You can download this material now from our portal



This study assessed the implementation of Adult Education programme in Benue state, Nigeria. Seven objectives guided the study, which are to; assess the extent to which adult education programme imparts literacy and numeracy skills to non-literate adults; examine the adequacy of the methods and techniques used by adult education facilitators for effective lesson delivery; evaluate the appropriateness of instructional materials used in teaching of adult education programme; assess the conduciveness of instructional environment of adult education centers in Benue State among others. Research questions and hypotheses were stated in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. The target population of the study was 2593 drawn from all the adult education centres across Benue state, the sample of 224 was used in the study, it was drawn using simple random technique. A modified likert scale questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Instrument was validated using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). And the reliability index was found to be 0.83. Chi-square was used to test the 7 null hypotheses that were tested at 0.5% alpha significant level. Findings emanated from the testing of hypotheses shows that; Adult Education Literacy programme has significant positive impact on the literacy level of the nonliterate adult population in Benue state at (P=0.03). Both teachers/facilitators and supervisors have the same level of opinion on the adequacy of teaching methods which has significant positive impact in the teaching of adult education at (P=0.00) among others. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that; government should improve access to literacy skills of the non-literate adults in Benue State, the facilitators should perfect the teaching of addition, subtraction and division of numbers as this aspect was found to be the least part of numeracy impact on the adult education learners among others. 


INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Study

The Federal Government of Nigeria embarked on nationwide mass literacy campaign of which adult education is a component. The programme is aimed at adult persons and those who could not, for various reasons, complete their education in a formal setting when they were young (Orobosa, 2010).

The beginning of adult education can be traced to the establishment of literacy classes for adults. Such classes were established following the literacy revolution which accompanied the Jihad movement led by Usman Danfodio in the first half of the nineteenth century. About the same time the Methodist and the Church Missionary Society preachers founded evening classes and Sunday schools for the teaching of adults‟ converts in parts of southern Nigeria (Omolewa 2007). During this phase of missionary effort, emphasis was placed on the provision of literary education outside the school system. There were a mass of African population, yet, very few schools were provided for formal education. More so, some considerations have to be given to the work schedules of various adult groups who could only learn on returning from their farms, workshops and festivals.

Adult education promoted by these religious bodies was however not limited to literacy.    It embraced the learning of moral ethics; spiritual values and catechism. There were of course, some cases in which the adults simply learnt the mode of behavior, the principles of the religion and the peculiarities of the selected denominations. Such induction courses were not necessarily accomplished by the learning of the art of reading and writing but were carried out in the mosques and churches (Omolewa, 2007).

There was however no doubt that most Nigerians were fascinated by the literary education brought by the religious bodies. The colonial administration recognized the importance of this make shift arrangement very early. Given their limited personnel and the little financial resources, they could not embark on massive educational programmes. Yet they were aware of the need for improving the content of traditional education. For example, they recognized the need for introducing literary education among the masses so that these people could read government instructions, rules and regulations with a view to appreciating the danger of breaking the rules. In addition, these learners could be used as interpreters between the colonial masters and Africans. (Aderinoye, 2008).

The colonial administrations also recognize the need for clerks, cooks and messengers. The formal school could not provide them with adequate learning requirements, except for evening schools which embraced different categories of Africans. Teachers were recruited from the village and city schools, district and native administration. Some ex-service men from World War II were recruited as teachers. These teachers, called instructors/facilitator were then exposed to the adult literacy programme in the Nigerian language of their locality, using the available primers in Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Kanuri, Efik and Tiv. Writing was accomplished by dictation to help in training the learners. A second stage of teaching was embarked upon after introduction to numbers up to hundred (100) in English and writing a letter during the fourth month. The students were introduced to the joint script, conversational English, Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication in Arithmetic.  A method as asserted by Pamoja (2011), is a general way that a teacher organizes him/herself in teaching. Method offers general guideline on the purpose of teaching the content. A method could therefore be a combination of techniques which are specific means of accomplishing the general objectives.

The method of teaching that is mostly adopted in adult and non – formal classes is the problem – solving method, as against the transmission of content method. Adult are regarded as experienced people, self – directed, always eager to solve their immediate problems, and always have reasons for engaging in tasks. Teaching adults need to then tally with the adult characteristics. The art of teaching adults is known as andragogy. According to Athertson (2002) and Biao (2005), the concept of Andragogy as developed by Knowles is guided and supported by five theories. These theories include self – directedness, experience, readiness to learn, orientation to learning and motivation to learn.


A strategy is a particular way of organizing different techniques to achieve some teaching objectives. Many more strategies are being employed to provide education and literacy through the non – formal approaches. These approaches include the conventional literacy model, the functional literacy model, and the conscientization model, the use of radio to provide instruction, among others (Fasokun 2012).

  1. Conventional approach.

Through the conventional approach learners are taught how to read, write and compute in order to be made literate through the use of primers, and other face–to– face techniques

(such as discussion, role play, drama and so on). ii. Each – one – teach – one (EOTO) approach

This methodology is based on four principles as follows:

  1. Picture – word synthesis which utilizes the teaching concept (from known to unknown). It uses progression from picture recognition to reading of words.
  2. Syllabic analysis of the words – a breakdown of the word into syllables for ease of pronunciation.
  3. Use of primers with pictures and graded materials in order of difficulty, and
  4. Integration of reading and writing exercise.

iii. A literacy club.

This compose of a set up by students or teachers (including other staff) or both that organize themselves for the purpose of bringing together illiterates or semi – illiterate members of staff in their institution or agency with the view of making them literate. Membership of the club is expected to be voluntary. Members task themselves to source for materials necessary for providing literacy education to the learners.

iv. Functional literacy approach

This approach provide instruction that enable learners to read, write and calculate and at the same time apply their skills in their day–to–day life. It also provides them with life skills and vocational education. This will make the learners to be self – reliant

v. The use of literacy by Radio

NMEC (2013) with the support of UNESCO and UNICEF and the funding assistance from the MDGS debt relief funds has been able to adapt the Cuban approach of using radio to provide literacy to the citizens. The programme commenced with twelve pilot states. By 2009, trainings were conducted for the managers of the programmes at state level, including the federal capital territory-Abuja. These are technical communitee members consisting of agency directors, radio producers, desk officers of the programme in the state, script writers, local Government representative and facilitators‟

representative. (Fasokun 2012).

vi.Literacy initiative for Empowerment (LIFE)

LIFE is a UNESCO programme of action to support the provision of education for All (EFA). It is a mechanism to increase literacy learning opportunities with the framework of the United Nations literacy Decade and to increase literacy for all by 2015. LIFE was launched by UNESCO in October 2005 in Paris vii. Literacy Campaigns 

Campaigns are always being undertaken to create awareness and to mobilize people on the need to become literate. The campaign is being done through the production and distribution of leaflets, posters and discussions and drama in the media.

viii. Stake holder Meeting

This is where all agencies involved in adult and non-formal education activities, including governmental organizations at federal and state levels, educational institutions (including universities and research institutions) NGOS and international Development partners, the media, among others meet to discuss issues and set up plans for the advancement of the

Education sub-sector.

ix Workshops

Workshops are also constantly being organized by (NMEC, NGOS and international development partners) for the development of programmes and for training and improving the skills of personnel and enlightenment. (Ogunneye, 2011).



Funding of Adult Education Programmes:

According to NMEC (2012), funding here refers to money or other forms of support set aside for the implementation of the programme in order to achieve the stated objectives.

Funding support could be inform of financial contributions, material equipment supplies (Primers, textbooks, exercise books, posters writing materials, computer sets, printing machines, papers), technical supports (Such as in relevant training, policy formulation, monitoring and evaluation and advices), construction of relevant structure (like classes, viewing centres, libraries) logistic support (in terms of motor vehicles, motor cycles bicycles, boats), labour and so on.

Sources of Funding

They include federal state and local governments‟ budgetary allocation, contributions of non-government organizations (NGOS) and community based organizations (CBOS), philanthropists and individuals and development partners, and support from companies and others

  1. a) The Federal Government-Budgetary Allocation: Allocation, Role of Education tax fund (ETF) and millennium Development Goals (MDGS), Debt Relief funds (DRF), in funding adult and non-formal Education programmes,

b) The State Government Budgetary Allocation: Allocation to state Agency for

Education (SAME) to run adult and non-formal education programme in the state

  1. Local Government Budgetary Allocation: Allocation to Adult and non-formal Education unit, for running the education programme in the local Government area


  1. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOS): NGOS supports of various kinds such as supply of teaching and learning material, provision of voluntary services to adult education programmes, building or lending structures for the setting up of centres, providing training and training facilities to facilitators and other personnel, contributing in the development of adult and non-formal education curricula and other curricula materials.
  2. International Development Partners (IDPS): IDPS support (United Nations development prgrammes (UNDP), United Nations international children education fund (UNICEF), United Nations Educational Scientific and cultural organization UNESCO), the World Bank and others) of various kinds. Supports from individual through financial contribution and other means
  3. Supports from Faith-Based Organization (FBOS): FBOs such as churches, mosques and other religion organizations in opening up classes, providing voluntary teaching services, supplying instructional materials. Supports of various kinds from institutions.

Such as universities, banks telecommunication providers, oil companies and so on

(NMEC, 2012).

Adult Education Practitioners/Resource Persons.

According to NMEC‟S monitoring handbook:- (2008 ) and NMEC/UNICEF:- a facilitator‟s handbook for adult and non – formal education (2010), adult education resource persons includes: the teachers/ facilitators, supervisors, scheme organizers, local government adult education coordinators, zonal coordinators, monitoring officers, SAME

senior staff.

Adult education teachers/ facilitators are responsible for running literacy classes. They play several roles in making effective learning to take place in adult and non – formal education programme implementation and quality control. Each of these categories of personnel has some roles to play in ensuring the effective running of adult education programmes

(Adebola 2012).

The Teachers/Facilitators.

Facilitators refer to teachers in adult and non – formal education programme. These are the people directly charged with the responsibility of helping learners in adult education centers. They are facilitators because they are catalyst for learners to be made educated.

They do help them to acquire new knowledge and skills.

Qualification of Facilitators: 

The adult and non –formal education field experience has shown that most facilitators are holders of either certificate or diploma in adult education, teacher‟s grade II certificate or West African school certificate (WASC) who are unemployed or work in the school system, but take up the facilitation as part – time activity to augment salaries(Akinola


Training Needs

Akinola (2013), observes that people recruited to teach in adult education programmes will need to undergo some sort of orientation training to acquaint them with current methodologies in the field. This is most especially for those coming outside the field of adult education. A newly recruited facilitator will need to have the knowledge of adults‟ needs (including those of youths), their methods of learning, and knowledge of record keeping, know how to operate the curriculum, the primers and other teaching aids, among others.

Training of adult and non – formal education practitioners can take the form of seminars, workshops, conferences, in – service trainings well as on – the job sort of training. Adult and non – formal education (2010), blue print prescribed that the programme content for the training should lay emphases on adult teaching philosophy and methodology /learning strategies, programme design and evaluation, supervision and management techniques, programme development and methods of data collection and interpretation.

Roles of Teachers/Facilitators

  1. At the learning centers: The roles of Teachers/facilitators are being enumerated according to Vikoo (2012), as follows:-
  2. The facilitator‟s ability to encourage good conduct, through exhibiting good conduct (him or herself), showing commendation, appreciation or providing some rewards.
  3. The ability to encourage learners to talk and ask questions most especially during classroom activities, and to answer questions asked (by learners).
  4. Being a person that emphasizes understanding, always give clear and factual explanations of issues and relating instruction to learners‟ daily experiences.
  5. Being a person ready to listen to challenges from their learners.
  6. Preparation and arrangement of learning facility.

A facilitator should lead in selecting an appropriate and agreeable learning space as centre for learning: The starting point for effective learning is to ensure that the physical environment where learning will take place is adequate, neat and spacious to ensure comfortable learning. Existing school buildings, mosques, churches, palaces and other public buildings and open spaces in the community may be used as learning centres, with the approval of all learners.

  1. Preparation of Lessons.

A facilitator should always plan his work well.

  1. He or she should have the mastery of his /her subject area.
  2. Needs to be competent in both subject area and general knowledge of sources of information, current affairs and so on.
  3. The knowledge of the use of computer and internet will be of great advantage for keeping and for accessing information.
  4. He or she should make the lesson more interesting and pleasurable for the learners using improvise teaching/learning materials.
  5. The preparation of the plan/note should include learning objectives to allow for the evaluation.
  6. He/she should be resourceful by drawing examples from the community and from the learners‟ experience.
  7. He/she should always obtain feedbacks from learners and the community with the view of improving the programme implementation.
  8. Record keeping and management should be of paramount importance.
  9. Facilitator/learner interaction should be encouraged. Respect for learners should be given utmost priority.

c. Relation with community

The teacher/facilitators should:

  1. Have a good knowledge of the culture of the community where the programme is sited. This will help in citing local example (from known to unknown).
  2. Be respectful and respected in the community so that the programmes are easily acceptable.
  3. Have human relation, which is being approachable, friendly, mix with the learners, other facilitators and the community.
  4. Be as a mobilizing officers and advocators consulting with parents and other members of the community through the stake holders meeting.
  5. Facilitators need to be industrious, trustworthy and have initiative and a sincere desire to serve the people (Vikoo 2012).


Supervision is a process of assisting facilitators and other adult education practitioners to perform their work effectively by observing what is going on in the centres, interviewing all the participants in the programme including learners, getting feedbacks from all concerned and so on. According to Adebola (2012), supervision is not always about success but also weaknesses that can influence the achievement of the desired goals of the planned programme. It involves investigation and collection of basic data for decision making. Supervision is a continuous process that involves careful checking, observations and assessing various activities. Adult Education supervisors are therefore responsible for the general management of adult education classes in their respective area of supervision.

Supervisors’ Role in Record Keeping

Supervisors are expected to work hand in hand with the teachers to keep the following record.

  1. Statistics of learner environment,
  2. The register of facilitators under their supervision,
  3. List of the Teaching/Learning material of learners in each class and centre,
  4. Inspection report on learners and facilitators‟ performance, physical facilities in place, teaching/learning materials,
  5. End of the session reports of learners for classes, centres and the local government area under his/her supervision, and
  6. The financial record of the centres under his/her supervision among others.

Areas to be supervised

The following areas are expected of supervisors to coordinate and monitor together with the monitoring officers.

  1. Supervisors are expected to observed the enrolment trends in the centre and determining the challenges of attendance, timing and examination value;
  2. How the facilitator presents his/her lesson, (drama, discussion, and demonstration , among others);
  3. How facilitator interacts with learners in the classroom situation, including how he/she ask questions, the spread among the learners and how he/she answers learners‟ questions.
  4. Assess the efficiency of personnel involved in the implementation of the programme. How facilitator uses primers, teaching aids and other teaching materials/equipment.
  5. How learners ask questions, seek clarifications and relate their individual experiences to topics of discussion and so on.
  6. How he/she organizes, supervises and correct learners‟ home works/assignments;
  7. How he/she organizes learners in the class for individual or group works.
  8. They observe the conduciveness of the learning environment to ensure that adequate spaces and sitting arrangements are in place and the classes are conducive for effective learning.
  9. Observe the effectiveness of the programme
  10. Assess the effectiveness of Non-Governmental organizations participating in the programme implementation; and
  11. Assess the participation of the community in programme implementation and supervision.

Scheme Organizers

The scheme organizers are responsible for going round within the community to sensitize and mobilize learners to attend literacy classes. They are responsible for organizing the classes and enrolling learners in collaboration with community leaders and the learners themselves. Organizers collect and collate the result of learners in preparation for certification and possible graduation ceremonies.

They do complement each other‟s role in recordkeeping with supervisors and facilitators. Scheme organizers are expected to be appointed from among the community they are serving.

Roles of Organizers Include:

  1. Healing in setting up literacy classes and centres in the various communities.
  2. Organizing the various groups in the community including community leaders, learners themselves and SAME staff to participate in monitoring the programmes.
  3. They do ensure that literacy networks are performing their functions as expected.
  4. They do keep some class and centre records with them. Such records include statistics of enrolment (class by class, centre by center, local government by local government)
  5. They also need to keep the register of the facilitators under them.
  6. Record of materials/equipment supplied is also kept by organizers.
  7. Organizers do keep the results of learner‟s performance, including end of year results for easy reference.
  8. They also do keep some financial record of the centres under them, among others.
  9. They are sometimes engaged in marking learner‟s examination scripts.

Organizers Needs

  1. They need to be trained how to conduct advocacy, community mobilization and sensitization including enrolment of learners to attend adult education classes.
  2. Aware and be able to understand the use of adult education curricula.
  3. Aware of how lesson plans are prepared,
  4. Aware of other teaching – learner‟s materials.
  5. Trained on recording keeping.
  6. Have the skill of monitoring programmes (Sarumi 2010).

Local Government Adult Education Coordinators

These are the officers coordinating adult education programmes at local government level. Sometimes they are staff of the state agency for mass education (SAME). Their responsibilities according to Sarumi (2010) include the following:-

  1. With the support of L.G.A officials, traditional and opinion learners, coordinators do ensure that people are adequately sensitized and mobilized to support and participate in the programme.
  2. They are responsible for running programmes in their respective local government area.
  3. They are responsible for their facilitator‟s welfare including their allowances or salaries as the case may be.
  4. They ensure that adequate and qualified facilitators are recruited to run the centers.
  5. They also ensure that adequate instructional materials/equipment are provided to the centres under their supervision and keep their records
  6. They keep statistics of learners, facilitators, supervisors and organizers operating under them.
  7. They do coordinate with local government adult education units to harmonize


  1. Local Government Adult Education coordinator reports all that transpire in their local government area to SAME headquarters or to the head of the programme in the LGA

(as the case may be)

Zonal Coordinators

These are area officers coordinating the activities of some local government adult‟s education coordinators under them, Sarumi (2010), states that each of them can be assigned some number of local government areas to coordinate adult and non–formal education programmes. Area officers do perform similar functions like those of local government adult education coordinators.

Monitoring and Evaluating Officers

They are responsible for monitoring the various programme to ensure proper implementation. As a result of the peculiar characteristics of adult education, the monitoring and evaluation system that will check this form of education must be all – encompassing. It must take into consideration the peculiarities of children, youths and adults. Monitoring officers exist at all levels. Other stake holders, including parents, community leaders and the learners themselves could participate in the monitoring


Monitoring officers are expected to monitor the learner‟s performances, the performance of

the personnel involved, the learning facilities, adequacy and use of teaching/learning/materials/equipment, the methodology in use and so on (NMEC/FRN


SAME Senior Staff

Senior staff of SAMEs is the officials engaged in the management of the pogramme at state level in areas such as; policy formulation, disbursement of fund, materials equipment supplies, monitoring of programs and the overall supervision, among others. Senior officers here include the executive director of the SAME, his/her directors, assistant directors, chiefs, assistant chiefs, among others responsible for the overall day–to–day running of adult and non – formal education programmes in the state.

Their Roles:

Senior officers of a state agency for mass education have the following functions to perform:-

  1. The officers here formulate policies for implementation, at state level.
  2. Budget for adult and non – formal education programmes in the state.
  3. Develop work plans for programmes delivery in the state.
  4. Involve in advocacy, sensitization and mobilization of citizen for mass literacy programme.
  5. Supervise the implementation of such policies at state and local government levels.
  6. Keep records of all learning facilities, learners and personnel involved in the programme implementation in the state.
  7. Ensure relevant and adequate materials / equipment is supplied to all the centres.
  8. Recruit qualified personnel and train them to effectively perform their duties of programme implementation.
  9. Ensure that the frontline workers (facilitators/local artisan) are properly and adequately remunerated to perform their functions effectively.
  10. Represent the state in all adult and non – formal activities at national international levels.
  11. Register and supervise all adult and non – formal education outfits in their respective state.
  12. Monitor all the programmes together with other state holders and so on.
  13. Perform whatever functions that may be assigned to them from time to time by the state ministry of education (Aderinoye, 2008).

Instructional Materials for Adult Education Programme

Instructional materials can simply be defined as anything a Teacher/Facilitator will use to facilitate teaching and learning. They are sometimes called audio-visual materials, instructional media or audio-visual resources. Akinola (2013) believes that people generally remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70%of what they say, and 90% of what they say as they do a thing.

The Importance of Instructional Material in Teaching

According to Akinola (2013), these include:

  1. Helping in enriching and enlivening learning;
  2. Helping in holding learner‟ attention in the class,
  3. Contribution in inducing greater acquisition and longer; retention of information by learners;
  4. Contributing in stimulating learners desire to learn;
  5. Bringing wider variety of experiment to the class;
  6. Choosing audio-visual material tend to present concepts in such a manner as to create interest and motivation,
  7. Illuminating and clarifying non-verbal image and symbols and quantitative


  1. Making assimilation and memorization of materials easier;
  2. Making subject matter clearer to learners of diverse background and varied


  1. Providing an opportunity for the learners to do things they could not attempt in real


  1. Making learning available to wider audiences and so on.

In general, instructional material can assist the facilitators in overcoming physical difficulties when presenting a subject matter.

Types and use of Instructional Materials

For better understanding, instructional materials are grouped into the following groups such as Non-projected material, Audio materials, still projected materials, and motion projected materials (Oyeneyin, 2008).

Non-Projected Materials

They are visuals that do not require projection for viewing. They include some real visual materials such as some real objects and life situation, some specimens representation of real media such as models, still pictures, chalk board diagrams, sketches and so on. These are often used in classrooms, and they are sub-divided into four groups:

  1. Still pictures: photographic representation of people, places and things. It also includes illustrations from book and periodicals‟; Graphic material; they are nonphotographic material such as diagrams, charts, maps, cartoons and posters.
  2. Real things and models: Examples of real things are plants, rocks, animals and human being. Models are representations of real things through painting, drawings, and specimen. Real things afford accuracy of impressions and concept to learners. Models are used in teaching to provide learning experience real things cannot provide such as dismantling to show internal organs.
  3. Display formats: they include chalk boards, bulletin boards, flannel boards, magnetic boards and papers. These are sometimes called perceptive materials because they are used to display information to learners. (Oyeniyin 2012).
  4. Use of Chalkboard (CB): This is the most common teaching aid in our classrooms CB, sometimes known as Black board (BB), comes in different forms such as slate and in black colour. Modern CB also exists, produced from steel coated with Vitreous materials or plywood or any flat sheet of wood. CB allows clarifications and illustrations to be more immediate and relevant than other teaching aids do permit. It is a quicker and easily accessible means of putting word or drawing or simple line diagrams during lesson or discussion.
  5. Reading Material: All kinds of printed materials or hand written materials such as primers, textbooks Magazines, newspapers, and library materials such as periodicals, Newspapers and journals; references such as Atlases, Enlydopedia, Gazetters, Yearbooks, Dictionaries and Almanac; fugitive materials such as Biography, Fiction,Folklore, Diaries and Analogies; others are programmed materials on map reading, reading skills and various area of content; Microforms such as microfilm, Microfiche and micro cards. (Oyeniyin 2008, Akintunde 2009).

Audio Materials

Audio materials are the aural materials or resources that convey information through the sense of hearing (Sounds, Voices) only. They include radio broadcast, records and record player with discs and tape recorder, language laboratories, telephone, microphones and loudspeakers. The do provide adult and non-formal education learners with the opportunity of developing listening skills and they easily stimulate their imagination. As messages are being relayed through these media, listeners are expected to pay attention to enable them hear and understand messages being passed. Tape recorders do afford slow learners the opportunity of repeating sections of instruction as necessary and they afford quick learners to skip ahead or increase the pace  of their instruction. Facilitators are therefore advised to familiarize themselves with the manuals before usage. (Okeke 2010)

f) Still Projected Materials

These are types of material which are projected on to a screen by the means of projectors, including still pictures from slides and filmstrips, overhead transparencies, 16mm salient cine films, opaque projectors, printed words and illustration from microfilms and 8mm salient films

  1. Opaque Projector (episcopate): these project opaque materials like image from photographs, posters, books, leaves and magazines. Facilitators who cannot draw very well can use it for enlarging maps, charts and other drawings. Its only disadvantage is that it needs complete darkness for clear images; as such they cannot always be used in adult education classes.
  2. Over-head Projector: these project transparencies. Materials to be projected are drawn, written or photocopied on a sheet of transparent material. The material is them placed on the glass stage and project on to a screen.
  3. Film Strip projector: it projects filmstrips. A filmstrip is a roll of 35mm transparent film containing a series of related still pictures.
  4. Slide projector: it projects slides. Its operation is similar to filmstrip operation. Both filmstrip or slide projectors can be used for teaching skills, presenting usual description, stimulating the imagination and changing attitudes

Digital Projectors

  • Motion projected materials: motion projected materials project motion pictures. They appeal to both the sense of hearing and sight. Such materials do convey sound, real objects/situation, other concrete visuals or pictures. Motion projected materials include some real object/situations and representational audio visual materials.
  • Real Life objects/situation: This involves guided excursions/tours places such as river, hills, banks, hospitals, factories and schools. These are real life experiences.
  • Representational Audio Visual Materials: They include film and loop projectors and video. Video tapes are not projectors but pictures are recorded on a tape which is used with video recorders to be shown on television screen.TV, VCD and DVD also fall in this category of materials. Still and motion projected materials can be used in community education, Category of materials to still and motion projected materials can be used in community education, group discussion with learners, to teach social studies and history. They have the advantage of influencing and changing attitudes. The choice of a particular material for use in adult and nonformal Education classes depends on the type of learners, availability of the materials and the subject matter at hand (Essiet, 2008).



1.2   Statement of the Problem

The current situation of Adult education programme in Nigeria and Benue state in particular is a concern to all including government and the society at large. A good number of male and female citizens who had not gotten opportunity to attend formal education opted for adult education programme. Statistics from Benue State Adult and Non-formal Education Board (AANE 2010), indicated that a huge number of adult population in the state still require formal education. This population ideally requires functional education to be able to engage in any activities in which education is required for effective functioning at least for self-help and that of the immediate community. Education according to UNESCO (2008 and 2010) was a right not a privileged. This implies that every adult person in the community must be involved in a continuum of learning in order to enable them achieve goals; develop their knowledge and potential to participate fully in their community and wider society.

The level of poverty affects pursuance of adult literacy in the study area. Many of the female adults as well as the male adult counter parts were on the streets and highways as banana, maize and orange hawkers as well as wheelbarrow pushers. This, depicted ineffectiveness in the implementation of Adult education curriculum in the state. The researcher is optimistic that adult education can be improved if their needs can be considered. Though, they are relegated to the background; especially those in rural areas who are engaged in the rural work and do not have opportunity of getting formal education. They are farmers, traders, and child bearers, some of whom are also school drop outs, who need to be educated to enable them acquire new skills and methods to improve

their lifestyles.


Needs for Adult and Non-Formal Education

Adult and non-formal Education is provided to compliment the effect of the formal sector and to cater for those people left behind. Adedokun, (2011) and   Paiko, (2012) observed that about 40 million Nigerians (youth and adults) need access to basic education which can better be reached through the non-formal approach. Adult and non-formal Education has its own peculiarities that require special and relevant techniques to provide. Some of these peculiarities may include the fact that.

  1. It provides a second chance for those that left school early without completing their education; the individual can continue with education from where he/she stopped through this system and attain whatever level of education he/she dim fit, ii. It provides opportunities for those that have never been to school before, to start their education, iii. It provides additional opportunities for even the educated ones to explore other areas of their interests‟ mostly for personal environment,
  2. It provides opportunity for people to learn and be aware of their political, social and economic terrains,
  3. It is flexible as it can take place anywhere (at home, in the office, under the shade of a tree, vi. Its impact is usually immediate, unlike the formal education that is provided for the future of children. In adult education, learners can put into use what they have learnt, Most of the clients are matured and experienced people. So they make learning more relevant and faster,

viii. Learners can join the programme at any stage of implementation depending on the individual level of educational attainment, ix. It is cheap as it is being provided virtually free of charge,

  1. It is a bridge to cross to enable one to continue his/her education through mainstreaming later into the formal education sub-sector (Adedokun 2011).

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study were to:

  1. assess the extent to which adult education programme imparts literacy and numeracy skills to non-literate adults in Benue state;
  2. examine the adequacy of the methods and techniques used by adult education facilitators for effective lesson delivery in Benue State;
  3. evaluate the appropriateness of instructional materials used in teaching of adult education programme in Benue State;
  4. assess the conduciveness of instructional environment of adult education centers in Benue State;
  5. assess the qualifications and trainings received by adult education resource persons (Teacher/Facilitator);
  6. assess the evaluation strategies used by facilitators for effective learning in adult education programme;
  7. ascertain the relevant vocational skill development programmes which could help socio-economic activities in Benue State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following were the research questions that guided the study:

  1. To what extent has adult education programme imparted literacy and numeracy skills to the non-literate adults in Benue state?
  2. How adequate are the methods and techniques used by adult education

teachers/facilitators for effective lesson delivery?

  1. How appropriate are the instructional materials used in teaching and learning process of adult education programme in Benue State?
  2. How conducive is the instructional environment of adult education learning centres in Benue State?
  3. What are the qualifications and training received by adult-education resource persons?
  4. What are the evaluation strategies used by facilitators for effecting learning in adult education programme?
  5. What are the relevant vocational skills taught in Adult education programme which can help in socio-economic activities in Benue State?

1.5   Research Hypotheses

Based on the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated:

H01      There is no significant difference in the opinion of teachers/facilitators and students

on the acquisition of literacy and numeracy skills;

H02 There is no significant difference in the opinions of facilitators and supervisors on the adequacy of teaching methods and techniques in adult education;

H03             There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors and scheme

organizers on appropriateness of instructional materials;

H04 There is no significant difference in the opinions of facilitators and supervisors on the conduciveness of instructional environment of adult education programme in

Benue State;

H05 There is no significant difference in the opinions of local government adult education coordinators and monitoring/evaluation officers on teachers/facilitator qualification and training.
H06  There is no significant difference in the opinions of State Agency for Mass Education (SAME) Staff and the scheme organizer on evaluation strategies.
H07  There is no significant difference in the opinions of facilitators and students on the

vocational skill taught in adult education programme.

1.6   Significance of the Study

This study will be of benefits to the following education stakeholders, government officials, future research adult education studies, curriculum planners.

Future researcher will benefit from this study in order to improve the teaching and learning process of adult education programme in Nigerian adult education schools or study centres, and to make participation in the subject matter more attractive to adults. It is hoped that it will serve as an insight to researcher who might consult it in the process of carrying out similar study in the future.

Government will also find this study useful because it will show the areas where it has to come in, such as training and retraining of teachers and provision of necessary structures, resources and materials that will aid effective teaching and learning process in adult education programmes. The study will make the government to further realize that, adult education programme is not just a mere addition to the attainment of the much needed values in order to attain national development through journals, conferences and seminars. In the same vein, adult education curriculum planners will benefit from the study especially when they are engaged in further review of the curriculum. The researcher also expects adult education students to benefit from the study when they find necessary to consult in the course of their studies. The research is hoped to be significant to adult education teachers who are expected to implement policies formulated for adult education programme as it makes them see the need to take necessary steps towards improving their performance through journals, conferences and seminars.

The officials of the ministry of education, state adult and Non-formal education board and adult education administrators will need the available information of this research work to help them formulate policies and make decisions on the need to make adult education programme more effective. It will help erase the misconceptions that many people have about adult education through journals, conferences and seminars.

Furthermore, the findings and recommendations of this study will contribute to the understanding of the nature and objectives of adult education as a problem solving discipline, capable of improving the socio-economic activities in the study area and the country at large.

1.7   Scope of the Study

The study covered Benue State. It is delimited to adult and non-formal education programme (ANFE) of the state agency for mass education (SAME). The study covered the teacher/facilitators and students of adult education centers across the twenty-three (23) local government areas of the state. It aimed at the assessment of the implementation of adult and non-formal education curriculum in Benue State. The study focused on adult and non-formal education, curriculum materials, instructional resources, and resource persons, methods of teaching and evaluation strategies.


Leave a Reply