ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

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ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research work assessed the Implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. The study was conducted using five objectives which were translated into research questions and hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted with 5862 as population of the study, using the sample size of 365 based on the recommendation of sample size table prepared by Research Advisers (2006). The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire titled Assessment of the Implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme Questionnaire (AIUBEPQ). It was validated, pilot tested and found at 0.81 reliability coefficient. Mean, standard deviation and bar chart were used for descriptive analysis and chi-squire was used for inferential analysis. The research findings revealed that: all the five null hypotheses were rejected which further opined that, there was adequate enrollment in some junior secondary schools in the study area but in some schools like Government Day Junior Secondary School Garanda and Government Day Junior Secondary School Bulanguwa the students‟ enrolment was not encouraging; Yobe State Government is trying her best in the recruitment of Universal Basic Education teachers, but there are still challenges as regards to the teachers‟ posting to schools located in rural areas. However, politics and favourism have significant influence in the process of teachers‟ posting in the study area. Based on the findings five recommendations were proffered which include; there is need for stakeholders to enlighten those communities outside metropolitan cities on positive implication of students‟ enrolment in to Universal Basic Education Programme and its contribution to societal development; and wrongful political interference and favourism should be abstained while posting Universal Basic Education teachers among other recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the life-ware of any meaningful development. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (2009) states the need for functional education, to be relevant, practical and to acquire the relevant skills and the development competences for the individuals to live in and contribute reasonably to the development of the society. This means that the quality of instruction at all levels has to be channeled towards instilling the core values of competence necessary for self-reliance and poverty reduction.

The fact that education has been identified as a veritable instrument for enhancing individual, community and national development, at the international scene, there was declaration of human rights worldwide in 1948, which includes the right to education (at least basic education), which was seen as a right for everybody to actualize the notion of all nations in the word that education was generally considered as instrument for development. Also the 1959 United Nation declaration of child rights includes right to basic education and Nigeria is an active member of the United Nation

Organization (U.N.O.). In 1968 there was an international conference in Paris with

“the world crisis in education” as theme. This conference threw it‟s weight to the previous declarations.

In 1990, a world conference on education was held in Jomtien, Thailand, which was popularly called Education For All (EFA), the outcome of this world conference on education was to be adopted by all countries in a bid to reduce drop out and illiteracy rates in every society. For Nigeria to be in line with this recommendation, the UBE programme was launched by the federal government on 30th September, 1999 in

Sokoto with Prof. Emeritus Pai Obanya as National Coordinator (Federal Ministry of Education, 2000).

Federal Republic of Nigeria (2000) highlighted the objectives of Universal Basic Education to include; the development in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and strong commitment to its vigorous promotion, provision of free, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school going age, reducing drastically the incidence of drop outs from the formal school system through improved relevant, quality and efficiency and catering for the learning needs of young persons. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) is more ambitious programme than that of the universal primary education (UPE), the universal basic education is intended to inculcate more forcefully on the life of Nigerians than the universal primary education. Although the Universal Basic Education is a programme, it is also an educational programme for the acquisition of functional literacy and skills, the type of education that will inculcate an understanding of the need for unity such that is required in Nigeria the development of conduct and attitudes that can foster unity, patriotism and tolerance, special emphasis should be place on peace and unity, that unites us in our diversity. It is necessary to be noted what it takes to make a nation strong and selfreliant, above all to impact into the citizenry a sense of belonging so as to make them for effective respond to their responsibility.

The objectives also include laying of sound basis for scientific and reflective thinking, development of sound attitudes, giving every child the opportunity of developing manipulative skills that would enable him or her function effectively in the society (Babalola, 2000). Since the Universal Basic Education scheme includes the junior secondary schools, the national policy on education stipulated the objectives of junior secondary schools to include effective thinking, communication skills, making of relevant judgment, making the student a useful member of one‟s family, understanding basic facts about health and sanitation, understanding and appreciating one‟s role as a useful member of the country (Babalola, 2000). These objectives are more likely achieved in Junior Secondary Schools than at the end of the six years primary school level. For Universal Basic Education programme as an innovative policy to be translated into reality and success, the issue of infrastructural provision, provision of instructional materials, recruitment of teaching staff, instructional supervision among other issues must be taken into consideration. This therefore shows a great need to carry out this study in order to assess the implementation of universal basic education programme in junior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria.   

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Universal Basic Education is a programme aimed at addressing problems of access, quality and equity in primary and junior secondary schools. It is a 9-year educational programme of six years duration for the primary segment and three years of junior secondary. These two levels of basic education are universal free and compulsory for all Nigerian children aged 6 to 15. This is with the hope to fulfill the nations‟ commitment to education for all (EFA) by the year 2015 and the MDGs. Thus, the success of this programme can only be achieved when there is adequate provision of infrastructure, adequate provision of instructional material, effective instructional supervision among other provisions.

