A STUDY ON THE PROVISION, APPLICATION AND PRESERVATION OF BOARDING FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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A STUDY ON THE PROVISION, APPLICATION AND PRESERVATION OF BOARDING FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER  STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

 

This study was conducted to assess the provision, utilization and maintenance of boarding facilities in public secondary schools, Niger State. The study has eight objectives set to achieve among others; to examine the provision, utilization and maintenance of water supply in hostels in Boarding Secondary Schools, determine the provision, utilization electricity supply to hostels in Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger Sate, assess the provision, utilization and maintenance of Sanitary Facilities (Toilet and Bathrooms) in boarding secondary schools in Niger State. In line with the objectives, eight research questions, eight null hypotheses and eight basic assumptions were formulated. Related literatures were reviewed along with five (5) empirical studies. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A total of 328 respondents were sampled from the total population of 2309. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The data collected were presented in table and analyzed using weighted means to answer the research questions. The eight hypotheses were tested using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Descriptive statistic was used to analyze the bio- data of the respondents. The major findings of the study revealed that; water was not adequately provided , but properly utilized and maintained in hostels in boarding secondary schools; electricity was not adequately provided but utilized and maintained minimally; sanitary facilities were provided, utilized and maintained; dining facilities were provided in all the boarding schools and utilized but poorly maintained; recreational facilities were provided but not adequately utilized and poorly maintained; beds/ bedding space were not adequately provided, not properly utilized, but largely maintained; wardrobes/ lockers were provided by the schools/ NGOs, but not appropriately used by students and poorly maintained ; common rooms were provided, but not optimally utilized and poorly maintained. The following recommendations were made: Water should be provided regularly through alternative source. Electricity contributes to the well being of boarding students, as such, it should be relatively stable for effective utilization. The school should make provision for alternative source of electricity like generator. Sanitary facilities should be provided in the right ratio considering the students population, additional efforts should be made to keep them clean all the time. The location of dining hall should not be too far from the hostels and there is the need for speedy replacement of damaged facilities in the dining hall.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

From the nineteen sixties to the early nineteen eighties, public secondary schools in Nigeria provided quality boarding facilities for students. Then it was the prerogative of religious groups to do so because they were running the schools. This was attributed to the fact that they were the major investors in the sector. Even at the initial stage, when the government of Nigeria gradually took over the schools, boarding facilities were admired, coveted and patronized by parents and guardians. Then educational standard was noble and high with its products fitting properly into the social stream. Indeed, they contributed meaningfully to the overall development of the society.

As a matter of fact, there was high moral discipline, proper teacher co-ordination and Government supervisory function on the system. All these streamlined students abilities and performance, as officials saddled with boarding house activities were well behaved, committed and demonstrated worthy lifestyles. Students then learned to be more tolerant of the opinion of others in the hostels which was invariably transferred to the larger society. They conducted themselves in a more socially acceptable manner. These eventually patterned their social behaviours when they begin to live adult citizen life. However ,with the decreasing number of boarding facilities such as bedding space, war drops /lockers, water and electric supply, sanitary facilities, dining halls/facilities, common rooms, game and sporting facilities etc, which became noticeable in the mid eighties, only a shadow of the once cherished boarding houses were left ;it becomes evidently difficult for students to secure conducive and comfortable hostels that could guarantee safety and enhance effective learning and teaching activities. In the event that boarding facilities are provided, they are not only very expensive, but of low quality. In addition, these facilities hardly last long due to gross lack of maintenance practices in our boarding schools. Then the boarding facilities were cheap, affordable and available in sufficient quality and quantity. The reverse is the case now and this was the genesis of unimaginable downturn Adeboye (1999)

Complains have been raised in the media through newspapers, articles and debates on television about the state of school hostels in public boarding schools. Some of the complaints mentioned are as follow; school hostels are in terrible conditions; boarders are living without mattresses in the dormitories and toilets do not function properly; some hostels are not supplied with enough water for the boarders; hostel materials are not delivered on time due to lack of communication between the schools and government authority ;hostels are in a poor condition due to inadequate and irregular repair and maintenance; hostels charges may restrict the choice learners with financial difficulties Fafunwa (2004).

Hostel management in terms of utilization and maintenance squarely lei in the hands of house masters/ mistresses. They are the pivot of the whole residential system. The success of the hostel, as an instrument of education will depend to a great extent on the personality, status and qualifications of the hostel superintendent or house master/ mistresses Kochhar (2007).It is therefore expected that the house masters /mistresses should be people of imagination and clear ideas, people with amiable personality. They also ensure that hostel facilities are provided for boarders.

