and greatly beneficial in the following ways. It will be useful to teachers, students, teacher educators Teachers and students of Tertiary Institutions, policy makers, researchers, and the society at large. In that it will help them appreciate the need to make necessary adjustment from the traditional methods of teaching and learning to a modern system of teaching and learning which is the Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study will help the National Information Technology Department Agency (NIIDA) to measure the level of success of its organization.
Its hoped that the findings would help view possible factors hindering the effective implementation of ICT policy in education especially in tertiary institutions with the aim of solving them and improving students academic performance. The study may draw the attention of NIIDA to see possible areas that will demand review in the ICT policy to meet the current trend in the global market of information technology Study will reveal to policy makers the need to provide equipment and facilities to the teaching and learning of ICT in the tertiary institution, to encourage competency and fast usage of ICT and to remove the negative feeling of anxiety, lack of confidence in the attitude of teachers and students towards ICT usage in the tertiary institution. It will evolve trained personnels that could handle ICT equipments and infrastructure to competency level, will assist the tertiary institution in data processing. It will serve as a guide for student in their study and it will enable the teachers to do advance work in their researchers.
This finding of this study shall help, federal, states, an Education authority to know the extent to which ICT facilities are available in the tertiary institutions for teaching and learning process as well as know the level of usage utilization of these facilities by teachers and students for effective teaching – learning process.
The findings shall help make tertiary institution administrations to see the need for continuous training of their teachers who are ICT literate and train those who are not for better services delivery. Teachers will find this study helpful in so many ways. Specifically, some teachers who are reluctant to embrace this innovation or illiterate in the use and knowledge of ICT will see the need for it, if they want to remain relevant in the teaching profession and also ensure the success of their students. In addition, teachers who are faced with the problem of overcrowded classrooms can be supported with ICT to carry out their teaching effectively without much Ado. Infact, this study will be an eye opener and image booster if they adopt this strategy lessons can be planned and be taught without the teacher being necessarily present all through in the classroom. More so, it has an added advantage of reducing the burden of teachers to more or less a facilitator in the classroom.
The NGOS and philanthropic organization who are interested in educational
advancement of the nation will see possible areas that require ICT facilities in tertiary institutions and the need for their support and donations.
By the findings teachers will be encouraged by the study to identify suitable areas that needed application of ICT and detect their deficiencies and strengths in order to enhance the teaching of students in various tertiary institutions. Teacher, planners of the various learning processes, can identify most suitable ICT to apply in the classroom for maximum benefits to students which will also motivate the presence of ICT in their classes to enhance their understanding of the teachers. Tertiary educational institutions authorities can also benefit by ensuring availability and maintenance of the available ICT facilities. ―The teacher who are responsible for choosing appropriate means of
dissemination of information to students, may find the study useful so as to enhance the teaching and learning in tertiary institution in the classroom.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on the Assessment of the Use and Competence of Teachers and Students in Information and Communication Technology in Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna State in skills application of word processing, power-point, e-mail, internet, data base, file navigation and S/S curriculum. The study is limited to the assessment of use and competence of teachers and student in the tertiary institutions that offer ICT as a course for teaching and learning in the Federal Tertiary Institutions as well as in state institutions in Kaduna State namely Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Zaria, Kaduna Polytechnic Kaduna,
State College of Education Gidan Waya, Federal College of Education Zaria, Kaduna University Kaduna, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, The researcher hopes to carry out a study on the use and competence of teachers and students in ICT in tertiary institutions in
Kaduna State in Nigeria.
ANALYSIS OF THE USE, CAPABILITY OF TEACHERS AND LEARNERS IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA