EXAMINATION OF RICE HUSK AS RESIST AGENT FOR FABRIC BEAUTIFICATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TEXTILE DESIGN IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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EXAMINATION OF RICE HUSK AS RESIST AGENT FOR FABRIC BEAUTIFICATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TEXTILE DESIGN IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study used one shot experimental design to carry out an assessment on rice husk as a resist agent for fabric decoration in teaching and learning of textile design in Colleges of Education in Niger State, Nigeria, with the following objectives: teach respondents how to produce resist agent using rice husk, assess the suitability of rice husk as resist agent in teaching and learning of fabric decoration, examine the acceptability of fabric designs made from rice husk resist agent and compare the fabric designs produced from rice husk resist agent and cassava resist agent. The population of the study consisted of 80 students. A total sample of 35 students was drawn from the population using purposive sampling technique to respond to the instrument for data collection for the study. The instrument was a 25 item structured researcher‟s designed questionnaire titled Assessment of Rice Husk as a Resist Agent for Fabric Decoration in Teaching and Learning of Textile Design (RHRAFDTLTD) consisting of  Part  A and B, part A consists of demographic characteristics of respondents and part B provides information on the focus of the study. Mean and standard deviation were employed to answer the research questions. The results showed that resist agent can be produced from rice husk for effective teaching and learning of fabric decoration, there is no difference in the suitability of rice husk as resist agent for effective teaching and learning of fabric decoration. The study concludes that rice husk is a sustainable resist agent for fabric decoration in the teaching and learning of textile design, also fabrics designs made from rice husk resist agent were acceptable and there was no much difference in the comparison of rice husk and cassava resist agents. It was recommended that  vocational and technical education departments in Senior High Schools, Polytechnics, Colleges and Universities could use the results of the study as resource material for teaching creative skills in textile design, also practitioners in the resist dyeing business should adapt the study to educate their students on the role rice husk plays in the production of resist agent for fabric decoration so as to encourage their use in practical lessons, vocational and educational institutions and textiles industry, Non-Governmental Organizations, public and private agencies involved in skills training and youth empowerment can engage their trainees in the production of rice husk resist agent , and constant demand of  this husk could serve  as a waste management, which will  help to clean up the heaps of rice husk piled up at various milling factories and as such promote cleanliness to our environment and generate income to the rice growers and millers, as rice husk and its ash is a great environmental threat causing damage to land and surrounding area where it is dumped.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         II

DECLARATION                                                                                                                      III

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                    IV

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       V

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                     VI

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                            VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                      VIII

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                   XI

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                                         XII

LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                                                       XIV

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study                                                                                                        1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                 4

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                    6

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                          7

1.5 Significance of the Study                                                                                                 7

1.6 Delimitation of the Study                                                                                                 8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework                                                                                                 11

 

2.1.1 Colour Theory by Chapman (2010) and Goethe (1810)                                                  11

 

2.1.2  Gestalt theory of visual perception by Max W., Wolfgang K., and Kurt K.(1920) 17

2.1.3  Design theory by Nigel Cross (2011) and Bas Leurs (2014)                                          22

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                                 23

2.2.1  Concept of Fabric decoration                                                                                          23

2.2.2 Concept of colour system                                                                                                 28

 

2.2.3 Concept of dye                                                                                                                  33

2.2.4 Concept of resist dyeing                                                                                                   39

2.3         Review of related empirical Studies                                                                            47

2.4       Summary of Reviewed Literatures                                                                                56

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Research design                                                                                                             57

3.2     Population of the study                                                                                                    58

3.3    Sample size and sampling procedure                                                                               59

3.4      Instrument for data collection                                                                                        60

3.4.1 Validity of the instrument                                                                                                 60

3.4.2  Reliability of the instrument                                                                                            61

3.5       Procedure for data collection                                                                                        61

3.6       Procedure for data analysis                                                                                           75

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Analysis of bio data of the respondents                                                                         76

4.2       Answers to research questions                                                                                      78

4.3       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                         82

4.4       Discussions                                                                                                                    83

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of the study                                                                                                          87

 

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                                           88

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                                               88

5.4 Suggestions for further studies                                                                                            89

REFERENCES                                                                                                                        90

APPENDICES                                                                                                                      97 LIST OF TABLES

3.1       Population of the study                                                                                                  59

3.3       Sample size                                                                                                                    60

4.1       Percentage of respondents by gender                                                                            76

4.2       Percentage of respondents by age                                                                                  76

4.3       Percentage of respondents by class level                                                                      77

4.4       Percentage of respondents by Institution                                                                       77

4.5       Research question one                                                                                                   78

4.6       Research question two                                                                                                   79

4.7       Research question three                                                                                                 81

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1: Similarity of object                                                                                                 18

Figure 2.2: Continuation of design                                                                                            19

Figure 2.3: Closure of object                                                                                                     19

Figure 2.4: Proximity of object                                                                                                 20

Figure 2.5: Surrounding background                                                                                         20

 

Figure 2.6 Additive Colour Wheel                                                                                            26

Figure 2.7: Subtractive Colour Wheel                                                                                       28

Figure 3.5.1: Rice husk                                                                                                              62

Figure 3.5.2: Antisol or CMC being mixed with water into a bowl.                                         64

Figure 3.5.3: The soaked (Antisol) CMC ready to be mixed with rice husk                            65

Figure 3.5.4: Rice husk being measured into the antisol mixture                                             65

Figure 3.5.5: addition of rice husk into mixture of antisol & water  to form the rice husk resist

agent                                                                                                                              66

Figure 3.5.6: Cassava and rice husk resist agents applied on the equal quantity of fabrics and

left to dry                                                                                                                       67

Figure 3.5.7: Cassava and rice husk resist agents applied with different techniques of resist

method and left to dry                                                                                                    67

Figure 3.5.8: Rice husk resist agent applied on the surface of the fabric with object created

technique (the blue bowl)                                                                                              68

Figure 3.5.9: Application of rice husk resist agent with splashing technique                           69

Figure 3.5.10: Application of rice husk resist agent with stencil technique                             69

Figure 3.5.11 Application of rice husk resist agent with stencil technique                               70

Figure 3.5.12: Rice husk resist techniques applied on the surfaces of fabrics and left to dry in

the sun                                                                                                                         70 Figure 3.5.13 Rice husk resist agent applied on the surface of the fabric using object shape

technique                                                                                                                        71

Figure 3.5.14: Fabric dyeing process                                                                                        72

Figure 3.5.15: Dyed, re-patterned and dyed fabrics with rice husk resist agent                       72

Figure 3.5.15: Dyed, re-patterned and dyed fabrics with rice husk resist agent                       73

Figure 3.5.17: Dyed fabrics patterned with rice husk resist agent                                            73

Figure 3.5.18: Dyeing process of splashed technique with rice husk resist agent                    74

Figure 3.5.19: Dyeing of fabrics designed with rice husk and cassava resist agent into a bowl

74

Figure 3.5.20 Dyed fabrics designed with rice husk and cassava resist agent                          75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

 

Batik  :             is a piece of cloth made in the traditional manner and used especially
  in the traditional context – carrying various ornaments of a specific
  nature (batik ornaments) applied by means of a dye-resist technique
  using “batik-wax”
CMC or Antisol This is a whitish powdered environmental free chemical also known as
  Carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC) or cellulose gum, is a cellulose
  derivative with carboxymethyl groups (-CH2-COOH).It is used
  primarily because it has high viscosity, is nontoxic viscosity modifier
  or thickener, and to stabilize emulsions in various products. Major
  source fibre is either softwood pulp or cotton linter.
Fabric decoration: is an act of changing the appearance of natural and synthetic surfaces
  of fabric by the application of traditional, stylized , digitized and
  illusionary techniques to embellish a product.
Mordants : are chemical solutions which can be used before, during or after the
  dye bath, thus preparing the fibre to receive the colour and also to
  control the actual hue obtained.
Resist                 is an act, technique or material that creates patterns on cloth by
  impeding dye from penetrating fabric.
Rice husk         also called hulls or chaff is the outermost layer of protection encasing a
  rice grain. It is yellowish in colour and has a convex shape. It is
  slightly larger than a grain of rice, thus lengths up to 7mm are possible
Shibori: Is the Japanese term for varied methods of embellishing textiles by
  shaping a fabric and securing it before dyeing
Stencil: a piece of card plastic, paper, metal with a design cut of it, which can be painted over to transfer the design on the surface.
Surface design: is the art of changing the appearance of natural and synthetic surfaces
  by the application of traditional, stylized, digitized, and illusionary
  techniques to embellish a product.
 Tritik : technique refers to simples stitches sewn into the cloth. They are
  tightly gathered to form the resist
Tsutsugaki:     is a Japanese term which means the use of paste or wax as a resist on
  fabric.
Vat dye:            the term vat dye is used to describe a chemical class of dyes that are
  applied to cellulosic fibre (i.e. cotton) using a redox reaction.

Wax block                  is a white or colourless soft derivable from petroleum, coal or o shale, that consists of a Mixture of hydrocarbon molecules, it is solid at room temperature and melt above approximately  37 oc, used as resist agent in fabric decoration. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF APPPENDICES

Appendix I:     Letter of Introduction                                                                                     97 Appendix II: Questionnaire                                                                                                 98

Appendix III: Lesson Plan                                                                                                       102

Appendix IV: Practical work pictures                                                                                     105

Appendix V: Output Data                                                                                                        116

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

            1.1       Background of the Study

The Rice husk also called hulls or chaff is one of the most widely available agricultural wastes in many rice producing countries around the world. Rice husk is described as the outermost layer of protection encasing a rice grain. It is yellowish in colour and has a convex shape. It is slightly larger than a grain of rice, thus lengths up to 7mm are possible. Typical dimensions are 4mm by 6mm. It is lightweight, having a ground bulk density of 340kg/m3 to 400kg/m3 (Ajay, Devendra ,& Om, 2012).

Rice husk waste has always been deposited beside the milling factories and no demand of it has been made by people around as it is neither good for animal feeding due to its low nutritional value nor for any other use as rightly stated by Warren and Farrell, (1990) that rice husk has no nutritional value for poultry as well as to other animals.

The well known use of rice husk in most rice producing countries is that it is usually dumped and burnt for heat or used as landfill. Burning of husk in ambient atmosphere leaves a residue, called Rice husk ash. For every 1000 kgs of paddy milled, about 220 kgs (22%) of husk is produced, and when this husk is burnt in the boilers, about 55 kgs (25%) of Rice husk ash is generated (Koteswara & Pranav, 2006). The disposal of rice hulls has been a substantial problem for rice growers and rice millers, since the hulls are not suitable for use as fertilizers and until it is disposed off either by open burning, burying or used as land fill. Burning of rice hulls also releases Carbonmonoxide to the atmosphere (which is poisonous). Space for burning is frequently not available in heavily populated areas and burning creates undesirable atmospheric pollution. Rice husk removal during rice refining, creates disposal problem due to less commercial interest and also, handling and transportation of Rice husk is problematic due to its low density. Apparently, Rice husk and its ash is a great environmental threat causing damage to land and surrounding area where it is dumped. Therefore, commercial use of Rice husk and its ash is the alternative solution to disposal problem, and so this prompted the researcher to seek an alternative ways of utilizing the waste for useful purposes such as processing it as a possible resist agent for fabric decoration on cotton fabric (dyeing).

Resist dyeing is a term for a number of traditional and contemporary methods of dyeing textiles with patterns. Different methods are used to prevent dye from penetrating all the cloth thereby creating a pattern. According to (Vainker, 1990), a resist is a product or process that temporarily or permanently blocks fabrics ability to absorb another wet medium. There are three main categories of resist methods according to Vainker (1990), are the mechanical, chemical and ikat. The mechanical means tying (tie the fabric with strong rope before dyeing), stitching (sewing the fabric with thread and hand needle at close intervals pulling the fabric together so as to avoid dye penetration at the sewn areas) and folding (fold the fabric at desired areas before dipping into dye bath). The chemical method which include use of paste such as flour paste, glue and wax and this method involve drawing patterns with bee, candle or any other type of wax on the surface of the fabric before submersion in the dye). The ikat refers to textile in which the resist is applied to the thread or yarn before weaving.

Years ago, resist dyeing techniques has been widely used in Eurasia and Africa since antiquity. The first discovery of pieces of lining was from Egypt and date from the fourth century, the cloth was used for the mummies (around the 19th Dynasty, successful mummy maker made mummies by removing internal organs and moisture of dead body, and protecting dried remains, which were dressed up and kept for histories) that were soaked in wax then scratched with a sharply style, dyed with a mixture of blood and ashes later washed in hot water to remove the wax. In Asia, this technique was practice in china during the tang dynasty (618-907), in India and Japan in the near period (645-794), and in Africa it was originally practiced by the Yoruba tribe in Nigeria, Soninke and Wolof in Senegal (Vainker, 1990).