In response to the deteriorating state of public schools boarding facilities, privately run schools step in to close the gap already created, even though they are doing their best to maintain them, the facilities are not what they should be. There is the fear by parents and other stake holders that the boarding schools are becoming a breeding ground for anti-social activities; disrespect for elders and authorities, couple with the poor academic performance exhibited by students.

It is apparent that boarding facilities is almost near none-existence in government run schools , the concern now is whether restoring boarding facilities will repair the emotional, social and academic backwardness of the students that has plagued the educational system is the question agitating the mind of the researcher. It is on this premise that the researcher is prompted to investigate the provision, utilization and maintenance of boarding facilities in public secondary schools with particular reference to Niger state. The researcher is interested in finding out the present state of boarding facilities in public secondary schools in Niger state and what could be done to improve on the existing structures.

It is important to note that most literatures such as theses, journals and other research work on boarding schools lay little or no emphasis on facilities available in Hostels of the boarding schools, in terms of provision, optimal utilization and proper maintenance. According to Fafunwa (2008), hostels are meant to be a place of comfort and relaxation for students after the rigorous academic activities of the day. It therefore deserved to be fortified with all facilities required. The study therefore attempts to explore those areas neglected by previous researchers and hope that it makes this research work special and unique.   

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Most boarding school in Nigeria are face with numerous problems, particularly in terms of provision, utilization and maintenance of facilities. Of most concern to this study is the problem of inadequacy in the provision, utilization and maintenance of;

Water supply

Electricity Supply

Sanitary Facilities

Dining Facilities

Recreational Facilities

Bed/ Bedding Space

Wardrobe Facilities and,

Common Rooms, in Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger state.

Halimatu (2003) observed that the existing public boarding schools are characterized by acute shortage of required boarding facilities; the environment does not depict what an ideal boarding house should be. Thus, Government budgetary allocation to education over the years has remain questionable in terms of sufficiency to meeting numerous demands for quality education. An improvement in the amount allocated to education will surely make a difference in the quality of output of our education system. The 2016 budgetary allocation to education shows a clear departure from the past. It is hope that it will be implemented judiciously. Obviously, the existing boarding schools are those built several years ago with boarding facilities that are obsolete, in adequate and inappropriate for the modern day usage. The past government’s effort was concentrated at building days schools with less efforts at establishing new boarding schools with modern boarding facilities.

This is in line with Adeboye (1999) when he observed that, inspector’s report over the years have indicated that there is abundant evidence of catalogue of inadequacies in the provision and judicious use of boarding facilities. The absence of these required facilities in our boarding houses, cast a lot of doubt in mind of parents, students and other stakeholders as to what kind of teaching and learning could take place in such situation.

It is therefore important to stress the need proper and regular maintenance practice in boarding schools. Musa (2003) opined that lack of facilities management result in depression in academic program , waste of resources, over utilization of available boarding facilities occasioned by inadequacy which often result to damage or collapse and even complete breakdown of such facilities.

There is prevalence of inadequate boarding facilities occasioned by inadequate provision, over utilization and poor maintenance practice. This affects the students, physically, emotionally, psychologically, intellectually Halimatu (2003).

There is near absence of regular and effective supervision of boarding schools in order to ascertain the state of existing facilities. Effective school supervision provides inspectors with information for decision making in terms of allocation, policy change or review. Poor student’s academic performance has been attributed to inadequate school supervision Musa (2003).

This study is therefore focussed on finding out the state of existing boarding facilities in Niger state, considering the enormity of the identified problems existing in boarding schools. This study intends to access the provision, utilization and maintenance of boarding facilities rather than the entirety of the boarding school. This is a departure from the previous researches carried out. It is therefore expected that the study will at the end provide a framework for policy decision, further research, add to the existing knowledge and will create a platform for educational planners to organize curriculum of boarding schools.

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The study has the following specific objectives to achieve:

  1. examine the provision, utilization and maintenance of water supply in hostels in Boarding Secondary Schools;
  2. determine the provision, utilization electricity supply to hostels in Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger Sate;
  3. assess the provision, utilization and maintenance of Sanitary Facilities (toilet and Bathrooms) in boarding secondary schools in Niger State;
  4. examine the provision, utilization and maintenance of Dining Facilities in Boarding secondary schools in Niger State;
  5. determine the provision, utilization and maintenance of recreational facilities in Boarding secondary schools in Niger State;
  6. ascertain the provision, utilization, and maintenance of beds (mattresses and bed Spread), bed spaces, in Hostels of Boarding Secondary Schools;
  7. examine the provision, utilization and maintenance of wardrobes /lockers in

Hostels Of Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger State; and

  1. assess the provision, utilization and maintenance of Common Rooms in Boarding

Secondary Schools in Niger State.

1.4         Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions.

  1. is water provided, utilized and maintained in hostels in Boarding Secondary Schools in

Niger State?

  1. in what ways is electricity provided, utilized and maintained in Hostels in Boarding

Secondary Schools in Niger State?

  1. are Sanitary Facilities (toilets and bathrooms) provided, utilized and maintained in

Hostels of Secondary Schools in Niger State?

  1. are Dining Halls/Facilities provided, utilized, and maintained in Boarding Schools Niger

State?

  1. how are re-creational Facilities provided, utilized and maintained in Boarding Schools in

Niger State?

  1. are beds (mattresses and bed spreads)/ bedding spaces provided, utilized and maintained in Hostels of Boarding Schools in Niger State?
  2. in what ways are wardrobes/lockers in Boarding Houses provided, utilized and maintained in Secondary Schools in Niger State?
  3. are Common-Rooms provided, utilized and maintained in Hostels in Boarding Schools

Niger State? 1.5      Hypotheses:

The study has the following null hypotheses as guide:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers, house masters/ mistresses and supervisors on the provision, utilization and maintenance of water supply in hostel in boarding Secondary Schools in Niger State;
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of electricity supply to hostels of secondary schools in Niger

State;

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of Sanitary (toilet and bathroom) Facilities in Hostels of Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger State;
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision utilization and maintenance of Dining Hall/Facilities in Boarding Secondary Schools in Niger State;
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of recreational Facilities in Boarding Secondary Schools in

Niger State;

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of beds (mattresses and beds spread) / bedding space in the Hostels in Boarding Schools in Niger State;
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of war drops/lockers in the Hostels in Secondary Schools in Niger state; and
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the provision, utilization and maintenance of Common Rooms in Hostels of Boarding Schools in Niger

State.

1.6        Basic Assumptions

The researcher assumes that:

  1. provision, utilization and regular maintenance of water supply to hostels will enable student to maintain personal and environmental hygiene in school, and help to improve the academic performance of students in boarding schools;
  2. Provision, proper utilization and regular maintenance of electricity supply to hostels contribute greatly to comfort and convenience to academic activities;
  3. Provision, maximal utilization and regular maintenance of sanitary facilities (toilet and bathrooms) in hostels of boarding secondary schools enhance healthy and decent living in the schools;
  4. Provision, maximal utilization and regular maintenance of dining hall/facilities enable students to concentrate on their studies as they have assurance of regular meals;
  5. Provision, proper utilization and regular maintenance of recreational facilities in boarding schools enhance students’ physical agility and mental balance through regular exercise;
  6. provision, optimal utilization and regular maintenance of beds(mattresses and bed spread)/ bedding spaces create a comfortable atmosphere and environment for students to concentrate on their studies;
  7. Provision, proper utilization and regular maintenance of war drops/lockers in the hostels ensure safety of student clothing and other materials within the hostels; and
  8. Adequate provision, optimal utilization and regular maintenance of common-rooms in hostels will create avenue for students’ relaxation after academic stress each day.

1.7       Significance of the Study

It is believed that the finding will be of immense benefits to the Government, parents, principals, researchers, supervisors and educational administrators and planners by identifying problems, prospects and potential areas of improvements of facility management in boarding secondary schools in Niger State.

Government: It will provide analytical framework for government of Niger state to make rational and empirical policy decision on the management of boarding facilities.

Principal: It will serve as a template for effective school administration by the principals and will enable them to improve on their managerial skills and abilities.

Parent: Parents are serious stakeholders in the business of their children’s education; the study will enable them to make informed decisions as to whether to send their wards to boarding schools in terms available information on the provision and utilization of boarding facilities in boarding schools.

Researcher: The findings of the study will assist researchers to identify other areas for further studies on boarding facilities and could serve as  reference material.

Educational planners: Education policies, curriculum change and innovation can only be carried out properly with accurate and reliable data or information. The study will enable educational planners to make informed decisions in terms of policy direction, curriculum change and innovation that will cater for the needs of boarding schools in

Niger state and Nigeria in general.

1.8       Scope of the Study

The study is on the assessment of the provision, utilization and maintenance of boarding facilities in public secondary schools in Niger state. The study covers all public boarding secondary schools in the seven educational zones in Niger State (Bida, Kutigi, Minna, Suleja, Borgu, Kontagora and Rijau).Boarding secondary schools were chosen because the focus of the research is specifically on boarding secondary schools and for convenience in terms choice of sample and of instrument. The research has no time line but concerned with the present state of boarding facilities in the existing boarding secondary schools in Niger State.

A STUDY ON THE PROVISION, APPLICATION AND PRESERVATION OF BOARDING FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER  STATE, NIGERIA  

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