A STUDY FOR SCAFFOLDING AND DRILLING TEACHING TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS‟ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE

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A STUDY FOR SCAFFOLDING AND DRILLING TEACHING TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS‟ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of scaffolding and drilling teaching methods on students‟ academic performance in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria,Kaduna State. With the emergence of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT), there is a tendency to deviate from the use of conventional teaching method for

Shorthand in secondary schools. It was on the basis of this, that this study was conceived. Five research questions were raised to guide the study. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Quasi experimental research design was used for the study. The population of the studywas ninety-six (96) SS2Shorthand students and was used as intact class. Thirty-three (33) students in each of the experimental group and thirty (30) students in the control group were taught Shorthand separately. The experiment lasted for six (6) weeks.The instrument used for data collection was the Shorthand Achievement Test developed by the researcher.Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation. The t-test was used to test all the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Theresultsof the study revealed that both scaffolding and drilling teaching methods had positive effects on students‟ academic performance in teaching Shorthand. However, the performance scores of students in control and those in experimental groups significantly differ. The study concluded that the academic performance of students in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State would be improved if appropriate methodologies are

employed               by              the              teachers               in               teachingShorthand.

Itwasthereforerecommendedamongothers thatShorthand teachers in SSS classes in secondary schools  should endeavor   to  employ  the use ofscaffoldingand drilling methods toadequately guide their students to discover by themselves the skills in Shorthand.

 

                                                          CHAPTER ONE                   

                                                          INTRODUCTION

1.1.   Background to the Study    

Education is a process by which individuals obtain knowledge, skills, values and attitudes for successful living. The most common way to acquire a sound education is to attend school. The report and recommendation of the curriculum conference of 1969 formed the basis for the National Policy on Education (NPE) for Nigeria, which is the country‟s educational policy document. In this document, the federal government of Nigeria places  emphasis on vocational and technical education in order that the graduates may be equipped with skills, knowledge and attitudes for gaining employment or for becoming self employed (National Policy on Education, 2004).       

          Before 1960, Shorthand was a subject taught in Nigerian institutions and few vocational centers. The need for trained manpower in the clerical and secretarial field necessitated its initial recognition and hence its provenience in government training institution. Later, in the 1970‟s and 80‟s, the revised National Policy on Education gave further the room for the introduction of commercial subjects apart from Shorthand such as Typewriting, Book-keeping, Commerce and Business method in post primary institutions in Nigeria which gave them a place in the curriculum of both commercial secondary schools and higher institutions.

         Shorthand has been facing so many challenges since the emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) where the learning of shorthand has been deemphasized both at the lower and higher levels of education where students lost interest in learning shorthand because instructional materials were not available and the supply of qualified and professional teachers/lecturers was inadequate to teach the course with the overall effect of students losing interest in shorthand.

         Hornby (2005) sees shorthand as a quick way of writing using special signs or abbreviations, used especially to record what somebody is saying. Based on NPE (1998) and NCCE (2002), Shorthand is a skill subject which involves the use of the head, the heart and the hand in quick response to spoken sounds. The sub skills involved in learning shorthand are listening, reading, writing, ability to recall what has been heard and language skills.This enables rapid method of writing shown by the use of characters, symbols and abbreviations to represent letters, words and phrases.

          Despite the easier method of teaching shorthand, one of the major problems faced by teachers today is not necessarily what to teach but how to teach the subject in a meaningful way. It is of note that the interest learners show and the mastery they demonstrate in their field of study at the completion of any programme depends largely on how they were taught using instructional methods (Ojogan and Oganwu, 2006).            Teaching methods are planned series of actions for transmitting knowledge to the learners. This includes the methodology and the management techniques adopted by the teacher during the process of teaching. The ultimate aim of the teacher is to organize conditions necessary for effective learning to take place. Lewis and Pendrill (2000) observe that teaching methods are process of identifying and measuring tools used for teaching and assessments of students‟ learning process.

An instructional method identified by authors for teaching is scaffolding where the teacher transforms learners by assigning tasks to them which they cannot tackle or solve alone without his intervention. Olson and Prath (2000) observed that instructional scaffolding is a teaching method that emphasizes the teaching of new skills by engaging students collaboratively in tasks that would be too difficult for them to complete on their own. This method involves individual student to brainstorm on how to provide solution to problem with the help of the teacher.

The drilling method on the other hand can be used to teach shorthand to make students carry out meaningful repetitive drills. It is important that the students be told the aim of the repetitive drill, that is, to be able to write the sentence at a particular speed later. Their achievement at each level provides them with sense of satisfaction which in turn spurs them on to practice further the desired learning activities.

        Traditionally, the conventional method of teaching is widely used in the classroom. Cantrell (2004) reported the characteristics of conventional method to include being leader-centered, leader-active, learner passive and content emphasis. One of the reasons that might have affected the effective teaching and learning Shorthand in government senior secondary schools include the use of a definite instructional teaching method.   

         It is on the basis of the variables discussed so far that the background of this study is built. The study therefore sets out to establish the effects of Scaffolding and Drilling teaching methods on students‟ academic performance in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

There is no gain saying that the educational system in Nigeria has contributed in no small measure to support the nation‟s economy through the provision of qualitative manpower and acquisition of knowledge, skills and values. Achieving this in the 21st century has been a nightmare due to the poor use of instructional strategies in teaching and learning process. One of the objectives of the National Policy on Education (NPE) is to ensure self-reliance after graduation from both junior and senior secondary education levels.

The increasing level of poor performance of students in Shorthand in Zaria, Kaduna State calls for assessing the teaching methods that would improve the performance levels of the students in the subject. The poor performance of students in Shorthand can be said to reflect the evidence of poor methods of teaching the subject in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State. For example, in Kaduna State, WAEC result of five (5) years from 2006-2010 shows that only 23.8% passed Shorthand, while WAEC result from 2011-2015 shows that only 12.8% passed Shorthand. This indicated that students‟ performance in Shorthand has dropped from 23.8% to 12.8% (WAEC office,

Kaduna 2016). These might be attributed to the traditional methods of teaching Shorthand. Azich and Nwosu (2011) indicated that new teaching methods could be very important factors for improving students‟ performance in the subject.

The researcher interacted with Shorthand students and teachers on what they felt were the reasons for the poor performance of students in Shorthand. Based on the observation and interaction, the researcher noted that some of the teachers appear not to use appropriate teaching methods that would improve the teaching and learning of Shorthand by the students. It is against the background of this problem that the researcher wants to establish what could negatively affect students‟ performance in Shorthand.

1.3   Objectives of the Study                                                                                   

         The general objective of the study is to investigate the effect of scaffolding and drilling teaching methods on student‟s academic performance in Shorthand in senior secondary    schools in Zaria, Kaduna State. The specific objectives of this study are to:

  1. determine the effect of scaffolding teaching method on the academic performance of SS2 students in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  2. assess the effect of drilling teaching method on the academic performance of

SS2 students in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.

  • compare the effects on the academic performance of SS2 students in Shorthand taught using scaffolding teaching method and those taught using drilling teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  1. determine the effect on the academic performance of SS2 male and female students in Shorthand taught using scaffolding teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  2. determine the effect on the academic performance of SS2 male and female students in Shorthand taught using drilling teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.

1.4    Research Questions

          Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following research questions have been formulated to aid the study:

  1. What is the effect of scaffolding teaching method on the academic performance of SS2 students in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State?
  2. What is the effect of drilling teaching method on the academic performance of SS2 students in Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State?
  • Is there difference in the academic performance of SS2 students taught Shorthand using scaffolding and drilling teaching methods in government

senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State?                          

  1. Is there difference in the academic performance of SS2 male and female students taught Shorthand using scaffolding teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State?
  2. Is there difference in the academic performance of SS2 male and female students taught Shorthand using drilling teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State?

1.5   Research Hypotheses                                                                                    

          Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following null hypotheses have been formulated to aid the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of SS2 students taught Shorthand using scaffolding teaching method and those taught using conventional teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of SS2 students taught Shorthand using drilling method teaching and those taught using conventional teaching method in government senior secondary schools in

Zaria, Kaduna State.

  • There is no significant difference in the academic performance of SS2 students taught Shorthand using scaffolding teaching method and those taught using drilling teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  1. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of SS2 male and female students taught Shorthand using scaffolding teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the academic performance of SS2 male and female students taught Shorthand using drilling teaching method in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State.

1.6   Significance of the Study                          

It is expected that the findings of this study should be of immense benefit to

Teachers, Students, Ministry of Education, and Curriculum planners as follows:-

The findings of this study will be of benefit to shorthand teachers in selecting and using the most effective methods of teaching shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, thereby exposing the students to meaningful learning.

Consequently, it will help enhance student‟s innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic. Oremeji (2002), supportively asserts that any teacher who takes advantage of innovative teaching methods and learn to use them correctly will find that they make almost an incalculable contribution to students‟ academic achievement.

The use of scaffolding and drilling teaching methods in teaching and learning of Shorthand in government senior secondary school level will give the students opportunity to be the manager of their learning process. Therefore, knowledge passed into the students at various levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility.

The findings of this study will be beneficial to students in the sense that proper use of scaffolding and drilling teaching methods in teaching and learning of shorthand will enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have been taught and thereby advancing their academic performance. This according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retain and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the effective use of teaching methods.

The study will benefit the ministry of education in Kaduna State in the sense that from the findings and recommendations emanating from the research will shed light on scaffolding and drilling teaching methods and their effects on the academic performance of the students. Also, the findings of this study will be of assistance to ministry of education in Kaduna State in the area of Vocational and Technical Education to include appropriate in-service training programme and encourage shorthand teachers to attend seminars, workshops and conferences on the use of teaching methods for commercial subjects and shorthand in particular.

The study will be of significance to curriculum planners as it will enable them consider the most effective methods of teaching shorthand revealed by this study when designing a curriculum for shorthand. Also, to advise textbooks authors to put into consideration the methods revealed by this study when writing shorthand textbooks. The findings of the study will serve as a reference point to other researchers who might wish to carry out a research of similar nature.

 

1.7   Assumptions of the Study        

The study assumed that:

  1. the high rate failure of secondary schools students in Shorthand in Zaria, Kaduna State is as a result of the inappropriate teaching methods used in the teaching of Shorthand.
  2. the performance of students in Shorthand will improve by the use of scaffolding teaching method.
  3. students‟ performance in Shorthand will improve by the use of drilling teaching method.
  4. male and female students‟ performance in Shorthand will improve by the use of scaffolding and drilling teaching methods.

1.8    Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to the use of instructional scaffolding and drilling methods in teaching Shorthand. These methods were chosen because they are rarely used by teachers in teaching Shorthand in government senior secondary schools in Zaria, Kaduna State. The study was also delimited to SS 2 students offering Shorthand. The study is delimited to these students because they have finally made up their minds to offer Shorthand as their career course, and they will be able to provide relevant information for the study.

The study is delimited to Zaria, Kaduna State, because it has more number of students offering Shorthand. The study was also delimited to Government Commercial College, Zaria being the oldest commercial school in Zaria established in 1959. Ninetysix (96) students were used as an intact class for the study.

The study was delimited to the topics “Double Consonants Curves and Compound

Consonants” because these topics are among the crucial topics in Shorthand syllabus meant for S.S 2. These topics were chosen because they encompass all the skills, speed and knowledge that will be acquired by the S.S 2 students.

A STUDY FOR SCAFFOLDING AND DRILLING TEACHING TECHNIQUES ON STUDENTS‟ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SHORTHAND IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE

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