A STUDY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME IN KADUNA CITY, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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A STUDY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME IN KADUNA CITY,  KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the Implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria. The study was conducted with five objectives among which are to assess the improvement in the citizenry a strong consciousness for education and commitment to its promotion; ascertain the stability on the unfettered nine 9-year of formal basic education; examine the provision of Free, Compulsory, Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-going-age; evaluate whether or not the incidence of drop-out from formal school has drastically reduced between 2010-2015 through improved relevance, quality and efficiency and determine the compliance of the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. In line with the stated objectives fives research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated. Various related literature were reviewed and acknowledge on the study. The study adopted the use of descriptive survey research design. The population of the study consists of 452 Teachers, 72 Head-teachers 28 Parent Teachers Association (PTA) Officials and 13 Supervisors. Therefore, Stratified Random Sampling Technique was used as it entails dividing the heterogeneous population into stratum and selecting sample from each stratum. The sample is 565 out of the entire population of 4,648. Data collected through the use of a researcher made questionnaire and designed on five point Likert rating scale which is in tandem to the study. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient (r) was used to test and ascertained the reliability of the instrument, the valued obtained was at 0.78. One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical tool was used to analyse the five formulated null hypotheses. The findings of the research revealed that most parents are unaware of Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme and its benefits andare not committed to its vigorous promotion as a result of weak awareness creation medium; adherence to the nine 9-year formal basic education is stable as there was no interruption in the proceedings of the 9-year schooling; no free education provided, assorted levies of different sorts are charged/paid and still going in UBE schools; incidences of drop-out still looms high between 2010-2015 and withdrawal of children or wards hascontinued unabated, children were found hawking during school hour with no evidence of prosecution and most children still cannot speak fluent basic English, identification of write-ups, values of digit number using thousands, hundred, tens and units is still very difficult in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that massive educational awareness strategies should be engaged to create awareness on the need and benefits of at least basic education for every individual; The Nigerian Police should be alerted and empowered to enforce the UBE law over defaulters in enrolling their wards in school. Prosecution and arrest of parents who refused to enroll their wards into school or withdraw their wards from school system be enforced. Government, companies, philanthropists, organizations and other relevant stakeholders should be encouraged to contribute to the development of UBE through the provision of funds to enable total free education in UBE schools. Curriculum of the UBE should harness and enriched to fit with the UBE teaching requirements. Proper supervision should be put into effect on the teaching/learning procedure to check-mate the poor educational standard of the UBE programme and qualified teachers should be employed to improve learning standard. 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

                 1.1       Background to the Study

Education has been recognized all over the world as a very important instrument for improving the quality of life of mankind. Its role in individual and national development is fundamental. Hence, the United Nations General Assembly in its

“Universal Declaration of Human Rights” in 1948 emphasized the right of everyone to education, United Nations Children Education Funds (UNICEF Hand Book, 2007). Nigeria equally recognized this fact and made several efforts in the past towards providing quality education in Nigeria. These include, The Free Universal Primary Education (UPE) in the Western Region in 1955, The Universal Primary Education (UPE) in the Eastern Region started in 1957, The Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme in the then Federal Capital Territory of Lagos started 1957 and The Universal

Primary Education (UPE) programme nationwide started in 1976 (Amuche  and Kukwi, 2013).

Unfortunately, none of these attempts were able to make the desired impact as a result of factors bordering on improper planning and implementation. Of particular reference was the nationwide Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme introduced by the then military administration of Obasanjo on 9th September, 1976. This programme which took off with enthusiasm and high expectations of meeting the felt socio-economic needs of the country crashed midway. Its failure was attributed to a number of factors such as financial problems, insufficient competent teachers, our crowded classrooms, narrow curriculum content and high rate of drop-out (Fafunwa, 1986) as cited by (Omotayo, Ihebereme and Maduewesi, 2008). Jaiyeoba (2007) on his own part attributed failure to enrolment explosion, shortage of teachers, inadequate infrastructural facilities, inadequate funding among others.

It could be recalled that in years after the collapse of the UPE scheme, education experienced some measure of neglect. This brought about decay in the education sector especially at the basic education level, to the extent that the rate of illiteracy was unacceptably high, teachers were poorly trained and motivated, the condition of infrastructure was appalling, school drop-out was increasing at an alarming rate, while funding of basic education in particular confirmed to be poor (Tahir, 2003).

It was therefore a sign of relief to many Nigerians when in a bid to address the afore-mentioned scenario; the democratic government of Obasanjo launched the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme on 30th September, 1999. The programme which is within the context of the 6-3-3-4 structure, Basic Education comprises nine 9year continuous, free and compulsory educations of which six 6-years is for primary education and three 3-year for Junior school education. Basically, it is aimed at eradicating illiteracy, ignorance and poverty also to provide education to all, as well as stimulating and accelerating national development, political consciousness and national integration.

Hence, Ijaiya (2003) affirmed that every nation dreams of literate citizenry because it makes the people easier to carry along. Such society is likely to be pro active, and good for national development. They are likely to be more politically conscious, economically productive, more alive to civic responsibility and sensitive to their rights which are basic for development.

The objectives of the UBE according to the Implementation Guidelines are:-

  • Developing in the entire citizenry a strong consciousness for education and a strong commitment to its vigorous promotion; the provision of free Universal Basic Education for every Nigerian child of school-going age; reducing drastically the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system (through improved relevance, quality and efficiency); catering for the learning needs of young persons who, for one reason or another, have had to interrupt their schooling through appropriate forms of complementary approaches to provision and promotion of basic education; ensuring the acquisition of the appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying solid foundation for lifelong learning.
  • The Implementation Guidelines further stated thus:

In seeking to achieve the objectives of the UBE proggramme, vigorous efforts will be made to counter the factors which are known to have hindered the achievement of the goals of the UPE. It is therefore, envisaged that more appropriate approaches will have to be developed for improving the state of the following: public enlightenment and social mobilization, for full community involvement; data collection and analysis; planning, supervision/monitoring and evaluation; teachers‟ recruitment and motivation; infrastructural facilities/equipment, enriched curricular, improved funding; and management of the entire process (UBEC, Standard Action Plan, 2014).

As laudable as the objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme are and despite the fact that well thought out strategies had been put in place towards achieving these objectives, the desired impact is yet to be made.

                 1.2       Statement of the Problem

The implementation of the laudable provisions and objectives of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme seems not to be yielding positive result. It is quite unfortunate that after several years of existence of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme, young children are still roaming about on the streets, most of these children of school-going-age have been seen during school hours in various motor parks, road sides and markets, hawking various goods for their parents and relatives while some are begging (Ajaegbo, 2009). Could this be a reflection of low or non awareness and enlightenment towards the promotion of UBE? Hence, the development of consciousness to Education and its vigorous promotion in the country appears to be a mirage.

The free and compulsory promise of tuition and other fees attached to the programme also seems to be only a paper work.  Most parents are pulling their children out from UBE schools without heed; they have come to believe that it is not practically free as a result of the various fees collected from their children in UBE schools. Thus, making the number of out-of-school children to remain deeply high. The population of UBE (Road Map to Nigerian Education sector, 2009). school drop-out cases appear to remain intractable (about 9.3% in primary schools), transition from primary to secondary school remains at about 61% and about 16% to post

There is also great low level of achievement in literacy, numeracy and life skills of pupils, children can’t speak fluent English in the society, and they neither read nor write effectively simple sentences or passages, (Obioma, 2014). All which have constrained the smooth implementation of the Universal Basic Education Programme. It is against this background that this research is out to assess the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

                 1.3       Objectives of the Study

The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Assess the improvement in the citizenry a strong consciousness for education and commitment to its promotion in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain the stability on the unfettered nine 9-year of formal basic education in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  3. Examine the provision of free, compulsory, universal basic education such as instructional materials, infrastructure, and qualified teachers for every Nigerian child of school-going-age in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  4. Evaluate whether or not the incidences of drop-out from the formal school system, has been drastically reduced between, 2010-2015 in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  5. Determine the compliance of the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values needed for laying a solid foundation for life-long learning in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

                 1.4       Research Questions

The study answered the following Questions:

  1. What is the perception of stakeholders on the commitment of citizenry towards education in the course of the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  2. To what extent is the nine 9-year unfettered formal basic education is strictly adhered-to in accordance with the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  3. What is the assessment of stakeholders towards the adequate provision of free, compulsory, universal basic education in the course of the implementation of the UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  4. To what level is the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system is been reduced, following the implementation of the UBE progamme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  5. In what way is the assessment of stakeholders on the implementation of UBE programme in compliance to the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills in Kaduna Metropolis,

Kaduna State, Nigeria achieved?

                 1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated as:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head-teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA) officials and supervisors on the commitment of citizenry towards education in the implementation of UBE programme in

Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head-teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA) officials and supervisors on the extent of adherence to the nine 9-year unfettered formal basic educations in the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State,

Nigeria.

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head-teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA) officials and supervisors on the adequacy of the provision of free, compulsory, universal basic education in the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head-teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA) officials and supervisors on the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system following the implementation of UBE programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, head-teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA) officials and supervisors on the compliance to the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills following the implementation of UBE progrmme in

Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

                 1.6       Basic Assumptions

The study is based on the assumption that:

  1. Strong consciousness for education and commitment will promote unity, good citizenry and development among people of Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State in particular and Nigeria at large.
  2. Adequate provision of harnessed curriculum, infrastructural facilities and equipment will accommodate children for the period of nine 9-year of formal basic education in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  3. Adequate funds provision to run free, compulsory, universal basic education for every Nigerian child of school going age will reduce crimes in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  4. Eradicating collection of tuition and other fees will drastically reduce the incidence of drop-out from the formal school system, through reduction of child trafficking and labouring. Hence, the improvement in relevance, quality and efficiency in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
  5. More professional and qualified teachers will influence the compliance of the acquisition of appropriate levels of literacy, numeracy, manipulative, communicative and life skills as well as the ethical, moral and civic values in

Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

                 1.7       Significance of the Study

This Study would provide information of the UBE Programme at the Primary School level. This information would be useful to policy makers and educational managers as it would provide the basis upon which decisions can be taken to address the inadequacies in key areas like implementation, inadequate funding, poor planning, weak medium of enlightenment, ineffective of UBE Act (2004), unprofessional/unqualified teachers, dilapidated infrastructural facilities, problem of supervision and monitoring etc.

The recommendations from the findings of this study would create an environment conducive to learning, both in terms of human and materials resources provision. Hence, the study will highlight the challenges bedeviling the implementation of UBE Programme. In this respect, students would benefit as there is bound to be improved quality education delivery. Primary education, which comprises the lower and middle basic levels of the UBE programme is the foundation of the nation‟s educational system. This implies that the success of the other levels of education depends on it. Hence, studies to address the challenges facing the primary level of education are by extension, studies to improve to the entire educational system. Ultimately, therefore, the findings and recommendations of this study, if implemented, would assist specifically in developing a credible and sustainable UBE programme and generally, educational system in Kaduna Metropolis.

The beneficiaries of this study are the government, universal basic education planners/officials, administrators, curriculum specialists; head teachers, teachers association and organizations interested in the UBE and also provide vital information on how best to implement the programme in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State in particular and in Nigeria in general.

                 1.8       Scope of the Study

This study which assessed the implementation of the UBE programme in Kaduna metropolis was limited to only public primary schools in the metropolis. The study focused attention on UBE with a view to identifying constraints to the implementation if any and so proffering solutions to make the proagmme better in terms of implementation in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State.

Therefore, the study was limited to teachers, head teachers, PTA officials and supervisors in Public Primary schools in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

A STUDY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION (UBE) PROGRAMME IN KADUNA CITY,  KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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