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The study was designed to analyze the Performance of Students in Vocational and Technical Subjects in NECO/ SSCE 2013-2017.Problems such as poor school infrastructure, lack of qualified teachers, poorly equipped workshop and laboratories affect the teaching and learning of vocational and technical subjects. In view of this, the researcher deems its fits to look into the performance of students on theses vocational and technical subjects in national examination council senior secondary school certificate examination for the period of five years (2013-2017)five objectives were formulated in line with the performance of students in vocational subjects, the performance of students in technical subjects, perceptions of students in vocational and technical subjects, constrants and solutions to the challenges, five research questions were asked in line with the five objectives and five null hypothesis were postulated, some of which states that there is no a positive relationship between students’ performance in vocational subjects in secondary schools in Kaduna state, teachers perceives that the rate of assimilations of students in technical and vocational subjects is low or high relevant literatures were reviewed. The research design used for this study was the descriptive survey design, while the simple percentage were used to analyse primary data were used to analyse data from the total population of 5,244 students that sat for NECO SSCE June/July 2013-2017 in the schools. A sample of 357 students’ were used as a sample using Krejie and Morgan (1970) table to sampling technique. The sampled students were used to determine the performance of students in technical and vocational in Kaduna State.The findings were discussed, in the following conclusion, how well students perform in computer study, building construction, office practice, metal work, insurance, what perception of teachers towards their students in computer study, what are the constraint militating against the performance of students in salesmanship, building construction, how can challenges militates against the performance in insurance, metal work, GSM repairs, office practice and recommendation for further studies, instructional materials for the teaching of vocational and technical subjects should be provided, schools should be equipped for proper teaching and learning enlightenment compignsshould be carried out in societies mostly on vocational education. 



Cover Page                                                                                                                              i


Title Page                                                                                                                                ii


Declaration                                                                                                                             iii


Certification                                                                                                                            iv


Dedication                                                                                                                               v


Acknowledgments                                                                                                                  vi


Abstract                                                                                                                                   vii


Table of Contents                                                                                                                      viii


List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix


List of Abbreviations                                                                                                              x


Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                            xi




1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                                  1


1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                 5


1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                    6


1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                          7


1.5 Hypotheses                                                                                                                       7


1.6 Basic Assumptions                                                                                                           8


1.7 Significance of the Study                                                                                                 9


1.8 Scope of the Study                                                                                                            9 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 Introduction


2.2  ConceptualFramework


2.3. The Potential of Vocational Technical Education


2.4 Presenting the Features of Vocational Education Climate in Nigeria


2.5 Performance Assessments in Secondary Vocational Education     36
2.6 The Constraints of Vocational Education in Nigeria


2.7 Empirical Studies


2.8 Summary




3.1 Introduction


3.2 Research Design


3.3 Population of the Study


3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques


3.5 Research Instrumentation


3.6 Method of Data Collection


3.7 Procedure of Data Analysis


4.1 Introduction     62
4.2 Presentation     62
4.3 Finding Obtained From Interview Schedule     69
4.4 Discussion and Finding     69




5.1 Summary                                                                                                                           77

5.2 Conclusions                                                                                                                      77

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                                            79

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                        79

5.5. Contribution to Knowledge                                                                                             80

Reference           82 Appendix            85



Table 3.1 Summary of the Population of Study   59
Table 3.2  Showing Summary of Sample of the Study   60

Table 4.1         Summary of NECO/ SSCE Results in Vocational Technical

Subjects, Government Technical School Soba (2013-2017) Kaduna            62

Table 4.2         Summary of NECO/ SSCE ResultVocational &        Technical

Subject in Nigeria Military School, Zaria (2013-2017).                                63

Table 4.3         Summaryof NECO/ SSCE Result in Vocational &Technical

Subjects Government Technical School, Kajuru.                                          64

Table 4.4         Summary of NECO/SSCE Result in Vocational& Technical Subjects

Federal Government College, Kaduna (2013-2017).                                     65

Table 4.5         Summary of NECO/SSCE Result in Vocational & Technical Subjects

Government Technical School FadanChawai, Kaduna (2013-2017).            66

Table 4.6         Summary of NECO/SSCE Result in Vocational & Technical Subjects

Federal Technical College Kafanchan, Kaduna (2013-2017).                       67

Table 4.7         Summary of NECO/SSCE Result in Vocational & Technical Subjects

Demonstration Secondary School, Zaria (2013-2017).                                  68



N.P.E              National Policy of Education

S.S.C.E            Senior Secondary College Education

M.D.G             Millennium Development Goals

N.U.T              Nigeria Union of Teacher

I.C.T                Information and Communication Technology

I.L.O               International Labour Conference

NEEDS           National Economics Employment and Development Strategy

NDE                National Directorate of Employment

UNESCO        United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization

ERP                 Education Reform Programme



Vocational Education: this is design to help the learners acquire and develop skills, knowledge and attributes for effective employment or progression in specific occupation.

Technical Education: this is the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practicaltask.

Vocational subjects: are those subjects label for those instructional areas that consist of visual arts (mainly the handicrafts) and home economics subjects. The specific subjects so labeled in include; leather work sculpture, graphic design basketry, food and nutrition and management in living.

Technical subjects:are subjects uses for trade, industrial, engineering- related subjects such as technical design, applied electricity, auto-mechanics and wood work.




1.1       Background to the Study

Nigeria having realize the effectiveness of education as a powerful instrument for national progress and development, adjusted her educational philosophy and methodology to match the ideals and challenges of changing economic and social structure of modern society (National policy on education 1981, revised 2004).consequently, in 1982, Nigeria adjusted her secondary educational system to encompass diversified curriculum that integrates academic with technical and vocational subjects, intended to empower the individual for self-employment. According to the National Policy on Education, the broad aims and adjectives of technical education in Nigeria education system are preparation for useful living within the society (self-employment) and preparation for higher education.


Evaluation of technical and vocational study provides useful feedback to educational planners and administrators on the performance of students in technical education. When linked to data reflecting labour market needs, the tests are useful for evaluating the relevance of vocational curricula to the current and anticipated conditions. In addition, tests that measure more broadly defined developed abilities can, when used properly, contribute to relevant information about the types of courses offered by schools and the efforts to a provide special guidance or coursework to student who need it most. For performance measurement, tests design expressly for system-wide program evaluation is preferable to that assessment of individual abilities.


The State in Nigeria have becomes very active in the development and use of occupational competency tests. Detailed paper-and-pencil testes, as well as hands-on testes of technical proficiency-which are often designed with the cooperation of experienced workers can provide valuable information about the quality of vocational programmes. State- of- the art tests that rely on computer-base interactive system, which are currently being designed, may provide important technological improvement over conventional testing modes.

However, almost three decades after adoption of the laudable initiative, majority of Nigerian youths are idle while some are involved in various vices due to unemployment.

A good number of students who have completed their secondary education but failed to secure admission into institutions of higher learning are in dilemma. This is because they are equipped with the requisite skill for self or paid employment (Igwe, 2007). It is no longer news that the nation’s youths unemployment rate has skyrocketed. Adekoya (1999) claimed that for the Nigeria youths to be empowered economically they should be effectively implemented. Oli (2000) believed that to ensure a positive future for Nigeria, the youth who are believed to be the future leaders of the country ought to be well equipped with basic skills to drive the economy.

Omotosho, Idowu, Esere and Arewah [2009] citing Ipaye [1988] posited that one of the developmental task of the youth is the attainment of economic independence which invariably araises from the youth becoming gainfully employed. Consequently, youth unemployment tend to have negative psychological effect on the youth themselves. It lead to maladjustment, and given that young people constitute about 60% of our total population (Awogbenle and Iwuamadi, 2010). A society full of maladjustment citizen is itself sick and cannot progress. The need address this phenomenon and it is attendant problems necessitated this study.

According to (Meskil, 2005) he observed that without strict adherence to good education it becomes a waste and even poses danger to all the sectors of the nation. It should be noted that good quality delivery begins from policy makers to resource providers, the teachers and the students. It has long been found that quality is never an accident; it has always been the result of high intentions, sincere efforts, intelligent mission statement and focused as well as skillful implementation. In education, there is a broad agreement on a number of issues that define quality. They include higher academic standards, vigorous curricula, skilled and experienced teachers, updated textbooks, state of the arts laboratories and computing facilities, small class sizes, modern buildings and conductive environment for learning, strict discipline, solving parents amongst others. Quality education is needed to guarantee good future for the country.

Babalola (2004) stated that: quality of education refers to the worth of education (with reference to its input, the teaching – learning process and the output/ outcome). It is measured against set standards and could either be seen as below, exactly or as above a given standard. Babalolawent further to explain that, the quality could be poor, just as expected, excellent or exceptional. When it is exactly as it ought to be, we say it is an expected quality. Above the standard, we say it is either excellent or exceptional. Quality of input refers to the worth of teachers, trainees, textbooks, technology of delivery, and tasks or curriculum. Quality of the process deals with the worth of teaching learning process that involves lesson plans, delivery methods, classroom organization and control, student- teacher inter actions, pupils‟ participation, assessment and evaluation, marking etc. quality of outcome and output involves the academic achievement and attainment, value added through education, results of internal and external examinations, etc. quality of environment involves the work of all environmental factors and sanitation etc. since education is seen and regarded as service to the society and as such a predominant force in our society. The services it renders must be good and qualitative. Good service doesn‟t just happen by chance; it must be planned and managed, from the design to the delivery, from maintaining efficient operations to ensuring that the quality is both high and insistent quality assurance therefore deals with the proactive means of ensuring quality inputs, quality through puts, quality outcome, quality academic achievements of pupils and the environment before things get out of hands (Babalola, 2004).

Unfortunately, education in Nigeria in its present form is devoiced from standard, quality and functionality (Babalola 2012). In fact, much as most scholars are interested, everyone wants to obtain a certificate to join the band wagon in politics and possibly “meet up early today, politics, is the most lucrative practice that makes sense” and captures the interest of all and sundry. The demise of quality and functionality especially in the Nigerian education system has further been slaughtered on the corridor of the struggle to obtain or secure a certificate as a meal ticket and further build prospect in politics. Against these scenario Kadir (2012) observed that quality and standard need to be restored in the Nigerian education system. In this direction,

Kadir (2012) further stressed that quality education have provided the “magic wand” that transformed Russians in 1913 form an unbelievably, fantastically backward country, poverty stricken into world‟s most technologically and economically

developed countries.

1.2      Statement of the Problem

For Nigeria to excel technologically there is the need for the effective implement of vocational education program in government owned secondary schools and private secondary schools. In spite of the important of vocational education to the development of both individuals and the society at large, there is no much emphasis placed on the effective implementation of vocational education programs in Nigeria. The frequent occurrence of low student’ participation in vocational education courses has been a great concern to all-well-meaning individuals, institutions and industries. Considering the rate at which technical education is been promoted and also the rate at which the youths in Nigeria are been graduating from such institutions yet a high percentage of them are doing in terms of being engaged in vocations or trades that could earn them a living and preventing them from becoming menace in the society.

One will start to wonder what is going to happen in the future. Indeed they become liability to both their parents and the society. Some engage in vice that are detrimental to themselves and the society.

Despite the efforts of the Federal Government in promoting technical education in Nigeria, the problem is becoming very persistent among our youths as their population is increasing. Hence doubt is expressed about the quality of technical education in this regard. This maybe probably because most these programmes have not been base on the reality of times or due to the inability of students to perform well.

As such there is the tendency that vocational and technical education is constraint with issues arising from inability of regulatory authority to evaluate performance of teaching and learning technical institutions. It is against this background that this study in Kaduna state.

1.3       Objectives of the study

The main objective of this study is to analyze students’ performance in vocational and technical subject at NECO/SSCE in the following subject metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in Kaduna state. The specific objectives to:-

  1. Analyze students‟ performance in work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in NECO/ SSCE in Kaduna state from 2013 – 2017; ii. Analyze students‟ performance in metal work in seven selected secondary schools in Kaduna state; iii. Find out the perceptions of teachers toward the performance of their student in metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in seven selected secondary school in Kaduna state; iv. Identify the constraint militating against the performance of students metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in seven selected secondary school in Kaduna state; and
  2. Proffer solutions to the challenges militating against the performance of student in work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in the seven selected secondary school in Kaduna state.

1.4        Research Questions

  1. How well do students perform in the following subject metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs e.t.c,in the seven selectedschools in Kaduna state from 2013-2017?
  2. How well do students‟ performance in metal work, office practice in seven selected schools in Kaduna state from 2013-2017?
  • What is the perception of teachers towards the performance of their students in the following subject metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in seven selected secondary school in Kaduna state?
  1. What are the constraint militating against the performance of student in the following subject metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs in seven selected school in Kaduna state?
  2. How can challenges militating against the performance of students in the following subject metal work, salesmanship, office practice insurance, computer studies, GSM repairs etc,sevenselected schools in Kaduna state?

1.5        Hypotheses

Ho1:  there is no positive relationship between student’s performance and vocationalsubject in schools in Kaduna state;

Ho2: there is no positive relationship between student’s performance and vocational subjects in technical subjects in Kaduna state;

Ho3:  there is positive relationship between student’s performance and students‟ performance in technical subject in Kaduna state;

Ho4: teacher perceived that the rate of assimilation of student in technical and vocational subject in schools in Kaduna state is low;
Ho5: teachers perceived that the rate of assimilation of student in technical and vocation subjects in Kaduna State is high;
Ho6: vocational and technical education is not constraint with the issue of poor performance of students in vocational and technical education;
Ho7: vocational and technical education isconstraint with the issue of poor performance of students in vocational and technical education; and

Ho8:  proper funding and manpower development will not enhance student’s performance in technical and vocational education.


1.6        Basic Assumptions

For the purpose of this study the following assumptions were made.

  1. It is to provide meaningful education for youth which could make them selfreliance and subsequently encourage them to drive profit and be selfindependent;
  2. It is to provide graduates with the training and support necessary to help them establish a career in small and medium size business;
  3. It is to provide graduates with training skill that will make them meet the manpower need needs of the society;
  4. It is to provide graduates with enough training in risk management to make uncertainty bearing possible and society;
  5. It is to stimulate industrial and economic growth of rural and less developed areas;
  6. It is to provide graduates with enough training that will make them creative and innovative in identifying new business opportunities; and
  7. It is to provide small and medium size companies with the opportunity to

recruit qualified graduates who will receive training and in the skills relevant to management of the business centre.

1.7       Significance of the Study

This research work will be immense benefit because it will x-ray the performance of students particularly in Kaduna state. The attention of both the teacher and ministry of education will be drawn problems and their suggest solutions.

The finding of the study will enable the teachers to take appropriate steps in teaching vocational and technical subject in schools the government; parent and the society at large would understand the problems facing the technical and vocational subject. The study will also be a good reference material as well a spring board to undertake further research.

Finally, this research work will serve as a frame-work to others who may be conducting research on similar topic or others who may be conducting other works on any problem that may emanate as a result or reaction to this work.

1.8        Scope of Study

In order to avoid unmanaged work, the researcher has limited herself to cover the three educational zones in Kaduna state. The zone includes:

  1. Kaduna Central ii. Zaria Zone

iii.        Fafenchang


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