ANALYSIS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT, UTILIZATION AND PRESERVATION OF RECORDS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The study is titled “Assessment of the Provision, Utilization and Maintenance of Records in Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria. Six objectives were set to; examine the provision of statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, assess the utilization of statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, determine the maintenance of statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis. Ascertain the provision of non-statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis; examine the utilization of non-statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, and also determine the maintenance of nonstatutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the research. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw sample. The instrument (questionnaire) was self-developed by the researcher using rating scale of adequately (4), fairly (3) Not (2) and undecided (1) on the provision, utilization and maintenance of statutory and non statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. The instrument was validated and pilot tested to determine its reliability. On the sport administration of the questionnaire was adopted where two hundred and seventy three (273) copies of questionnaires were administered out of which two hundred and fifty (250) were duly filled and retuned. Population of the study was 2,808 which comprise 61 principals, 77 supervisors from the three (3) education zones and 2,670 teachers. A total number of 281 respondents were randomly selected as 10% sample for the study. The data collected were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentage and decision mean. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses. The results indicate that there was significant difference in the opinion of respondents on the provision and utilization of statutory records in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, while the other four hypotheses were retained since there was no significant differences on the opinion of the respondents, hence subjected to scheffe test to determine extent of differences in the opinions of respondents. Major findings revealed that statutory records were adequately provided. On utilization, only national policy on education was not adequately utilized and maintained. However, few teachers and supervisors are of the opinion that attendance register and visitors’ book were not adequately utilized and maintained despite being provided in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. Meanwhile, findings on non-statutory records revealed that records such as staff responsibility list, inventory book, school calendar, cumulative record card, disciplinary committee file, staff minute book and school photo album were adequately provided, utilized and maintained with the exception of cash/account book, stock book and health book.
1.1 Background to the Study
Record and its effective management involve provision, utilization and maintenance. It is very vital for quality existence of man, education system, good performance and national development. The continuity of any school organization depends on availability of useful records of past activities, in a complex organization like the school; it is not possible to keep every information in the brain because the volume of information is heavy. Therefore records must be provided, utilized and maintained. Accurate information of all activities going on in schools are kept for effective decision making and if they are well documented the decisionmaking process is further made easier (Uwazurike 1991).
The school administrator has a role of observing the smooth running of all programmes of the school. The extent to which an administrator succeeds depends solely on the number of factors and one of which involves record keeping. These records give a lot of information about the school that will enable supervisors and ministry official to rate performance of the school accordingly (Ajayi 1997).
Durosaru, (2002) describes school records as official documents, books and files containing essential and crucial information on actions and events which are kept and preserved in the school offices for retrieval and utilization of information when the need arise. Some of the major school records include; students‟ personal files, staff record book, log book, visitors‟ book, class attendance register and inventory book to mention few.
Egwunyenga, (2009) observed that not all information can be considered as record until they satisfy such characteristics such as genuinely and authenticity, that is the information must be true, correct, original, comprehensive, accessible and secured. The school administrators must ensure that records are devoid of exaggeration or untrue statements which may render it invalid.
According to Idoko (2005), school records management (provision, utilization and maintenance) can only be achieved when the school administrators employ desirable strategies for improvement. These includes placing priority on supply of necessary records, fund allocation and judicious expenditure, opportunity for professional training by staff through in service should be given to school administrators.
Record management (provision, utilization and maintenance) do not only enable school administrator to have a clear picture of what is available and what is required, they provide justification for certain needs and seems to extend the memory by which person/organization can pass on their culture and achievement to the future generation. In fact the content and quality of school records can serve as a direct reflection of the amount of work that has been expended on their school enterprise. Record management helps school administrators and parents to keep a concise and accurate timeline of event, in the life of the pupils; in line with this assertion, Fassasi (2004) opined that school record management is meant to enhance the performance of secondary administrations. Adequate record management programme coordinates and protects institutions‟ records, sharpens the effectiveness of records as a management memory which controls the time, equipment and communication problem. Management of records in a school like any other organization is cyclical in nature which involves the principals, teachers, students, messengers, cleaner, and other members of staff. Bulk of these records are handled by principals which are often kept manually, hence the process of provision, retrieval, utilization and maintenance of records are difficult.
It is imperative to note that information and data generated from an effective and efficient record managements aids the school to plan and make useful decision, presence facts and give figures for future references; thereby enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization and administration of school. United Nation Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO -(1991) described record as a proof of a transaction and further stated that records are set of information put down on books, files computer and other documents on every event that goes on in an organization and are always made
available/accessible for future reference.
The effective management (provision, utilization and maintenance) of school records by principals depends on certain procedure and functions such as effective supervision, creation of records, effective leadership, monitoring, provision and training of adequate personnel, record storage and retrieval, discipline and effective communication, delegation of duty, developing record skills and motivation (Ajaji, 1997).
Asogwa (2004) asserts that records and data generated in the course of execution of legitimate function of the school for an organization should be utilized and maintained properly.