Resist dyed fabric or traditionally-crafted fabric is an age-long traditional fabric, which arguably has its origin from the people of Egba, the present people of Abeokuta, where resist dyed fabric is produced with super craftsmanship, though manually. The production of resist dyed fabric had in the past generated lot of jobs and revenue for the Egba people. Although, resist dyed fabric was crudely crafted in the past, it used to have large patronage from the Yoruba people of Western Nigeria and some West African countries like Ghana, Ivory Coast, Republic of Benin, Togo, Mali, among others, who had seen resist dyed fabric as a day-to-day clothing material suitable for special outings and routine wears. Recently, resist dyed fabric is worn by all people of different cultures as they are sewn in different taste and styles though the patronage of the fabric dropped down due to high cost of the finished good and the uncontrolled importation of foreign wears coupled with abnormal taste for foreign especially made-in-Nigeria goods for Western or Asian made semi-finished and finished goods (Vinyl, 2008).

The study will make use of rice husk which is seen as a waste and convert it into raw material in the production of resist agent for fabric decoration in teaching textile design to students in colleges of education, Niger State. Niger state has two colleges of education namely College of Education Minna and Federal College of Education Konatgora.  These two colleges run NCE and Degree programmes at various Departments including Home Economics. Niger state is in central Nigeria formed in 1976 and shares boundary with Kaduna and Plateau in the East and South-East respectively as well as with Sokoto in the

North and Kwara State in the East, with state capital at Minna. The occupation of the three main principal ethnic groups namely Nupe, Gwari and Hausa is farming. As far as rice production is concerned in Nigeria, Niger State plays great role in the production of rice (Aliyu, 2015). This, therefore make rice and its husk abundantly available.

 

 

            1.2       Statement of the Problem

The researcher embarked on this study as a result of improper way of disposing rice husk by a small milling factory very close to her residence at Tunga-maje Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja. The first time when the researcher saw these waste, she taught it was saw-dust, and asked why people could not use it as fire wood, but a neighbour nearby said that it was rice husk and it cannot be used as fire wood as it generate thick smoke which is not conducive for health. The neighbour further explained that the improper disposal of this waste has been causing problem to the area especially during the raining season as running water will carry it away and scatters the waste at different places and as such dirty the environment for the residents in that area. The researcher was curious about the better way of utilising this waste to avoid these problem caused by the waste, this stimulated the researcher to embark on this study in other to find out alternative ways of utilising the waste and also to generate wealth out of it for the betterment of the people and at the same time bring about new knowledge.

Furthermore, in the course of the study, the researcher being curious observed over ten milling factories within Niger state  that this rice husk waste has always being deposited beside the milling factory and no demand of rice husk has been made by  people.

It is obvious that in most Nigerian schools and colleges, whenever students are asked to conduct practical on textile dyeing, the one and only method being use in creating effects on the dyeing is the use of tie and dye method of resist dyeing and these knowledge is being passed on from one generation to another. Many graduates of Textiles Science and Home Economics departments from Secondary schools, Colleges and Universities do not know or have the idea that there are other different methods and material for resist dyeing on fabric beside tie and dye resist method.

Another method which is known by some students who are knowledgeable in the field is the use of candle wax for resist dyeing. This method is most times turned down by students due to the non availability and high cost of wax blocks in the markets. In Kontagora Local Government Area, of Niger State, most of the markets there do not have or sell the wax blocks, and each time practical are conducted on resist dyeing methods, the students find it difficult to get wax block for their practical work. On the contrary, the students insist on buying candle sticks to melt and generate wax for their practical end up spending much money as a packet of candle consisting of eight (8) sticks cost around 140 naira and above. The question now is how many sticks can generate a good quantity of wax that can go round the fabric?  Furthermore, getting the source of heat for the melting of the wax is another problem as most times the students have to bring source of heat like stove from their homes irrespective of distance where they are coming from. Therefore due to these reasons, most students just stick to tie and dye method of resist dyeing as it is much easier and convenient.

The researcher as a teacher taught of so many means of generating another resist agent in order to alleviate the students of these problems and has therefore tried to create an alternative resist agent by making use of rice husk which is a waste, and since Nigerians are good farmers of rice and rice is planted and process in most local governments in Niger state, therefore rice husk is always available at no cost.

Personal interaction with most millers and the rice growers shows that rice husk have no commercial use, this research seeks to find an alternative solution to its indiscriminate disposal since its disposal posses as a great threat to the environment and society at large. Moreover, its bulky characteristics can make its transportation difficult. No wonder rice husk has always being abandoned very close to the milling factory causing danger to the neighbourhoods. Physically, rice husk itself (as distinct from Rice husk ash) is abrasive, light and bulky and this makes it difficult to handle. It requires large indoor space for storage, as it can be easily blown by the wind and even burning cannot solve the problems because it also releases pollutants which can cause respiratory problems to humans.

In most developing countries like Nigeria recycling of waste products (agricultural waste product) into useful product is rarely practiced. This has led to environmental problems such as pollution resulting into refuse heaps on streets, drainage system and water ways, which has in turn resulted to flooding on rainy days due to the blockage of the waterways. The government and other stake holders in the education sectors (Environmentalist) has done tremendous efforts in putting up  drainages, regular environmental sanitations of most milling centres so as to help prevent the problems of insecurity of environment. In spite of these efforts there still lingers a problem, of rice husk waste in the environment. Problem of this study simply put in a sentence is: How can rice husk be used as a resist agent for fabric decoration in teaching and learning of textile design in Colleges of Education in Niger State, Nigeria?

            1.3       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study was to carry out an examination on rice husk as a resist agent for fabric decoration in teaching and learning of textile design in Colleges of

Education in Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study was to:

  1. Produce resist agent using rice husk
  2. Dye fabrics patterned with rice husk resist agent
  3. Examine the acceptability of fabric designs made from rice husk resist agent
  4. Compare the fabric designs produced from rice husk resist agent and cassava

resist agent.

  1. Teach students how to produce resist agent using rice husk
  2. Assess the performance level of students taught fabric dyeing with rice husk resist agent.

            1.4       Research Questions

The study utilized the following research questions:

  1. What is the acceptability level of fabrics dyed with rice husk resist agent?
  2. How are the fabric dyed with rice husk and cassava resist agent rated
  3. What are the performance levels of students taught fabric dyeing with rice husk resist agent.

 

            1.5       Significance of the Study

This research will be beneficial in the following ways:

It will be of help to consumers of fabrics as it will provide cheap but quality and beautiful dyed fabric since the Rice husk waste will be utilised and be obtained at no or little or no cost for the teeming customers and lovers of fabrics that have resist patterns. Hopefully, the findings of this research will be of importance to Nigerian rice farmers and rice millers as it will overcome the challenges they face on rice husk disposal, which before now is seen as a waste but will now be an important raw material for the textile industry. The constant demand of this waste therefore may lead to source of revenue to them.

Also, since the rice husk waste constitute problem in the environment in terms of disposal due to its low density and demand, this research will help in the proper utilization of the waste and at the same time promote cleanliness of the environment through its increased demand. The Nigerian Government will benefit from this study because the constant demand will help to reduce hips of rice husk dumped at various sites which constitute nuisance and pollution to the environment where it is dumped and invariably reduce government expenses on sanitations and still prevent further damages that could have been caused by the waste.

Furthermore, it will also be of benefits to producers and consumers in resist dyeing business as it will not only provide an alternative means of production in resist design but also provide a cheaper means of production and products, as the raw materials are easy to access and available at little or no cost.

It will also provide a means of showcasing and preserving our rich cultural heritage as different design showing Nigerian cultural symbols and signs will be produce using the rice husk paste. It will be of importance to Home Economics and Textile Design teachers and students especially those in textile field as it will help in teaching and learning and also provides alternative method of resist dyeing techniques. And finally, it will also serve as a reference for future research studies related to rice husk or in batik and fabric decoration.

 

            1.6       Delimitations of the Study

This study was delimited to the following practical testing and experimentation on the utilization and assessment of rice husk as resist agent for fabric decoration in teaching and learning of textile design in the two Colleges of Education in Niger State which are   Federal college of Education Kontagora and College of Education Minna. The research was delimited to cold water dyeing, cassava resist agent for comparison reasons, and   cotton fabric of white origin (brocade) as different colours of vat dye were used to produce different patterns using rice husk resist agent.

The research was also delimited to resist dyeing method as the rice husk was prepared into resist agent with the help of Antisol (CMC) and water. This study was delimited to NCE I and II students and all lecturers handling clothing and textiles courses in Federal College of Education Kontagora and College of Education Minna. These two levels were chosen based on the fact that National Commission for Colleges of

Education, made it compulsory in the Minimum Standards For Vocational and Technical Education  2012 edition that all Home Economics students at NCE I level, should offer the course titled introduction to textile science (fabric decoration) with course code HEC 112 and at NCE II level the course titled textile design with course code HEC 221, where students are taught how to pattern the fabric with different resist methods before dyeing.

EXAMINATION OF RICE HUSK AS RESIST AGENT FOR FABRIC BEAUTIFICATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF TEXTILE DESIGN IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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