ASSESSMENT OF THE OBSERVED EFFECTS OF CORRUPT PRACTICES ON SPORTS GROWTH IN NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF THE OBSERVED EFFECTS OF CORRUPT PRACTICES ON SPORTS GROWTH IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study examined the perceived impact of corrupt practices on the personnel, facilities/ equipment, management of the sports associations, sports competitions and officiating in the State Sports Councils in Nigeria. The Ex-Post Facto research designed was used for this study. The population for this study cut across coaches, athletes, organizing secretaries and management staff of the State Sports Council in Nigeria.  A self-developed    questionnaire was pilot tested and found to be reliable. The questionnaire was thereafter used for this study in selected two states sports council from each of the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. The data collected was statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentage, means and standard deviation to answer the research questions and One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses generated for this study. From the result of the data analyzed most of the means scores of the research questions were higher that the acceptable level of 3.5. In addition most of the calculated indices were less than the critical value of 2.62 at df 3,399, that is f calculated < critical values.  All the null hypotheses were retained. The researcher therefore concluded that corrupt practices are perceived to have serious impact on sports development in Nigeria.  It is recommended that there should be zero-tolerance approach against corruption in sports with adequate and proportionate responses in all potential cases to show that corruption is not welcome in sports in Nigeria. Attention should be focused on how to block every opportunity that will pave way for corrupt practices,  so as to have efficient and effective sports development in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………………………                i

Declaration………………………………………………………………………………                 ii

Certification………………………………………………………………………………                     iii

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………                    iv

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………              v

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. x

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xiv

List of Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xv

Operational Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………………………………. xvi

Abbreviations……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xvii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study ………………………………………………………………..     1

1.2       Statement of Problem ……………………………………………………………………    5

1.3       Purpose of the Study ……………………………………………………………………      8

1.4       Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………       9

1.5       Hypotheses …….………………………………………………………………………       9

1.6       Basic Assumptions …………………………………………………………………….            10

1.7        Significance of the Study ………………………………………………………………          11

1.8       Delimitation …………..…………………………………………………………………         11

1.9         Limitation ………………………………………………………………………………      12 CHAPTER TWO REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction……………………………………………………………………..      13

2.2       Theoretical Framework …………………………………………………………     13

2.3       Concept of Corruption and Corrupt Practices in Sports………………………..       15

2.3.1      Dimensions of corruption and commonly used anti-corruption terms ………        19

2.3.2 Criticisms of conceptual definitions of corruption as applied to corrupt

practices in sports       …………………………………………………………        21

2.4        General Overview of the Causes of Corruption …………………………….          24

2.5       Application of Trust Violation Theory on Corruption in Sports ……………..         26

2.6       Nigerian Values System and Corrupt Practices in Sports …………………….        28

2.6.1  Corruption prone areas in sports ……………………………………………..           30

2.7       Empirical Reports of Corruption and Corrupt Practices in Modern Sports…..         34

2.7.1 Corrupt practices in management of sports personnel…………………………         35

2.7.2 Corrupt managing of Sports Associations practicein ………………………..           37

2.7.3 Corrupt practices in the provision of Sports facilities/equipment ……………          38

2.7.4 Corrupt practices in organization of sports events …………………………..           39

2.7.5 Corruption on the field of play during competition ………………………….           47

2.7.6 Corrupt practices in Sports officiating…………………………………………         50

2.8       Sports Development in Nigeria  ……………………………………………….       52

2.9       Effects of Corrupt Practices on Sports Development …………………………..      53

2.9.1 Efforts at Fighting Corrupt Practices in Sports…………………………………       57

2.9.2 Preventing Corrupt Practices in Sports………………………………………….       63

2.10     Summary of literature review ………………………………………………….       67

 

CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.      Introduction………………………………………………………………………    69

3.2       Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………..    69

3.3.       Population………………………………………………………………………… 69

3.4.       Sample and Sampling Procedure………………………………………………… 69

3.5.       Instrumentation…………………………………………………………………… 71

3.6.  Validation of the Instrument……………………………………………………… 72

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument ……………………………………………………     72

3.8.  Procedure for data collection……………………………………………………       73

3.9.  Procedure for data Analysis ……………………………………………………         74

CHAPTER FOUR RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1     Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 75

4.2       Result……………………………………………………………………………… 75

4.2.1  Answer to Research Questions…………………………………………………… 75

4.3      HypothesesTest …………………………………………………………………       86

4.4          Discussion………………………………………………………………………… 91 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0. Introduction………………………………………………………………………… 97

5.1     Summary…………………………………………………………………………… 97

5.2  Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………      98

5.3    Recommendations…………………………………………………………………     98

5.4    Suggestions for Further Studies……………………………………………………     99

References………………………………………………………………………… 100

Appendix…………………………………………………………………………    110

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.2 Number of respondents sample from each of the state sports councils selected

for the study…………………………………………………………………………………………..71

Table 4.2:1   Classification of the respondents‘ by their demographic Characteristics………………76

Table 4.2.2: Mean scores and std. deviation of responses on the perceived Impact of

Corrupt practices on the personnel of State sport councils in Nigeria………………………………..78

 

Table 4.2.3: Mean scores and std. deviation of responses on the impact ofcorrupt practices

on sports facilities and equipment……………………………………………………………………79

 

Table 4.2.4: Mean scores and std. deviation of responses on the impact of corrupt practices

on the sports Associations in Nigeria…………………………………………………………………81

 

Table 4.2.5: Mean scores and std. deviation of responses on the impact of corrupt practices

on sports officiating in Nigeria………………………………………………………………………83

 

Table 4.2.6: Mean scores and std. deviation of responses on the impact of corrupt practices

on sports competitions in Nigeria……………………………………………………………………  84

 

Table 4.3: Summary of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences among the different categories of respondents in their Perceived Impact ofCorrupt practices on

the personnel of state sport councils in Nigeria………………………………………………………..86

 

Table 4.4: Summary of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences among the different categories of respondents in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on

sports facilities /equipment in the State Sport Councils in Nigeria…………………………………87

 

Table 4.5: Summary of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences among the different categories of respondents in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the

sports associations in the States Sports council in Nigeria………………………………………..88

 

Table 4.6: Summary of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences between the categories of respondents in perceived impact of corrupt practices on Sports officiating in

States Sports Councils Nigeria………………………………………………………………………89

 

Table 4.7: Summary of Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for differences between the

Categories of respondents in perceived impact of corrupt practices on Sports competition in

States Sports Councils Nigeria………………………………………………………………………90

LIST OF APPENDICES

  1. Questionnaire………………………………………………………………………………..110
  2. letter of Request to Vet a Questionnaire…………………………………………….………117
  3. Letter of introduction to administer questionnaire by the chairman of the

supervisorycommittee…………………………………………………………………………

…………118

  1. List of the States Sports Councils According to their Geopolitical Zones in Nigeria………119
  2. List of the state‘s sports councils in Nigeria and their staff populations……………………121
  3. Classification of the respondents‘ by their demographic characteristics……………………123

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Abuse of power:  Authority is used for personal benefit
Administrative Staff: These are the organizing secretaries and the management staff
Bribery: The offering, promising, giving, accepting or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action which is illegal, unethical or a breach of trust

Conflict of interest: Disagreement confronted in terms of choosing between the duties and demands

or choice

Corruption:  Deliberate use of one‘s position to get illegitimate benefits and undue    advantages
Corrupt Practices: Illegal, immoral or unethical activity aimed at acquiring illegitimate benefits and undue    advantages
Embezzlement: The use or traffics of funds and goods entrusted to a person for personal enrichment or other activities
Match-fixing: Abuse of individuals positions to impact results for personal gain (Athletes /teams allowing themselves to be deliberately defeated)
Nepotism:  Form of favoritism based on acquaintances and familiar relationships whereby someone in an official position exploits his or her power and authority to provide a job or favor to a family member or friend, even though he or she may not be qualified or deserving
Patronage:  Form of favoritism in which a person is selected, regardless of qualifications or entitlement, for a job or government benefit because of political affiliations or connections.
Procurement: A multi-step process of established procedures to acquire goods and services by any individual, company or organization – from the initial needs assessment to the contract‘s award and service delivery.

 

 

 

 

Public sector: This terms public sector is used to refer to the government and its decentralized    units – including the police, military, public roads and transit authorities, primary schools and healthcare system
Secrecy: The pact is kept hidden and an effort is made to conceal the advantages
Sports development: Progressive change in manpower, and management of sports associations, facilities /equipment, organization of sports competitions and sports officiating
Technical staff: This include coaches and athletes
Violation of rules:

 

 

 

 

 

Disregard to the organizational rules and regulations.

    

 

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

AIBA Amateur International Boxing Association
ANOVA Analysis of variance
CAF Confederation of African Football
CPI International Corruption Perception Index
EFCC Economic and Financial Crimes Commission
EU European Union
FC Football Club
FCT Federal capital territory
FGN Federal Government of Nigeria
FIFA Federation Internationale de Football Association
ICPC Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission
IOC International Olympic Committee
ISL  International Sports and Leisure Company
NEITI  National Extractive Industries.  Transparency   Initiative
NFA Nigerian Football Association
NFF Nigerian Football Federation
NPL  Nigeria Premier League
NFL Nigerian Football League
UEFA Union de European Football Association
PED  Performance Enhancement Drugs
PEPs Politically Exposed Persons
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science
T I CR Transparency International – Czech Republic
TIUK: – Transparency International Unite Kingdom  
UN United Nation  
UK  United Kingdom  
UNGC United Nation Global Compact  
UNCAC United Nation Committee against Corruption  
UNCC United Nation Convention on Corruption  
UNODC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

United Nation Convention against Drug Crimes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

      1.1       Background to the study

There has been a debate as to why sports has become such a lucrative global industry in sports management literature, it is the ―uncertainty of sports that gives its unpredictable joy and their characteristics intensity‖ it is this uncertainty and unpredictability that make sports such an exciting opportunity for businesses around the world to take advantage (Manson, 1999).  But what happens if this   uncertainty and unpredictability is taken away? In recent years there have been an increase in the  number  of reports detailing ‗corrupt behavior by individuals at all levels of  sports and those associated with it both on and off the field of play, in the pursuit of financial success usually reserved for those who are winning global championships (Chadwick & Gorse 2013).

Corruption is recognized to be one of the world‘s greatest challenge, and a major hindrance to sustainable development, with a disproportionate impact on poor communities and is corrosive on every fabric of society.Corruption involves a deliberate use of one‘s position to get illegitimate benefits and undue advantage which could be financial or in other forms (Amuwo 2005, Obayelu, 2007, Heeks, 1998, Khan, 1999).  It is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon with multiple causes and effects, as it takes on various forms and functions in different context (United Nation Committee against Corruption (UNCAC 2013).

Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance, and this has led to a resurgence of interest in analyzing the phenomenon and the diverse forms that it assumes in developing countries, with an expectation that democratization and economic liberalization offer potential routes to dealing with the problem. An Anticorruption strategy ranges from institutional reforms through concerted efforts at the international level. The efficacy of these approaches has not been subjected to careful empirical research. The study of corruption has been ―multi-disciplinary‖ and dispersed, ranging from universal theoretical modeling to detailed descriptions of single corruption scandal. It has been studied as a problem of political, economic, cultural or moral underdevelopment. The complex nature of corruption has made most observers agree that it pervades many societies and that there are no quick-fix solutions to it (UNCAC, 2013).

Corruption in sports involves any illegal, immoral or unethical activity that attempts to deliberately distort the result of a Sports contest for the personal material gain of one or more parties involved in that activity( Chadwick& Gorse, 2010). Organization of large-scale events (such as Sports) involves complex logistics, tight timeframes and substantial public funds, these therefore present opportunities and risk of corruption, since whenever there is money, competition or power involved, corruption is a constant threat, as the organizational structure may not support practices that would be considered accountable and transparent (Maening,2005). In many instances, excessive responsibility, power and money have been given to individuals, whose main credentials may be their status as former athletes or club leader (Audu, 2009).

Although corruption in sports is not a new phenomenon; at the Olympic Games in 388BC Eupolos of Thessalia bribed three of the competitors in a fighting tournament allowing him to win the gold medal (Maening, 2005). However, in recent times Sports have suffered from a dramatic growth in reports of corruption, from bribery to plain cheating (Chadwick & Gorse, 2013). Notable cases in the modern era of sports include the fixing of 1991 World Series by members of Chicago

White Sox who took bribe from gamblers; Ben Jonson‘s infamous failed drugs test in 1980s(Maening, 2005). The most recent of all corruption scandal is the one that erupted among the FIFA executive in which the president and other members were suspended. While in Nigeria the officials of Nigeria Football Federation were indicted for corruption during the world cup in Brazil.Corruption in sports centers around match fixing or gambling, biased refereeing; and to a similar but different degree the use of performance enhancing drugs. This definition seeks to take into account the role of athletes and officials who manipulate sports contest (Atuono, 2011). According to Transparency International – Czech Republic (T I CR) (2008) the first step to preventing something is to understand what it is and how it happens. There are so many different aspects to sports corruption that it is difficult to provide a short and comprehensive definition.

Chappelet, (2012) noted that although the Federal Council‘s report does not explicitly mention the two categories, it divides sports corruption into two main types: corruption on the field of play and corruption off the field of play. These two categories of corruption in sports have been referred by   Chadwick and Gorse, (2013) as competition and management corruption, these include the rigging of sports s event, bidding procedures or elections to important positions in federations, the payment of kickbacks for the construction of sports facilities or the signing of sponsorship and broadcasting contracts, and the manipulation of competitions or match fixing, whether or not related to betting.

Across the sports sector, most deals and decisions take place behind closed doors, allowing corruption to go unchecked and unpunished, thus the actual extent of corruption in sports is greater than reported. This assumption according to him, would seem reasonable particularly because those continents or sub-continents that are regarded in the discussion as the highly corrupt, such as, Africa, South America and Asia, hardly appear in reports on corruption in Sports this has serious consequences on the continent sports development (Chadwick, 2013).

Sports development  means  progressive change in the quality and quantity of manpower that can effectively conduct the management of affairs in Sports organizations, sports federations and associations, construction, expansion and maintenance of standard Sports facilities and provision of equipment for all games,  well organized Sports competitions, where rules, regulations and standards  are maintained to enhance high performance   by  both athletes and officiating officials,  and an encouraging public private partnership in the promotion, sponsor and ownership of sports s clubs.  Sports stand as important societal institution and consider as important in relaying of ideals, norm and values on those who participate or spectate, the concept of fair play is always mention here and referred to athlete competing in an honest manner, not seeking to break rules and win by unfair practice.  A lack of integrity in the sports industry may endanger sport‘s most essential elements and core values: fair play, ethics, mutual respect and trust in the rules of the game (Atuona, 2012).

Jovanka (2013) noted that corruption, affect sports development in terms of infrastructure, sports s organization, administrative efficiency and national image, it also affects equitable allocation of resources among the Sports federations and associations, increasing inequalities, and undermining their effectiveness, efficiency and achievement. This, in turn, may undermine longterm sustainable Sports development.  Similarly, Maleeva (2013) said that the beautiful games that attract fans over the world have in the recent past seen players and top officials involved in antisocial activities that have made Sports more like a film than an actual game. Sports fans around the world have been left disappointed by the recent doping, match fixing and corruption that have been rampant in many games.

Report of the key sectors assessment of  corruption in UK conducted,  by  Transparency

International UK (TIUK), (2011) revealed that ―Of all the areas studied ,―none was more challenging (and perhaps none more controversial) than sports. Sports corruptions have a profound impact in terms of culture and public trust. Sports stars are role models in a manner unlike other public figures such as politicians. For a leading sports figure to be accused of corruption creates a ripple effect that can last for decades. To this day, for example, Ben Johnson still stands as a symbol for the illicit use of performance-enhancing drugs in athletics. It is little surprise, therefore, that Sports is seen by the UK public as the second most corrupt sector in the country‖ (TIUK,  2011).

Sports corruption is a worldwide threat to the integrity of Sports, creating significant challenges for sports management scholars and practitioners. The sports industry have experienced multiple forms of corruption (e.g., fraud, bribery) that has ranged in extent (e.g., individual to systematic), occurred in varying contexts, (Sports, governance, online betting), and resulted in a multitude of consequences (financial costs, diminished reputations). The complexity and multidimensional nature of corruption has been discussed in various literatures. Whilst this body of work have provided a sound starting point in the scholarly premise, corruption in the Sports industry have been largely under-explored, global sports industry provides a rich context to substantially contribute to the scholarly discussion about corruption in terms of its conceptualization, causes, consequences, and reforms (Lisa, Terry, James and Stephen, 2015). The need to build on the existing corruption research and increase our understanding of the complexity and multidimensional nature of corruption, within the context of sports development in Nigeria Therefore, underscores the importance of this research field Impact of Corrupt Practices on Sports Development.

      1.2       Statement of Problem

In her early good days Nigeria was regarded as the giant of Africa, because the country was leading the African nations in terms of development in many areas of human endeavor. With vast land, large population and abundant natural resources, the future of the country seemed promising. Nigeria was at the forefront of sports development, and the country had achieved greater successes in many sports and games such as football, basketball, and Athletics to mention but a few. Governments at all levels have made several efforts, toward ensuring effective and efficient sports development by expending substantial part of their annual budget. In order to actualized   the mission of the National Sports Policy of Nigeria, 2009.  ―Which isto, develop the Sports sector to a world class level where it would provide continuous improvement of quality of life for the entire citizenry, to the extent that Nigeria would be recognized as one of the leading sporting countries in the world (Federal Government of  Nigeria, 2009).

Despite these successes of yesteryears and those of recent times, Nigeria is at the verge of being extinct in the sports world as some of the sports that saw the country emerged as a force to be reckoned with in the past are now threatened and on the verge of extinction ( Idris, 2014). Nigeria, a giant of Africa, was at the bottom of medal table in the just concluded Olympic Games in Brazil having only worn one bronze medal in football.  Whereas less fancied Sports nations such as Uganda, Gabon, Botswana, Grenada, India, Dominican Republic, South Africa and Afghanistan were on the medal table at the end of the biggest sports event in the world. Nigeria has continued to slide both in global and local rating in stature to such a point that everybody is ostensibly confused about the way round the problem. Why have things suddenly gone awry, when the whole world was looking up to Nigeria for quality performance in Sports?  It looks as if nobody has any answer to the sad development. Even the government has continued to experiment with different ideas to arrest the unfortunate development ( Idris 2014).

In an attempt to expedite sports development the Federal Government of Nigeria (2000) issued out guideline for the implementation of sports development policy which provides detailed alternative ways of solving the envisage and existing problems that imped Sports development in the country. The policy clearly defined the roles of each level of government and private corporations, as well as all necessary favorable conditions for sports development in terms of manpower training and development, facilities/ equipment and funding of sports competitions. While these were assumed to be basic requirements; corruption was never seen as a threat to sports development. The policy emphasized that, sports administrators; coaches, and referees are to observe all applicable laws and regulations governing sports (Federal Government of Nigeria, 1998). Unfortunately these sections of the policy have not received the light of the day. According to Idris (2014) ‗the laws have seriously been broken as a result of which corruption is now a major impediment to sports development in Nigeria;

 

 

Today there is growing concerned and attempts by individuals who are asking why despite the amount of money claimed to have been expended on sports by government at all levels in Nigeria, sports continues to suffer from too many structural and managerial problems, remaining to a large extent in the hands of quacks and nonprofessionals, who are more interested in their personal gains than sports development. The researcher observed with interest thatdespite  the recent global concerns on the impact of corrupt practices such as embezzlement ,bribery, nepotism, match fixing, doping,  and host of other and the emergence of several reforms directed at addressing the problems of corrupt practices in international Sports, study on corruption in sports have been under explored, and the extent of known cases in Nigeria merely represent the tip of the iceberg (Idris, 2014).The researcher observed  that in the past  several research studies have been conducted on the constraint to sports development in Nigeria, while very little have been mention about corruption in sports, it seemed that the previous research findings and the recommendations there after did not address the problems to any significant level.

Several questions therefore remain unanswered. Why are sports facilities in most of the States in poor conditions and mostly sub- standard?  Why are the numbers of professional sports personnel declining in the states sports councils in Nigeria, creating acute shortage of athletes?  Why are sports associations‘ not organizing competitions for their respective Sports and games for long and where they do the standard is very low? the integrity of referees and sports official, have always been put to question due to poor officiating, and there is a looming crisis among Sports associations, all these have serious effect on the performance of our athletes  at the national and international competitions. The researcher therefore is interested in the assessment of  the perceived  impact of corrupt practices on sports development in Nigeria.

It is in the opinion of the researcher that, government through the anti-corruption agencies, is more pre-occupied with the corruption practices that has pervert the non-Sports sectors in Nigerian, and the existing anti-corruption measures (Economic and Financial  Crime  Commission(EFCC), Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission(ICPC) and Code of conduct be rue ), are inefficient to address the issue of corrupt practices in sports, at both national and State levels, this has resulted in a greater susceptibility to corruption, among organizations and the stakeholders in the States sports councils. The memories of media reports on the recent corruption scandal involving the official of the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF) after the last world cup in Brazil 2014 is very fresh; this episode suggests that various forms of corrupt practices in sports are perpetuated in the State Sports councils. According Chiagozie (2012) corruption in Sports in Nigeria is not just in the financial aspect, it is even in the selection of players. This research was conducted to determine how Nigeria perceived the impact of corrupt practices on sports development, with the view to recommend the best possible way of at least reducing its impact to the barest minimum.

      1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to;

  1. determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on the performance of staff of State sports council in Nigeria.
  2. determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on sports facilities/equipment in State sports council in Nigeria.
  3. determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on functions of the sports Associations,  in State sports council in Nigeria
  4. determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on sports officiating in the State sports council in Nigeria.
  5. determine whether corruption practices are perceived to have any impact on the organization of sports competitions in State sports council in Nigeria.

      1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions were generated to guide this study;

  1. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the personnel staff of the states‘ sports councils in Nigeria?
  2. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports facilities/equipment of the states‘ sports councils in Nigeria?
  3. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports associations in the states sports councils in Nigeria?
  4. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports competitions in the states sports councils in Nigeria?
  5. Does the technical and administrative staff differ in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports officiating in the states sports councils in Nigeria?

1.5    Hypotheses

Major Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between the Technical and Administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on Sports Development in the States Sports council in

Nigeria.

Sub- Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between the technical and administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on personnel of the  States Sports Councilsin Nigeria
  2. There is no significant difference between the technical and administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports facilities/equipment in the States Sports Councils in Nigeria
  3. There is no significant difference between the technical and administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on the sports associations in the States Sports Councils in Nigeria
  4. There is no significant difference between the technical and administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports competitions in the States Sports Councils  in Nigeria
  5. There is no significant difference between the technical and administrative staff in their perceived impact of corrupt practices on sports officiating in the States Sports Councils in

Nigeria.

      1.6       Basic Assumptions

The following basic assumptions are made in order to achieve the purpose of this study.

  1. Corrupt practices has negative  impact on the personnel of States Sports Councils Nigeria
  2. Corrupt practices has negative  impact on sports facilities/equipment in States Sports

Councils in Nigeria,

  1. Corrupt practices has negative  impact on the  sport associations, in States Sports

Councils in Nigeria

  1. Corrupt practices has negative  impact on  organization of sports competitions in States

Sports Councils in Nigeria

  1. Corrupt practices has negative  impact on  sports officiating, in States Sports Councils in

Nigeria

1.7      Significance of the Study

This study is significant on the following basis.

  1. The result of this study may help to reveal how corrupt practices are perceived to have affected sports development in the States Sports Councils in Nigeria.
  2. This study may opening another challenging chapters for further research studies, in different environment such as institutional, private sectors sports organizations and sponsorship, advertisement and broadcasting right.
  3. The result of this study may help to suggest the best possible ways of tackling the menace of corrupt practices in the sports so as to find a long lasting solution to constraint to sport development in Nigeria.
  4. The study may serve as a guide to the anticorruption agencies, who may want to use the recommendations in the fight against corruption in Nigeria.
  5. The study may contribute to existing body of knowledge. Since the methods and procedures used may be adopted for further research study in other areas of human endeavor.

      1.8        Delimitation

This study was delimited to:

  1. The perception of Technical staff (Coaches and athletes) and  Administrative staff (organizing secretaries and management staff) in the  States Sports Councils in Nigeria
  2. In view of the fact that there are so many forms of corrupt practices the study would be delimited to only Nepotism, Bribery and  Embezzlement of fund as the major corrupt practices that affects the following variables
    1. Personnel of the staff of the state sports councils
    2. Sports facilities/equipment,
    3. Sports Associations,
    4. Organization, of Sports competitions
    5. Sports officiating,

      1.9       Limitations of the study

In the course of this research work the researcher faced the following constraints;

  1. Reliance on most literature that were based on the opinions of the writers rather, rather than those whose result was empirically tested due to inadequate research work in this area.
  2. There was a dearth of information written by Nigerian authors and sports management scholars on corrupt practices and sport. Therefore the researcher also relied more on foreign related literature, and to some extent the attitude of the respondents in handling the questionnaire.
  3. Although confidentiality was assured and questionnaire was structured, since the researcher have no control over the feeling of the respondents in filling of the questionnaires. It is difficult to determine whether the respondent have accurately conveyed their feelings while completing the questionnaire

ASSESSMENT OF THE OBSERVED EFFECTS OF CORRUPT PRACTICES ON SPORTS GROWTH IN NIGERIA

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