However, despite the overwhelming importance of school record, it has been observed that they are poorly kept and managed. School records, whether statutory or non-statutory, physical or electronic should be properly kept and maintained for utilization and future retrieval. The study arose due to apathy, capacity, gap or lack of proper understanding of records life cycle on the part of those saddled with the responsibility of record management. The knowledge and skills required for proper record management include among others knowing what records are, administrative purpose of keeping records, skills of keeping records, retrieving records, e-record keeping skills and record management skills for service delivery. It is on this premise that the researcher attempt to assess the provision, utilization and maintenance of records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Record management is one of the basic functions of school administrators and cannot be over emphasized in any way. The continuity of any school organization depend on available and accessible useful records of past activities. In view of the importance of records in the administration of secondary schools, the education law in virtually all states of the federation requires that every school must keep certain specified records. For instance section 22(i) of education (General) Regulation of education law, 1964 of Northern Nigeria stipulates that every institution other than a corresponding college or training college shall keep records and books. Those that are statutorily specified by law are referred to as a statutory records, while those necessary are known as non – statutory records. Despite the importance of school records management in the achievement of educational objectives, these records do not seems to be adequately management in terms of provision, utilization and maintenance by Government and school administrators. From observation, it becomes obvious that accurate, reliable, and trustworthy records that fulfill evidential requirement are been created but not properly managed. Egwunyenga (2009) emphasized that records management practice in Nigeria has a number of problems which may include, insufficient skilled and experience record management personnel and possibly low priority of records management in the scheme of things.
Similarly, Modebelu and Onyali (2012) were critical about problems of record management when they outlined some of the problems as; incomplete and unreliable sources of data; improper entries, in accurate, incomplete and incorrect documentation; improper, poor, and inadequate storage facilities; duplication of records; organized falsification of records or data; failure of government/school management to make available the necessary official registers for correct documentation; lack of training in school record keeping, inadequate safe space for storage of such volumes etc.
In addition, the researcher has observed with regrets, that one of the glaring problems facing today‟s effective management of education in Nigeria is total inadequate of maintenance culture. When records are provided, the need to effectively utilize them is imperative and maintaining such records for future use or retrieval is unmistakably a necessity.
From the fore going, it is appears that there are issues or problems with record provision, utilization and maintenance in our school system and secondary schools in Kaduna are not exception or excluded hence the need to undertake a study on the provision, utilization and maintenance of records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis in order to ascertain the present state of record management, identify areas of weakness and prefer likely solutions and advance suggestion on way forward.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study has the following specific objectives to achieve:
- examine the provision of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state, Nigeria;
- assess the utilization of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna state, Nigeria;
- determine the Maintenance of Statutory Records in Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria;
- ascertain the Provision of Non-statutory Records in Secondary Schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- examine the Utilization of Non-statutory Records in Secondary Schools in Kaduna
Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria; and
- determine the maintenance of non-statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
From the stated objectives, the following research questions were generated.
- Are statutory records provided in secondary school in Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria?
- To what extent are statutory records utilized in secondary schools in Kaduna
- Are statutory records maintained in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- In what ways are non-statutory records provided in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- How are non-statutory records utilized in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
- Are non-statutory records maintained in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis?
1.5 Research Hypotheses:
The study has the following hypotheses:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the provision of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the utilization of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the maintenance of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the provision of non-statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the utilization of non-statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the maintenance of non-statutory records in secondary schools in
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:
- Adequate provision of statutory records in secondary schools may enhance and improve the administration of secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis;
- Effective and efficient utilization of statutory records may brings about the attainment of educational goals;
- Regular maintenance practices may ensure maximal usage of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis;
- The provision of non-statutory records may compliment the use of statutory records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis;
- Proper utilization of non-statutory records may improve the administrative role of school principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis; and
- Efficient and effective maintenance of non-statutory records may ensure maximal usage thereby enhance teaching and learning in secondary schools in Kaduna
1.7 Significance of the Study
It should be noted that quality administration is not only judged or assessed by school administrators‟ professional competence in leadership style, but also on the level of record keeping or management professional competence. The study is not only important to principals and other stakeholders in education but is also timely. The study is therefore significant in the following ways.
To keep the government at all levels and the society well informed on the need or otherwise for investment in education sector. The nature and direction of such investment is also made available for authentic decision making by stake holders in education administration.
To enhance effectiveness and efficiency in the provision of guidance and counseling services to students on social and academic activities. Through record keeping career choice among student is facilitated at various levels. While teachers and principals ensure vigorous training on the chosen carrier of the students.
The findings may provide useful statistics for education planning, administration and management. Solution to problems of data collection, processing and utilization is provided through statistic analysis of information from records kept. The study also assists education inspectors/supervisors to assess teachers performance through available records that are authentically produce and adequately rich in content. It also enhances teacher performance through interaction with inspectors/supervisors during school inspection process.
The study may as well expose school principals with the best management of school records keeping that will discourage falsification of data. It will also assist teachers to appreciate their importance in the process of record provision, utilization and maintenance in the school.
The significant of this study do not just ends within the school environment it also extended to the immediate neighbouring community of the school. Information presented to the community through records determine the acceptability or otherwise of the school. These facilitate better school and community relationship.
Practically the study is significant to students, teachers, parents, principals, education board and ministry of education on the provision, utilization and maintenance of records in secondary schools.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on the assessment of the provision, utilization and maintenance of records in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. The study covers all public secondary schools in
Kaduna metropolis, and did not in any way consider the private secondary school within
ANALYSIS OF THE ESTABLISHMENT, UTILIZATION AND PRESERVATION OF RECORDS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA