EVALUATION OF PRINCIPALS’ DUTIES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FUNTUA AND MALUMFASHI EDUCATION REGIONS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

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EVALUATION OF PRINCIPALS’ DUTIES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FUNTUA AND MALUMFASHI EDUCATION REGIONS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study is on “Assessment of Principals‟ Roles in the Management of Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria”. To achieve the aim of this research, seven objectives were set in line with the research questions and hypotheses. The objectives are to; examine the leadership role performance of principals on internal supervision, determine the role performances of principals on maintenance of school facilities, assess the role performance of principals on interpersonal relationship and ascertain the leadership role performance of principals on maintenance of discipline in Senior Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study used survey method that covered all public secondary schools within Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State.  The study used survey design. The population of the study comprises Principals, Teachers, PTA and MOE with total number of 824. A total of 250 respondents were used as sample for the study; i.e. 15 Principals, 175 Teachers, 12 Ministry of Education Officials and 48 Parent-Teachers‟ Association (PTA). The questionnaire was validated by the supervisors. The researcher conducted a pilot study to test the reliability of the instruments. The reliability of the instrument was obtained at reliability coefficient of  0.71. This means  the instrument was considered reliable. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant data. Seven hypotheses were formulated and the testing was done by using Analysis of Variance. The findings of the study revealed that; there was low level of maintenance of facilities such as accommodation, teaching and learning, sports, light and transport. Principals did not permit free movement of members of the local community in the school premises and as such did not carry out management of discipline alone in the schools, principals ensured that teachers access and manage record of academic performance and conduct of the students by providing them with all necessary facilities in Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria. From the findings, it will be concluded that, there was effective communication from principals to staff and students on matters that affect the school through circulars and bulletin board. Principals encouraged teachers to have good interpersonal relationship with students. Principals did not permit free movement of members of the local community in the school premises and as such did not carry out management of discipline alone in the schools. The study, therefore, recommended that; Principals should make sure that proper orientation is conducted for newly recruited teachers before they start work and in order to enhance higher productivity in schools, good and adequate facilities, accommodation, computers with internet facilities, constant water and electricity supply provided to Secondary Schools should be properly maintained in in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                           i

Declaration                                                                                                                         ii

Certification                                                                                                                       iii

Dedication                                                                                                                          iv

Acknowledgments                                                                                                             v

Table of Contents                                                                                                               vi

List of Table                                                                                                                       ix

Abbreviations                                                                                                                     xi

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                       xii

Abstract                                                                                                                              xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study                                                                                                                                1

1.2          Statement of the Problem                                                                                                                             3

1.3.        Objectives of the Study                                                                                                                                  5

1.4          Research Questions                                                                                                                                          6

1.5          Research Hypotheses                                                                                                                                      6

1.6          Basic Assumptions                                                                                                                                           7

1.7         Significance of the Study                                                                                                                              8

1.8          Scope of the Study                                                                                                                                           8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1         Introduction                                                                                                                                                       10

2.2          Conceptual Framework                                                                                                                               10

2.11    Empirical Studies                                                                                                                                             10

2.2.1     Meaning of Education                                                                                                                                  11

2.2.2      Secondary Schools                                                                                                                                         11

2.2.3      Assessment                                                                                                                                                        13

2.2.4      Role                                                                                                                                                                       14

2.3         Theoretical Framework                                                                                                                               15

2.4         Principals‟ Role on Internal Supervision in Secondary Schools                                            18

2.4.1.  Objectives of Supervision                                                                                                                            19

2.4.2.   Supervisory Role of the Principals                                                                                                         20

2.5         Principals‟ Role on Maintenance of School Facilities in Secondary Schools                 21

2.5.1. Types and Nature of School Facilities                                                                                                    24

2.5.2. Maintenance of School Plant/Facilities                                                                                                  24

2.5.3. Strategies for Effective Maintenance of School Plant                                                                    24

2.5.4. Types of Maintenance                                                                                                                                     25

2.5.5. Purposes and Uses of School Facilities                                                                                                  26

2.5.6. Importance of School Facilities Maintenance                                                                                     27

2.5.7. Objectives of School Facility Maintenance                                                                                         28

2.5.8      Principals Role in Maintaining School Facilities                                                                           30

2.6       Principals‟ Role on Interpersonal Relationship                                                                              32

2.6.1      Importance of Interpersonal Relationships                                                                                       33

2.6.2      Stages of Interpersonal Relationship                                                                                                    34

2.6.3      Interpersonal Skills                                                                                                                                        35

2.7             Principals‟ Role on Maintenance of Discipline in Secondary Schools                          36

2.7.1.      Forms of Indiscipline                                                                                                                                37

2.7.2.      Causes of Indiscipline Acts in Schools                                                                                            38

2.7.3.      Role of Principals on Discipline                                                                                                         39

2.8.            Principals‟ Role on School Community Relationship in Secondary Schools            40

2.8.1       Role of School toward the Development of Education                                                           41

2.8.2  Role of Community toward the Development of Education                                                       42

2.8.3      Relationship between School and Community                                                                               43

2.8.4      Ways for Improving School Community                                                                                         46

2.9            Principals‟ Role on Record Keeping                                                                                                 46

2.9.1      Classification of School Records                                                                                                           49

2.9.2      Importance of School Records                                                                                                                51

2.10          Principals‟ Role on Communication                                                                                                 52

2.10.1 Significance of Communication                                                                                                               53

2.10.2 Purpose of communication                                                                                                                          53

2.10.3     Importance of Communication                                                                                                            54

2.10.4 Channels of Communication                                                                                                                      54

 

2.10.5 Barriers to Effective Communication                                                                                                    56

2.10.6 Golden Rules for Effective Communication for Management of School Records        57

2.11          Empirical Studies                                                                                                                                        59

2.12.      Summary                                                                                                                                                            63

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.        Introduction                                                                                                                                                       64

3.2.         Research Design                                                                                                                                             64

3.3.        Population of the Study                                                                                                                               65

3.4.         Sample and Sampling Procedure                                                                                                           65

3.5.        Instrumentation                                                                                                                                                66

3.5.1   Validity of Research Instrument                                                                                                               67

3.5.2   Pilot Test                                                                                                                                                               67

3.5.3   Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                                                       68

3.6          Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                                                 68

3.7          Methods of Data Analysis                                                                                                                         69

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1         Introduction                                                                                                                                                       70

4.2          Bio Data                                                                                                                                                              70

4.3         Response to Research Questions                                                                                                            71

4.3.1: Principals‟ Role in the Management of Internal Supervision in Secondary Schools in

Funtua and Malumfashi Education zones in Katsina State, Nigeria                                    71

4.3.2: Principals‟ Role in Maintenance of School Facilities in Secondary Schools in Funtua

and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria                                                   74

4.3.3: Principals‟ Role in the Management of Interpersonal Relationship in Secondary

Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones, Katsina State, Nigeria.              77

4.3.4: Principals‟ Role in Maintenance of Discipline in Secondary Schools in Funtua and

Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria                                                             80

4.3.5: Principals‟ Role in the Management of School-Community Relationship in Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria 82

4.3.6: Principals‟ Role in the Management of Record Keeping in Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education zones in Katsina State, Nigeria       84

  • 7: Principals Role in the Management of Communication in Secondary Schools in

Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones, Katsina State, Nigeria.                                      87

  • Hypotheses Testing 90
  • Summary of Major Findings 99
  • Discussions of the Findings 100

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1         Introduction                                                                                                                                                     104

5.2       Summary of the study                                                                                                                                104

5.3          Conclusions                                                                                                                                                     107

5.4         Recommendations                                                                                                                                       108

5.5         Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                                            109

References                                                                                                                                                                        110

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Secondary education is the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. The aim of secondary education is to prepare the individuals for useful living within the society and higher education (National Policy on Education, 2004). Secondary education formulates policies for secondary education and practice in the country. It also prescribes method of testing the students and promotes researches. In some countries, only primary or basic education is compulsory, but secondary education is  included in compulsory education in most countries. In post soviet countries it is also known as general education or general middle education.

Leadership in any organization implies the action and interaction with persons and things with a view to attain a specific objective. It is the ability to plan, control, direct and co ordinate the activities of school involving both human and material resources for the       achievement of school goals (Aderounmu, 1986). It is a process through which persons or groups intentionally influence others in the attainment of group goals. Leadership is defined as the act or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly toward the achievement of objective. It is the functional behaviors of a leader in relation with subordinates, to facilitate the accomplishment of group goals. In this regard, leadership is the ability to get thing done with the assistance and cooperation of other people within the institution. Effective leadership most be provided. If the objectives of secondary education are to be achieved, for as observed by Garland and O‟Reilly (1976:9), most theorists agree that organizations behave when leaders act.

The principal being the head of the school is responsible for determine the organization of the school and ensuring budget ongoing maintenance of the school building, administering the schools, budget admitting and placing students, ensuring that report cards are send to parents.

The school principal being the chief Executives of the school has the responsibility of attending meetings, acting as a resource person at those meetings, considering recommendations and reporting back on actions taken (or delegating those responsibilities to the vice Principal, developing a safe school environment with the help of parents and the community).

The Secondary school principals are responsible for demonstrating care and commitment to academic excellence and a safe teaching and learning environment, holding every one under their authority accountable for their behaviours and actions, and communicating regularly and meaningfully with all members of their school community. In addition, the role performance of principals is organizing and management of individual schools, including the budget assigned to the school by the district.

It is the responsible of the secondary school principals to have strong interpersonal and leadership skills. They must be seen to encourage Sharing of ideas between individuals and organizations. According to Follett (1964) in Peretomode (2006) state that it is not just the production and distribution of manufactured articles but to give opportunity for individual development and self- actualization through better organization of human relations. Communication serves as a lubricator fostering the smooth operation of the management process.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

The principals role in  secondary schools in educational zones of Malumfashi and Funtua in Katsina State, cover many different areas which include planning, interpersonal relationship, record management, school community relationship, maintenance of school facilities, internal supervisions, communication, discipline that is process of achieving objectives stated ahead time, determining what is to be done in the school system; a number of decisions relating to the clarification of school objective should be considered to help in the realization of the goals.

The focus of this research is to provide a solution to the problems of internal supervisory roles of the principals that is meant to ensure the attainment of the educational objectives which has largely been ignored. The negligence of these supervisory roles such as checking class visitation, attendance of teachers, lesson plans, lesson note and many others may be one of the fundamental reasons for poor performance of students and teachers in our senior secondary schools.

Lack of proper maintenance of school facilities by the secondary schools in Malumfashi and Funtua educational zones in Katsina state has led to shortages in teaching and learning. In view of this Lessa (1999) stated that poor maintenance cultural has been the bone of Nigerian academic woes. Consequently, he affirms that shortages within a school system can be overcome by efficient maintenance practices such as preventive maintenance which consists of routine checks and regular servicing of equipment.

Indisciplinary acts in secondary schools have persisted over the years. Indiscipline is seen as a violation of school rules and regulation which is capable of obstructing the smooth and orderly functioning of the schools system and should be consequently avoided through perfect orientation of students and imposition of positive sanction in case of obvious violation of the order. It is observed that some principals appear to have failed their manageable roles or responsibilities towards their students. One of the objectives of education as spelt out in National Policy on Education (2013) is to inculcate right type of value and attitude for the survival of the individual and Nigerian society.

Also in some secondary schools in the zones there are wide gaps in school – community relation that need to be ridged in Nigerian educational system as a whole. The community sees school‟s properties as public properties, therefore, have little or no interest on them. Records are poorly kept and managed, accurate, reliable and trustworthy, records that fulfil evidential requirements are being created but not properly managed by the school principals. From observation, it became obvious that accurate, reliable and reliable and trustworthy records are not properly kept, while some and not kept at all. For instance, many public senior secondary schools do not have copies of educational law and national policy on education in their schools. It was in view of this that Eden (2010) stated that record should be seen as a tool for attainment of school objectives and as a reutilized ritual with no useful purpose in view. Also shortage of trained personnel, finds, material resources could possibly have serious can notations on management of secondary school record by principals in senior secondary schools in the Malumfashi, and Funtua education zones of Katsina State.

There are many roles that are need to be manage by the principals but they have been ignored such as interpersonal relationship, communication and several others are not being properly handled by the principals. Consequently, the effeteness and efficiency of the schools system in achieving educational goals are affected. In view of this Knapp (2009) stated that without effective leadership, most of the goals of educational improvement will be very difficult to achieve.

This research intends to find out the assessment of principals role in the management of secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina state, Nigeria. The research will targeted at providing solutions to the outline problems stated above.

1.3.        Objectives of the Study

The Study was set to:

 

  1. examine the principals‟ role in the management of internal supervision in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria;
  2. determine the principals‟ role in the maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in

Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina state, Nigeria;

  1. assess the principals‟ role in the management of interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria;
  2. ascertain the principals‟ role in the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria;
  3. assess the principals‟ role in the management of school-community relationship in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria;
  4. assess the principals‟ role in the management of record keeping in secondary schools in

Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria; and

  1. find out the principals‟ role in the management of communication in Secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State, Nigeria.

 

1.4         Research Questions

The following research questions will help to identify the principals role in the management of secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina

state.

  1. What is the principals‟ role in the management of internal supervision in secondary schools in Katsina state?
  2. what is the principals‟ role in maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Katsina state?
  3. what is the principals‟ role in managing interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Katsina state?
  4. What is the principals‟ role in maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in

Katsina state?

  1. What is the principals‟ role in managing school-community relationship in

secondary schools in Katsina state?

  1. What is the principals‟ role in school record keeping in secondary schools in Katsina state?
  2. What is the principals‟ role in managing communication activities in secondary schools in Katsina state?

1.5         Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated

Ho1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Ministry of

Education Officials (MOE) and Parents-Teachers Association (PTA) (stakeholders)

on Principals‟ role in the management of internal supervision in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina state, Nigeria.

Ho2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on principals role in the maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina state, Nigeria.

Ho3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on principals‟ role in the management of interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina State, Nigeria.

Ho4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on Principals‟ role in the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina State, Nigeria

Ho5. There is no significant difference in opinions of stakeholders on principals‟ role in the management of school-community relationship in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina state, Nigeria.

Ho6. There is no significance difference in the opinions of stakeholders on principals‟ role in the management of record keeping in secondary schools in Funtua and Malumfashi education zones in Katsina state, Nigeria.

Ho7. There is no significant difference in the opinions of stakeholders on Principals‟ role in the management of communication activities in secondary schools in Funtua and

Malumfashi  

1.6         Basic Assumptions

  1. It is assumed that there will be good understanding between the principals,

teachers and students.

  1. Better result will be realized at the end of the session if records are properly kept.
  2. It assumed that there will be maintenance of school facilities which will prevent wastage.
  3. Maintenance of discipline enables school to achieve the set goals and objective.
  4. Quality control will be enhancing through internal supervision in the schools on principal performance.
  5. Effective communication will enhances good management in secondary schools.

1.7         Significance of the Study

 It will enable the principals to live up to their responsibilities in terms of school based supervision; it will also be a great importance to the parents and the stakeholder. It will help the government in providing a suitable way of maintaining the school facilities. It will help the principals to develop good strategies for developing a good interpersonal relationship between him, the teachers and the students.

Finally at the end of the study the government will able to provide adequate fund, so that there will be availability of resources in other to enhance teaching and learning.

1.8         Scope of the Study

           This research focuses on the Principals Role in the Management of Secondary Schools in Funtua and Malumfashi Education Zones in Katsina State. The study was limited to two educational zones out of seven in Katsina State. The study was limited to senior secondary schools in other to avoid confusion because we have two sections in almost all the public secondary schools in Katsina State, that is the junior section and the senior section and they both have their principals separately. Katsina State was one out of the 36 states we have in Nigeria. Katsina state has the cultural and educational similarities with the other six states in the north –west geo political zones of Nigeria.

There are 22 public senior secondary schools in Funtua Educational zone and there are 15 public senior secondary schools in Malumfashi zone and there total number of teachers in senior secondary schools in Funtua educational zone is 267 while that of Malumfashi zone is 313. Therefore, 15 senior secondary schools was selected from both the two zones, that is 15 principals where involved in the study. 175 teachers, 12 ministry of education officials and 48 parents teachers associations members where all be involved in

the study.

EVALUATION OF PRINCIPALS’ DUTIES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FUNTUA AND MALUMFASHI EDUCATION REGIONS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

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