A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This study focused on the Assessment of the Educational Facilities for the Physically Challenged in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Five research objectives were formulated. The objectives include: assessing government commitment on enrolling disabled persons into inclusive education, provision of infrastructural facilities, provision of instructional facilities, quality and commitments of teachers and supervisors and welfare services for teachers and students in the rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State. Also, research questions and research hypotheses were formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study and data were collected using constructed questionnaire which was prepared and validated by expert in curriculum and instruction. The population of the study involved 142 teachers, 93 supervisors and 73 physically challenged rehabilitation centre officials. However, a total of 90 teachers, 60 supervisors and 45 DRC officials were served as a sample of study. The reliability coefficient was obtained at 0.79 using Cronbach’s Alpha statistical technique. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts, descriptive mean and standard deviation. The formulated hypotheses of the research were tested using nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistical (Chi-Square X2) at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study among others revealed that There is a significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the government commitment in enrolment of physically challenged persons at rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State (p-value of .002< 0.05 sig. level; and X2 cal.-value of 7.516 > X2 crit.-value of 1.7749 at 191 codefendants). There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on the provision of infrastructural facilities for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State (p-value of .389> 0.05 sig. level; and X2 cal-value of 1.416 < X2 crit.-value of 1.7749 at 191 codefendants). In respect of the findings, it was recommended that government in collaboration with NGOs and parents should intensify effort and commitments toward enrolling physically challenged persons into inclusive education through regular sensitization and mentoring. Not only provision of adequate infrastructural and instructional facilities, rather ensuring effective utilization of the facilities by training teachers and learners how to appropriately use the facilities for effective teaching and learning process. Also the available qualified and committed teachers and supervisors should be regularly re-trained through workshops, seminars, in-service training and so forth to improve their skills and competency for the realization of well sound physically challenged education programme in the state. More efforts should be intensified in motivating both teachers and students through incentive welfare services such as freeinterest loan and hazard allowances for teachers as well as provision of capital to start small scale business for physically challenged students in Kaduna State.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Exceptionality refers to as significant deviation from the presumed average in some defined areas, such as intellectual ability, physical functioning and social characteristics. The departure of this normal trend must be substantial for it to be regarded as exceptional. Also, Exceptionality is an inclusive term that refers to some categories of mental or social disability, ranging from mental retardation to psychoses and personality disorder. Nevertheless, Exceptionality is used to describe individuals groups that include neuroses and psychotics. It is clearly differentiating mental illness, from actual illness, but an underdevelopment of intelligence. It is therefore refers to the overall psychological and intellectual deficiencies These ideas were supported by Bagudu (2001) who stated that, the term special need is used to refer to individual malfunctioning including physical, sensory, cognitive and intellectual impeccant. However it is important to note that is not all impairment that leads to disability. This connotes that Exceptionality is a significant deviation of an individual from the presumed average in some biological areas such as intellectual ability, physical functioning or social characteristics. The departure from this normal trend must be substantially regarded as exceptional.
Historically, Exceptionality is as old as man, and the affected individuals have always been treated as inferior, but the fact still remains that such people were not excluded from the society nor made outcast. Goma (2008) observed that many years ago, people of
Kaduna state have neither health services nor formal educational institutions but only resorted to traditional doctors, they also believe that ego spirit and angry gods, sometimes caused illness and diseases to them, they believed in their traditional powers to get rid of their ego, spirit or illness.
Apart from that, the society tends to react in different ways, if there is any deviation from the norms sometimes it may be ridicule, curiosity or sympathy. In the case of the parent, the reaction may be one of the indulgence or over protectiveness because of the inability to participate normally in the activities of the contemporary. The special need individual may be set aside if the disability has been present since infancy, the child may be left in a fairly normal environment, even before the child begins to feel isolated from his peers. Over-protective and solicitous parents may promote an awareness of being different. If the disability is one, with illicit shocks or piety, the child may wonder about himself. As he grows older, he may become more aware of the reaction of others to him. His capability to compete successfully in the play activities may set him increasingly apart. His drive for recognition and approval may be throated. A satisfactory adjustment may become difficult it the development of the child involves negative self concept.
Accumulating the special need at a good centre will enhance and foster the development of programmes. And more people will enroll their children in schools. Issue of enrolment is very important in educating those with special needs, as without enrolment of students, no school will prosper. In order to facilitate educational development, some scholars advocated that partnership between government and communities is very important so as to enhance good support to those with special needs, Ezeanni (2006) stated that parents partnership in special education and communal participations will bring good development in schools and can result in harmonious living among the community. Inclusive education is now advocated world wide that is why the American Association of Mental Deficiency (AAMD) in 1959, in its manual on technology and classification of those with special need, put emphasis on inclusive education. The National Policy on Education (2014) advocated that only qualified and trained qualitative teachers will teach in order to ascertain the successful desired objectives in the policy implementation. As supported by Kasim (2010) that only preferable teachers are to teach in the programmes of special need educational facilities in Nigeria in order to enhance rapid progress and government at all level must ensure that only qualified, qualitative and trained personnel are to monitor the programmes. Adeleye (2004) stated that the roles of supervisors of disabled persons and exceptional ones can not be over-emphasized, in the sense that, supervisors help to achieve the desired goals of mainstreaming the disable and exceptional people, instead of them to go on begging on the streets. This can also be seen as how the Kaduna State government has resettled the physically challenged and provide for effective development of the programme.
There is also the need for good instructional and infrastructural facilities necessary for disabled education. As stated by Oladele (2008), availability of infrastructural facilities is very crucial in order to achieve desired outcomes in teaching and learning of disabled persons. He also stated that management of instructional and infrastructural materials is necessary for the development of education programme, communities, parents and nongovernmental organizations should also join hands with government to ensure that those with special needs are assisted and sent to school and rehabilitation centres.
In order to have good special needs education in Kaduna State, the state government established a Board known as Rehabilitation Board in 1980 under the Education Law No.
6 of 1987, it has two residential centres at Kaduna and Kafancan and five Community
Based Vocational Rehabilitation (CBVR) workshops at Kaduna North, Kajuru Chikun, Igabi, and Birnin Gwari local government areas. Kafanchan and Kaduna centres accommodate both males and female. in order to cater for the life of those with special need in the state. Adeleye (2004) is of the view that home in schooling is compulsory in order to achieve physically challenged education at all levels. That is why integration is necessary for realistic achievement in special need education. Integration is the most realistic form of special education since people with disabilities have to live in the society. It therefore, implies that ones‘ ability, social or physical condition should not be a hindrance for availing one self the opportunity of education. The onus is therefore on the society to provide the enabling environment that will make her citizens benefit from education. By the use of these centres, communities, Non-Governmental Organization
(NGOs) and government will foster the special needs educational programme speedily.
Also, parental participation will bring good developmental activities within the schools.
The basis of this is to make people and the parents in the community to be aware on how to take care of those with special needs and not to have prejudice over them. Government and non-governmental agencies should contribute positively towards assisting the programme. The study will serve as a guide to students, parents, schools, and policy makers towards those with exceptionality.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The importance of education has been adequately documented in the literature review. Education serves as the spring board for social and economic changes. Authorities believes that learning is the only primary means of upbringing the socio-economic condition of the rural and urban people. It is assumed that financial allocation helps in smooth running of any organization being it educational programme or otherwise, because it helps in running the important component that will bring about success. As stated by Obi (2004), finance is the backbone of every organization. To achieve the desired objectives, fund has to be adequately allocated to disabled education programme.
However, inadequate provision of infrastructural facilities affects disabled education programmes in most of the training centres. It is common to find schools with collapsed buildings, students sitting on the windows and some sitting on the floor and their number is beyond control, it was observed that beautiful buildings motivates students to learn and encourage teacher to teach effectively. Poor provision of chairs, desks, may affect students‘ academic performance in school organization. Thus, in villages where there were no disabled schools or training centres, rampant begging and other activities are commonly found within the society. Nevertheless, poor performance of teachers has been related to their level of education and training. It was assumed that irregular teacher training and development results in in-competency that affects their performance in special need education programmes, Umar (2002) asserted that teachers who are not professionally trained will make any system fail, because no nation can rise above the standard of their teachers. It was additionally observed that supervision is a key to the successful implementation of instructions in teaching and learning in all institutions of learning. In-effective conduct of school supervision has been related to poor qualification and quality of supervisors of special need education programmes. It is assumed that poor supervision make the environment very difficult for teaching and learning where teachers and learners are exposed to serious hazards. Likewise, special need education programmes overtaken by inadequate provision of instructional facilities such as projected and non-projected facilities, e-books, and so on. It was also observed that school facilities below standard could also lead to reduction in quality of teaching and learning process. In view of the aforementioned problems, the study embarked on assessing the nature and level of physically challenged education programmes in Kaduna State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study focuses on the assessment of special need education programmes in Kaduna State. In view of this, the following specific objectives were formulated to guide the study; to:
- find out government‘s commitment in enrolling individuals with special need at rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State;
- examine the provision of infrastructural facilities for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State;
- assess the provision of instructional facilities for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State;
- ascertain the quality of teachers and supervisors in the physically challenged Education programme in Kaduna state; and
- assess the welfare services for teachers and students in the rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the set objectives of the study, the following research questions were asked to guide the study:
- What is the government commitment in enrolling special need individuals in rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State?
- What are the infrastructural facilities provided by government for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State?
- What are the instructional facilities provided by government for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State?
- What are the quality of teachers and supervisors in physically challenged Education programme in Kaduna state?
- What are the welfare services for teachers and students in the rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State?
Based upon the research questions of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated:
- There is no significant difference in the government commitment on enrolling individuals with special needs at rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference in the provision of infrastructural facilities for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference in the provision of instructional facilities for physically challenged education programme in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference in the quality of teachers and supervisors on physically challenged Education programme in Kaduna state.
- There is no significant difference in the welfare services for teachers and students in the rehabilitation centres in Kaduna State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based the following assumptions:
- Increased enrolment in special need education programme will lead to awareness for those with special need in CKaduna State.
- Adequate provision of infrastructural facilities determines the achievement of special need education programme in Kaduna State.
- Adequate provision of instructional facilities, will facilitates service delivery in special need education programme in Kaduna State.
- Provision of well qualified teachers and supervisors are the keys to successful implementation of special need education programme in Kaduna State.
- Staff and students‘ welfare services enhance teaching and learning processes for special need education programme in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study assesses special need education programmes in Kaduna State. The study of this nature is of great importance to the extent that, the outcome of the research will be of benefit to the parents, of physically challenged, teachers, as well as guiding the government towards the development and implementation of this education programme in Kaduna State. The findings of the study will help in solving problems associated with this important programme.
The study will help government in planning and organizing curriculum for sspecial needs education. Also, it will also assist the authorities in regards to budget and planning in rural and urban areas for special schools. NGOs, will be provided with adequate information about the level, nature and the problem of exclusive education in Kaduna State. This will help to improve the programme through adequate support gained from national and international organizations.
Additionally, it will be of benefit to the community to cope with challenges facing people with special needs in the society. Nevertheless, it will serve as blue print to students who are to carry researches in similar fields of endeavor. The study will also be of great relevant to stakeholders and academics pinpointing the potentials of special need peoples, that is, in disability, there is ability. The findings of the study will serve as additional document for further researches and academic references in Nigerian institutions, government functionaries and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) among others.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is aimed at assessing special need education programme in Kaduna State. The scope of the study will cover only 5 special need training centres located at kaduna, kajuru, chikun, Birnin Gwari and kafanchan. Teachers, supervisors and rehabilitation centres‘ administrators constituted the population of the study in Kaduna State. These were selected due to the fact that human, material and financial resources are centrally managed by the State Rehabilitation Board in Kaduna State.
A STUDY OF THE EDUCATIONAL SERVICES FOR THE PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA