The purpose of the study was to investigate the analysis of school-based instructional supervision in primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria It was guided by six objectives;amon g which are to Determine the analysis of Head teachers’checking of teachers’ record of work, examine the Head teachers’classroom visit, determine the Head teachers’ checking of pupils’ exercise books among others. The researcher applied descriptive survey research design in the study. The population of the study comprised 371 primary schools in Niger Sta te. The sample was made up of 80 Head teachers,114 teachers,12 Supervisors and 40 PTA o fficials from the selected Education Authority relying on research advisor sample  size table (2006). The instrument for data collection was Analysis of School Based Instructional Super vision on Primary School Pupils Academic Performance Questionnaire. Six research questi ons were asked and formulated.The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. The major findings showed that Head teachers’ instructional supervision on checking of teachers’ records of Work has motivated teachers’ to keep up to date record of work in primary schools, Head teachers’ classroom visit has great influence on pupils’ ac ademic performance. Pupils’ academic performance has a link with head teachers’ checkin g of pupils’ exercise books. The opinions of respondents on the analysis of head teachers’ ev aluation of scheme of work on pupils’ academic performance, Opinions  regarding classroo m visits, checking of pupils’ exercise books, assessing of  teachers’ lesson  plan/note among others, did  not differ significantly. Also, based on the findings ,it was recommended that eve ry head teacher should make it a point of duty to regularly evaluate scheme of work. This wi ll keep them abreast of their responsibilities at all time. For effective school based instructio nal supervision, head teachers should as a matter of importance ensure classroom  visit reg ularly. The checking of pupil exercise books should be a regular activity by the head teachers; this will make both teachers and pupils to sit- up properly.  



Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                                       ii 

Certification                                                                                                                                     iii 

Dedication                                                                                                                                       iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                          v 

Table of ContentsList of Tables                     vii  Abbreviations                     viii Operational Definition of Terms                ix Abstract                       x CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                             vi


1.1 Backgroundto the Study                                                                                                    1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                   5

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                      7

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                            8

1.5 Basic Assumptions                                                                                                             9

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                                   9

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                                             11

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                          12

2.1   Introduction                                                                                                                      13

2.2   Conceptual Framework                                                                                                    13

2.2.1 Concept of Supervision                                                                                                   13

2.2.2 Nature of Supervision                                                                                                     16

2.2.3 Purpose of Supervision 17
2.2.4 School Based Instructional Supervision             19
2.2.5 Concept of Academic Performance    20
2.2.6 Concept of Teachers Records    21
2.2.7 Concept of Lesson Plan    22
2.2.8 Concept of Scheme of Work    23
2.2.9 Concept of Teaching Facilities    23
2.2.10 Importance and use of teaching facilities

2.3 Analysis of Head teacher‘s checking ofteachers record of workon pupils

    academic  performance    25
2.4 Analysis of Head teacher‘s classroom visit on pupils academic performance

2.5  Analysis of Head teacher‘s checking of pupils exercise books on pupil‘s

     academic performance    29
2.6 Analysis of Head teacher‘s evaluation teachers lesson plan on pupils ‘academic

2.7 Analysis of Head teacher‘sevaluation scheme of work on pupils‘ academic

    performance  31

2.8 Analysis of Head teacher‘s assessment of  relevant teaching facilities on pupils‘

    academic performance        32   2.9 Empirical Study            36

2.10 Summary                                                                                                                          42


3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        44

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                                44

3.3 Population of the study                                                                                                      44

3.4 Sample and sampling techniques                                                                                       46

  • 5 Instrumentation                                                                                                              46

3.5.1 Validity of the instrument                                                                                              46

.5.2 Pilot Testing                                                                                                                                                                47

3.5.3 Reliability of the instrument                                                                                             47


3.6 Procedure for data collection                                                                                             47


3.9 Method of data Analysis                                                                                                    48



4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        49


4.2 Analysis of personal Data of the respondents

49 4.3Answers to the Research Questions


4.6 Summary of major finding                                                                                                 62

4.7 Discussions of the Findings                                                                                               63


5.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        66

5.2 Summary                                                                                                                          66

5.3 Conclusions                                                                                                                        67

5.4 Recommendations                                                                                                              67

5.5 Suggestions for further studies                                                                                          68

REFERENCES                                                                                                                      69

Appendix 1 letter of introduction                                                                                            73

Appendix 11 Questionnaire on analysis of school –based instructional supervision



1.1 Background to the Study

Supervision is an interaction between at least two persons for the improvement of an activity. Supervision is also a combination or integration of processes, procedures and conditions that are consciously designed to advance the work effectiveness of individuals and groups According to Fischer (2005), says that supervision should assist in the organization and implementation of curriculumprogrammesfor the learners

Supervision of schools is a worldwide phenomenon with each country having its own policy on how supervision is conducted. It is seen as a positive democratic action aimed at not only improvement of classroom instruction but also creating a harmonious environment through continued growth of all concerned; the child, the teacher, the supervisor, the parent and theadministration Goldhammer, (1968). Teachers‘ acceptance and interaction with the instruction supervision practices like techniques, models or process, methods used by head teachers at school, provide the catalyst for performance improvement. Supervision is an interactive process that depends on the source of supervision, the supervisor and the teacher (Firth,1998).

Alfonso, Firth and Neville (1981) define instructional supervision as ‗‘behaviors designated by the school that affects teacher behavior to facilitate student learning and achieve the goals of the school‖. The roles of instructional supervisors in schools include guiding, directing, coordinating, budgeting, advising, evaluating, supporting in-service of teachers and providing pleasant, stimulating environment in which teachers will want to work and feel secure.Musaazi, (2002). The outcome of these functions is seen through improved teaching and learning process that translates into improved academic performance.

The head teacher is the chief supervisor in school Based because he occupies leadership position in the school. Therefore head teachers required relevant training to conduct supervision activities effectively. Schools can make a difference to pupils‘ achievement through the head teacher‘s supervisory leadership. It is the head teacher who sets the pace, leading and motivating the staffs and pupils‘ to perform to their best. Absence of good school management and organization had led to poor performance. Griffins, (1994). Head teachers should supervise teachers‘ work by inspecting records such as schemes of work, lesson note books, record of work covered and the attendance registers etc. In the schools where performance isgood the head teachers do a lot of supervision. Musungu&Nasongo,(2008). This means the quality of leadership in a school determines the way pupils perform. Instructional supervision is a collaborative effort between the head teacher and the teachers which call for mutual understanding between the two parties. In situations where the head teachers‘ and teachers‘ relationship is strained pupils‘ performance is likely to sufferWilliams,(1974).

According to Kimosop (2002), the head teachers has the expertise to supervisory tasks, the kind of supervisory techniques they used and the nature of staff development in their schools. The role of head teachers is configured as the facilitator of a process of collaborative inquiry, problem solving, team building and school improvement. Ike-Obiona (2007) revealed that most primary school administrators have little or nothing in their background to prepare them as instructional supervisors. School-based monitoring is more or less within school supervision which involves the supervisory duties of different leaders in the school system. The head teacher is the chief supervisor he occupies leadership position in the school. By implication, therefore, the head teacher needs to perform administrative and supervisory duties efficiently and effectively to achieve the academic goals and objectives. One of the most important leadership jobs is to build such cohesive effective, high performing team, .Akanni (1991).

The head teacher as the supervisor must do the work of supervision that is, advising, stimulating, guiding, improving, refreshing, encouraging and overseeing certain group with the hope seeking their cooperation in order for the supervision to be successful to achieved stated goals. Therefore school supervision or monitoring can be descended as a constant and continuous process of personal guidance in terms of good advice and encouragement given to teachers by school supervisors in order to improve teaching and learning situation. Organization of school based supervision should function in such a way that supervision will be attended to in a satisfactory manner. Head teacher cannot do the work alone successfully; he has to work with other members of staff in order to achieve maximum results. The members involve include assistant head teachers, heads of department, senior teachers, method experts, class teacher, school prefects including class captains etc. this group constitute the supervisory committee of the school. Assistant head teacher is the next to the Head teacher but in most cases restricted to the task performed within the teaching-learning environment particularly at the classroom level. He/she may however be engaged in specific administrative responsibilities which are usually delegated by the head-teacher and performed within certain ethical considerations.

The classroom teachers also have role to play on instructional supervision,Olembo and Karagu

(1992) quotes several studies, for example, Simpkins and Friesen (1969), Nzioka (1985), Ndambuki (1986) for having outlined the following five areas within which teachers should play their role. These are conservation, planning and adaptations; classroom management; arrangeme nt of instructional programmers; general school organization and out-of-school activities. In any educational system pupils should be provided with an integrated educational programme. For example what is taught in standard four should have some relation with what is taught in other classes in accordance with the syllabus. Therefore a teacher should act as a member of a team both at the national and at the school level and not as an entity of his/her own. At the national level, the teacher should help in the curriculum development; help in setting, invigilating and marking national examinations and implement the syllabus effectively. At the school level, the teacher should contribute to the specification of the school objectives and give some decisions; develop a programme to achieve the objectives; ensure appropriate administrative responsibilitie s as teacher and evaluate whether educational objectives have been attained or not, organize and coordinate co-curriculum activities in school.

A study conducted by Simpkins and Friesen (1970), showed that teachers perceive themselves as involved in decision making only in the area of the classroom management. They participate in decision concerning teaching methodology, examinations, relationship with pupils and performa nce of instructional tasks. Njoka (1985) and Ndambuki (1986) have emphasized the teachers ‗desire to shift from being overpowered by administrative decisions and confined to the classroom to being more involved in matters pertaining to the curriculum and instruction as well as general organizational decisions. The teacher is expected to perform effectively and efficiently in all areas without thinking that he/she has very limited decisional powers in major areas.  With the head teacher acting as the chairman, he holds meeting, to brief them on what to do, receive, discusses reports to enhance effective and efficient teaching for the improvement of academic. Therefore the Ministry of education, the Head teachers and teachers needs to understand the primary importance of instructional supervision in the school system and gear all their effort towards its improvement in the school.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is believed that the overall education system should be supported by educational supervision in order to improve the teaching-learning process in general and  learners  achievement in particular. School-based supervision plays a crucial role in achieving the overall objectives and goals of education in the strategy of attaining quality education In the attempt to improve the quality of education, the head teachers‘ in addition to their administrative duties ought to pay more attention to supervision of instruction. Instructional supervision is a very important aspectneeded in a school, for any educational system to function effectively and achieve its objectives.School-based supervision focuses on teachers‟ professional growth to enhance the instructional practice in schools and to bring about the desired change of learning achievement for the pupils.

Pupils‘ academic performance in primary schools in Borgu, Agwara, Magama, Rijau is  poor.     The poor academic  performance of  the pupils seems to be attributed by poor role performance  of head teachers towards: checking of teachers‘ records of work ‘, the poor checking of teachers‘ records of work by the head teacher  made teachers‘ to not accomplished their role leaving some aspects of the content not taught which could lead to poor pupils academic performance. The checking of teachers‘ records of work should include all the classroom teachers‘ record such as assignment record, test record examination record, diary etc the ability of checking these records may lead to poor academic result.Checking teachers‟ records had a positive impact and improvement in academic performance of pupils.

Poor visitation of classroom by the head teacher could attribute poor pupils ‘academic performance, classroom visitation is a procedure by which the educational leader could be of great assistance in aiding the teachers to improve both their instructional strategies/techniques and the learning processes of the pupil .During class visit the head teacher need to sit and observe formally or walk- through on regular basis, make notes in the classroom observation, discuss the observation with class teacher after lesson, meaning immediate feedback should be given. Ability of head teacher carry out meaningful class visit the teacher‘ will be guided and improved in his job performance and that of the pupils. Poor checking of pupils‘ exercise books by head teacher may lead to poor pupil‘s academic performance.

it is head teachers‘ role to regularly inspect pupil‘s exercise books/notes, writing material, the class work given and  assignment  to ensure that exercises are  in line with  the school syllabus  and pupils‘ class work, notes and assignments are marked. Incompletion of these exercises may lead to poor pupils‘ academic performance. Poor teachers‘ lesson plan,it contributes to poor academic performance of the pupils. Assessmentof teachers‘ lesson plan/ notes by the head teacher  needs to cover all lesson plan of every subject, classes and to ensure that the lesson plans presentation, evaluation are in line to lesson objective and  the scheme of work before  is use in teachingif regularly evaluated it will promotes pupils academic performance.

Poor use of teaching facilities in school based instruction. The head teacher needs to regularly assess relevant teaching facilities to testify the facilities are relevant,they are use for the purpose made for. He assess the class they  are to be use ,the quality and how they are use for instruction. The poor usage and assessment of relevant teaching facilities may lead poor pupil academic performancebecause learners will likely learn with facilities that are not concrete and relevant.

Poor pupils‘ academic performance due to difficult content. Head teachers‘ assessment of scheme of work which involve teachers broken of syllabus from simple to complexand observing the scheme of work in line to the syllabus,it should be testify before use in instruction.Absent of the assessment may lead to poor academic performance of pupils .The head teachers must check the teaching standards in reference to schemes of work, lesson plans, records of work covered by teachers and pupils class attendance by keeping their respective registers. By performing the above role it will promote pupils academic performance, above all inadequate instructional supervision of all school activities also causes poor pupils‘ academic performance. The relationship between head teachers and teachers determine the attitudethe teachers have towardssupervision. If the head teachers are not adequate on instruction supervision itprovides avenue for poor academic standards, but effective performance of instructional supervision boosts the teachers‘ profession role thus improving pupils‘ academic performance.

Head of instruction and any person entrusted with the responsibility to supervision instruction should possess certain knowledge and skills to plan, observe, assess and evaluate teaching and learningprocess.

The thrust of this research therefore is to investigate the extent to which the head teachers‘ effective instructional supervision of teachers, pupils‘ and teaching facilities boost pupils‘ academic performance.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. Determine the analysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s checking of teachers‘ record of work in primary schools in Niger State Nigeria;
  2. Examine the analysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s classroom visit in primaryschoolsinNiger State, Nigeria;
  3. Determine the analysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s checking of pupils exercise booksin primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria;
  4. Examine the analysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s evaluation of teachers lesson plan in primary schools  in Niger State, Nigeria;
  5. Ascertain the analysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s evaluation of scheme of work in primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria; and
  6. Examinetheanalysis of instructional supervision of Head teacher‘s assessment of relevant teaching facilities in primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria.

1.4. Research Questions

The following research questions were asked to guide the study:

  1. How do Head teachers carry out instructional supervision on checking of teachers‘ records of work in primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria?
  2. In what ways doHead teachers under take instructional supervision on classroom visit in primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria?
  3. How do Head teachers carry out instructional supervision on checking of pupils‘ exercise book in primary schools  in Niger State, Nigeria?
  4. In what waysDo Head teachers‘ instructional supervision involves evaluation of teachers‘ lesson plan/note in Niger State, Nigeria?
  5. How do Head teachers carry out instructional supervision on assessment of scheme of

work in  primary schools in Niger State, Nigeria?

  1. In what ways do Head teachers‘ instructional supervision involve assessment of relevant teaching facilities in primary schools  in Niger State?

1.6 Basic Assumptions

In conducting this study, it was assumed that:

  1. a) head teachersinstructional supervision on checking of teachers‘ record of work influence pupils‘academic performance positively;

b)instructional supervision on classroom visit by the head teacher influence pupils‘ academic performance positively;

  1. instructional supervision on checking of pupils‘ exercise books by head teacher influence pupils‘ academic performance positively;
  2. head teachers‘ instructional supervision on assessing teachers‘ lesson plans influence pupils‘ academic performance positively;

e)head teachers‘ instructional supervision on assessing scheme of work by head teacher influence pupils‘ academic performance positively; and

  1. f) instructional supervision of relevant teaching facilities by head teacher influence pupils‘ academic performance positively.

1.7 Significance of the Study

This study will be significant in the following ways:

Help those entrusted with policy formation and implementation to gain better insight into the state of school based instructionalsupervisionin primary school. It would contributeto practical knowledge of the duties and responsibilities associated with supervision of instruction. It will help primary school teachers and head teachers in their duties. This is because the study mayreveal the effective teaching method and management among teachers and recommendeffectiveteachingand supervisoryapproaches which may help to achieve the school objectives. The teachers of primary schools may also get to know the instructional role of their head teachers and adjust their roles accordingly.

The study do give a clear view of the current state of school-based instructional supervisory practices in primary schools. This information should enable school administrators to create new instructional conditions under whichheadteachers‘ and teachers‘ can work more effectively and to identify staff development needs for school heads and teachers. In other words, this information can provide a database for the systematic development and application of schools’ inventories of teachers’ skills and potentials. The study may also be useful to teachers aspiring to head schools in the future to acquire skills and knowledge in instructional supervision so as to understand their supervisory role and carry it out effectively.It may assist the ministries of education to know their weaknesses and strengths on supervisory practices and then encourage them to give more attention to implement supervisory activitiesand provide necessary needed facilities for instructional supervision in primary schools. Education managers may gain knowledge on the state of school based instructional supervision in primary schools.Parent teacher association (PTA) will gain insight on the needs of their children and the state of teaching and learning in the school.This study maycontribute to researchers and understanding of school-based instructional supervision. The findings from this study could lead to the identification of gaps in research in school-based instructional supervision and in designing future research in this area. Educators and researchers from educational institutions may profit from such information as they attempt to identify and implement supervisory practices that are deemed more desirable in improving instruction.

It may be useful to future researchers undertaking similar or related studies. The study will bring to the forefront the need for the ministry of education and school proprietors to organize seminars, conference and workshops for head teachers on school- based supervision and also Identify future training skills needed for school-based instructional supervision in primary schools.

1.8 Scope of the Study

This study coveredall the primary schools in Borgu, Agwara, Magama and RijauL.G.A in Niger State, Nigeria. The study focuses on the analysisof school-based instructional supervisionin primary school in Niger state. The study only used the head teachers, teachers, school supervisors and PTA officials as the respondents. The study only covered public primary schools within the area of coverage of the research.


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