Despite the fact that, there is serious hope and speculations upon the Universal Basic Education programme, this programme is still in dare need of about 40,000 qualified teachers, 336,467 class room, 336,144 additional chairs and desks and 950,430 units of toilets (National Union of Teachers News, 2007 and Road Map to Nigerian Education Sector, 2009). The teachers of Universal Basic Education also appear to be dissatisfied with their remuneration and conditions of service, in addition, poor or inadequate provision of teaching/learning facilities like libraries, laboratory equipments, books and so on. With these problems, the free and compulsory promise attached to the programme also seems to be only a paper work.

In view of the aforementioned problems, the researcher intended to carry out this study to assess the implementation of Universal Basic Education programme in junior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria in order to see whether adequate and quality teachers are being recruited, the level upon which policy related to provision of infrastructural provision to Universal Basic Education Programme is being implemented among other targets.   

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. determine the level of students‟ enrolment at Junior Secondary Schools of

Universal Basic Education Programme in Yobe State;

  1. find out the extent to which teachers are recruited for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  2. examine the level of provision of instructional materials for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  3. identify the extent of implementing Universal Basic Education Programme in relation to infrastructural provision in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State; and
  4. ascertain the level of instructional supervision of the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe

State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are put forward to guide this study:

  1. What is the level of students‟ enrolment at Junior Secondary Schools of Universal Basic Education Programme in Yobe State?
  2. What is the level of teaching staff recruitment for the implementation of

Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State?

  1. What is the extent to which instructional materials are being provided for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary

Schools in Yobe State?

  1. What is the extent of implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme with regard to infrastructural provisions in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State?
  2. What is the extent to which instructional supervision is being carried out for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior

Secondary Schools in Yobe State?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated for this study:

  1. there is no significant difference in the level of students‟ enrolment at Junior Secondary Schools of Universal Basic Education Programme in Yobe State;
  2. there is no significant difference in the level of teaching staff recruitment for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  3. there is no significant difference in the level of provision of instructional materials for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  4. there is no significant difference in the implementation of Universal Basic

Education Programme in relation to infrastructural provision in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State; and

  1. there is no significant difference in the extent to which instructional supervision is being carried out for the implementation of Universal Basic

Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State.

1.6 Basic Assumptions

The study is based on the following assumptions that:

  1. the students enrolment rate in Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State is in line with the aim of its establishment to provide equal educational opportunities for all;
  2. there are enough and qualified teaching staff recruited for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe

State;

  1. the instructional materials are adequately provided for the implementation of

Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;

  1. the Universal Basic Education Programme policy with regard to infrastructural provision is being implemented in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State; and
  2. the instructional supervision is being carried out effectively for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary

Schools in Yobe State.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The study is on the assessment of the implementation of Universal Basic Education programme in junior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. The work will greatly benefit the curriculum students, Universal Basic Education Commission, State

Universal Basic Education Board particularly at Yobe State level, curriculum planners, local government education authority, other researchers, parents and the general society among other beneficiaries.

Curriculum students will benefit from this study by revealing to them the current status of Universal Basic Education programme with regards to policy implementation in relation to infrastructural provision, provision of instructional materials, teaching staff recruitment, instructional supervision and the level to which the programme is being implemented in Yobe State.

Curriculum planners are part of the beneficiaries from this study. This will assist them to discover the area that gives problem in the process of implementation and to determine whether the programme will be reviewed, altered or changed completely.

The study will also benefit Universal Basic Education Commission as it will help them to ascertain the rate of pupils‟ enrollment and retention in Universal Basic Education Schools in Yobe State. This can be used to explore the prevailing studentteacher ratio in the programme and to make an inference on whether the effective implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme could be achieved in Yobe State.

State Universal Basic Education Board will benefit from this study as the study will unveil the true state of infrastructures, learning facilities, teaching staff recruitment, instructional materials and instructional supervision in Universal Basic Education Schools in Yobe State. It is hoped that this will be used as a basis for promoting effective provision of infrastructure and learning materials in Universal Basic Education Schools in Yobe State and Nigeria in general for effective teaching and learning.

Researchers will also benefit from this study by using some part of the literature and the findings of this study. They can also use this study to review an empirical study if they find it relatively relevant to their research work.

Parents and the general society will greatly benefit from the study as the study will explore the true state of infrastructures, learning facilities, teaching staff recruitment, instructional materials and instructional supervision in Universal Basic Education Schools in Yobe State. This will help them to concentrate on what is expected from them for effective implementation of the programme under study.

1.8 Scope of the Study

This study intent to assess the implementation of Universal Basic Education programme in junior secondary schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. The research is limited to Nguru Universal Basic Education Inspectorate Zone, Yobe State. This zone consists of Nguru, Machina and Karasuwa local government areas in which all the three local governments will be found in the North Senatorial Zone of Yobe State. The study is specifically concerned with the level of students enrolment rate in Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, the level of teaching staff recruitment for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme, the extent to which instructional materials are being provided for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme, the extent to which

Universal Basic Education Programme policy implementation in relation to infrastructural provision and the extent to which instructional supervision is being carried out for the implementation of Universal Basic Education Programme in Junior

Secondary Schools in Yobe State.

ANALYSIS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

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