ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ OUTLOOKS ON OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE OF SCHOOOL FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ OUTLOOKS ON OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE OF SCHOOOL FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract

 

The study is entitled „Assessment of Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitudes on Utilization and Maintenance of School Facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by eight objectives, which include the examination of teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria; among others. In the light of the foregoing corresponding research questions were stated which include: Is there difference between the teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of School teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria?. Some of the null hypotheses include there is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and students on teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on utilization of school teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Survey research design was used for the study. The population of study was 323431 consisted of principals, teachers and students. Purposive stratified sampling technique was used to pick four educational zones to represent the three senatorial zones in the state. The sample size of 382 was used based on research advisors table for sample selection.

Structured questionnaire, titled “Teachers and Students Attitudes on Utilization and

Maintenance of School Facilities Questionnaire” (TSAUMSFQ) was used as a means for data collection. The instrument was validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and face validity. The instrument was pilot tested and certified as statistically fit for the main work. Simple percentage and frequency counts were used to analyze the bio-data variables of the respondents, mean and standard deviation to answer the questions raised by the study and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to validate the study‟s null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance.  Hypotheses1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 were rejected while 4 and 5 were retained. The study among other things discovered that: Teachers and students agreed that teaching facilities are adequately utilized in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Teachers and students affirmed that learning facilities are adequately utilized in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.Some recommendations were put forth which include, there should be sustained effort on utilization of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria by the school management since they are adequately utilized. This will assist in promoting effective teaching in schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINATIONS OF TERMS

ASSESSMENT: Is the act of judging or deciding the amount,value,quality, or importance of something, or the judgment or decision that is made In education, the term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods or tools that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, skill acquisition, or educational needs of students.

Attitudes: A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person, or situation. Attitude influences an individual’s choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and rewards (together called stimuli).

School Facilities:   Defined facilities as “Those things of education” which enable a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instruction effectiveness that exceeds by far what is possible when they are not provided.

Concept of Maintenance: according to American Association of School Admin,  Origa) is the process and activities that involves keeping ground (space), buildings and the equipments at their original condition of competencies of efficiency, either through repairs or by replacement. Thus, maintenance in the school is the making sure that all that is within the school system such as facilities, structures and equipments are giving required attention through proper utilization and maintenance services for maximum benefits derivation.

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

JSS: Junior Secondary School
SSS: Senior Secondary School
IRK: Islamic Religion Studies
CRK: Christian Religion Studies

TSAUMSFQ:  Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitudes on Utilization and Maintenance of School Facilities Questionnaire

SA: Strongly Agree
A: Agree
U: Undecided
D: Disagree
SD: Strongly Disagree
ANOVA: Analysis of Variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:   Population Distributions of Principals, Teachers and Students in Kaduna State,

                      Nigeria 57
Table 2: Sample of the study 58
Table 3:  Distribution of respondents by designation 63
Table 4:  Distribution of respondents by gender 63
Table 5:  Distribution of respondents by age

Table 6: Opinions of Respondents on Utilization of Teaching Facilities in

64
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 7: Opinions of Respondents on Utilization of Learning Facilities in

65
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 8: Opinions of Respondents on Utilization of Convenience Facilities in

67
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table  9:  Opinion of Respondents on Utilization of Sport/Recreation Facilities in

69
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 10:Opinion of Respondents on Maintenance of Teaching Facilities in

71
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 11:Opinion of Respondents on Maintenance of Learning Facilities in

73
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 12:Opinion of Respondents on Maintenance of Convenience Facilities in

75
Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 13:Opinion of Respondents on Maintenance of Sport/Recreation Facilities

77
in Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 14:Analysis of Variance on the Difference between the Opinions of Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

79
on Utilization of  School Teaching Facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 15:Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

80
on Utilization of School Learning Facilities in Secondary Schools in 81

Kaduna State, Nigeria

 

 

Table 16:Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Utilization of School Convenience Facilities in Secondary Schools in

82

Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 17: Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Utilization of School Sport/Recreation Facilities in Secondary

Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                             82

Table 18: Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Maintenance of  School Teaching Facilities in Secondary Schools in

Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                                              83

Table 19: Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Maintenance of School Learning Facilities in Secondary Schools in

Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                                           84

Table 20: Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Maintenance of School Convenience Facilities in Secondary

Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                          85

Table 21: Analysis of variance on the difference between the opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers‟ and Students‟ Attitude

on Maintenance of School sport/recreation facilities in secondary

schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                           86

Table 22  Schefféa,bPost Hoc Tests on Teachers and Students Attitudes on

Maintenance of  School Teaching Facilities in Secondary Schools in

86

Kaduna state, Nigeria

 

 

 

 

Table 23: Analysis of Variance on the Difference between the Opinions of

Principals, Teachers and Students on Teachers’ And Students’

Attitude On Maintenance Of School Learning Facilities In Secondary

Schools In Kaduna State, Nigeria                                                                           87

Table 24:Schefféa,bPost Hoc Tests on Teachers and Students Attitudes on

Maintenance of  Learning Facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna

88 State, Nigeria

Table 25: Analysis Of Variance on Teachers and Students on Teachers’ and Students’ Attitude On Maintenance Of School Convenience Facilities

In Secondary Schools In Kaduna State, Nigeria

89

 

Table 26: Schefféa,b Post Hoc Tests on Teachers and Students Attitudes on Maintenance of School Convenience Facilities in Secondary Schools in

Kaduna State, Nigeria

89

 

Table 27: Analysis Of Variance On The Difference Between The Opinions Of Principals, Teachers And Students On Teachers’ And Students’

Attitude On Maintenance Of School Sport/Recreation Facilities In

90

Secondary Schools In Kaduna State, Nigeria

Table 28:      Summary of Hypotheses Testing          92 TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                           i

DECLARATION                                                                                                                      ii 

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                   iii  

DEDICATION                                                                                                                         iv 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                     vi

 ABSTRACT                                                                                                                          viii  

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                                         ix

 

LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                                                         x

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                               viii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           6

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                              8

1.4         Research Questions                                                                                                     9

1.5        Research Hypotheses                                                                                                  10

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                            11

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                                      13

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                                 14

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                               16

2.2.1  Concept of Assessment                                                                                               17

2.2.2  Concept of Attitudes                                                                                                 17

2.2.2.1. Teachers Attitudes                                                                                                   18

2.2.3.  School Facilities                                                                                                       18

2.2.3.1. Utilization of School Facilities                                                                                19

2.2.3.2. Concept of Maintenance                                                                                          20

2.2.4.  Teaching Facilities                                                                                                    21

2.2.5.  Learning Facilities                                                                                                     21

2.2.6.  Convinience Facilities                                                                                               22

2.2.7.  Sport/Recreational Facilities                                                                                     23

2.3.        Theoretical Framework                                                                                             24

2.4.      School Facilities                                                                                                       26

2.4.1.  Types of School Facilities                                                                                        27

2.5.        Teachers Attitudes on School Facilities                                                                    27

2.5.1.  Students Attitudes on School Facilities                                                                     28

2.6.        Utilization                                                                                                                  29

2.6.1.  Utilization of Laboratory/Workshop Infrastructures                                                 30

2.6.2.  Utilization of Classroom Facilities                                                                            33

2.6.3.  Utilization of Library Facilities                                                                                 38

2.6.4.  Utilization of Sport/Recreational Facilities                                                                39

2.7.       Maintenance                                                                                                               39

2.7.1.  Types of Maintenance                                                                                                41

2.7.2.  Maintenance of Laboratory/Workshop Facilities                                                      42

2.7.3.  Maintenance of Classroom Facilities                                                                         45

2.7.4.  Maintenance of Convenience Facilities                                                                      50

2.7.5.  Maintenance of Library Facilities                                                                               50

2.8.       Facility Management                                                                                                  52

2.9.      Empirical Studies                                                                                                        52

2.10.  Summary                                                                                                                     55

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1        Introduction                                                                                                                56

3.2        Research Design                                                                                                         56

3.3        Population of the Study                                                                                              56

3.4        Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                               57

3.5        Instrumentation                                                                                                           58

3.5.1  Validity of Instrument                                                                                                59

3.5.2  Pilot Test                                                                                                                     60

3.5.3  Reliability of Instrument                                                                                             60

3.6.       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                    60

3.7.      Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                       61

 CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES

4.1     Introduction                                                                                                                62

4.2     Results And Analysis of Personal Data of Respondents                                            63

4.3    Presentation And Analysis of Data                                                                            64

4.4         Hypotheses Testing                                                                                                                80

4.5     Summary of Major Findings                                                                                      93

4.6 Discussion of Major Findings                                                                                     93  CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1        Introduction                                                                                                                 97

5.2       Summary                                                                                                                     97

5.3       Conclusions                                                                                                                98

5.4       Contributions to Knowledge                                                                                       98

5.5        Recommendations                                                                                                      99

5.6        Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                               100

 References                                                                                                               105

            Appendix                                                                                                                    A:

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

The quality of education delivered by teachers and the academic achievement of students of any school is dependent on several factors of which school teaching and learning facilities are paramount. School teaching and learning facilities are resources (human, material and place) that enhance teaching and learning, thereby making the process meaningful and purposeful. They are said to be any resource (human, material and place) that compliment and supplement effective transaction and communication between the teacher and the students.

School facilities can be referred to as school plant. school facilities can be defined as the entire school plant which school administrators, teachers and students harness, allocate and utilize for the smooth and efficient management of any educational institution, for the main objective of bringing about effective and purposeful teaching and learning experience.

Teaching and learning facilities are termed to be the most enormous part that aids the curriculum implementation in any aspect of school organization, the utilization and maintenance of school teaching and learning facilities can never be over emphasized, it must be noted that teaching facilities helps the teacher intensively in the process of imparting well and adequate knowledge to the learners while the learning facilities has no doubt in giving clear understanding of the instructions to the learners. Teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools, either private or public is the pivot on which the educational system rests. They play an important role in the education industry, hence the need for their adequate and careful maintenance by both teachers and learners for effective service delivery.

According to Adeboyeje (2000) and Emetarom (2004), school facilities are the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which will increase the production of results. School facilities serve as pillars of support for effective teaching and learning. Oyesola (2000) sees school facilities to include permanent and semi-permanent structures such as machinery, laboratory equipment, the blackboard, teacher‟s tools and other equipment as well as consumables.

Good quality and standard of school depend largely on the provision, adequacy, utilization and management of educational facilities. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities. From all indication, school facilities are physical resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning. They include blocks of classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio-visual aids, tables, desks, chairs, playground, storage space and toilets.

The provision of Educational Facilities is the combined responsibility of the public and the private sectors. Execution of educational programmes demands that facilities are provided if success is to be achieved. Government, school proprietors, parents and other stakeholders are expected to provide the facilities for their schools. The Government stated that all stakeholders would be involved in every aspect of school management. This undoubtedly includes the provision of school plants. However, this aspect is one of the most neglected areas in the school system (Olagboye, 2004).

In Nigeria, public school enrolment has continued to increase without a corresponding increase in facilities for effective teaching and learning. As a result of underfunding of education in

Nigeria, the government has been encouraging proper maintenance of available school facilities.

School facility maintenance entails ensuring that the facilities are kept near their original state as possible. This involves keeping the school sports and football field clean, periodic renovation of the buildings, servicing the school bus and generator sets, repairs etc. for the purpose of restoring the facilities to optimum working condition.

Olagboje (1998) sees school plant maintenance as any work carried out on any component of the plant with a view to keeping it at good working condition. According to Hinum (1999) the quality and durability of a building largely depend on the type and level of servicing, repairs and the rate at which the needs and requirement change. School facilities management involves keeping records of the facilities, supervising the facilities, planning for the facilities, motivating students and teachers to participate in facilities maintenance and evaluating the available facilities. Plethora research reports have revealed that a significant relationship existed between school environment and students‟ attitude to schooling (Akinlua and Adeogun, 2007; Oyira, 2007; Ikoya and Onoyase, 2008) studies have also shown that the condition of school teaching and learning facilities have a strong effect on academic performance of pupils. Chan (1979) found that students who were taught in modernized buildings scored consistently higher across a range of standardized tests. Adeboyeje (2000) reported that schools with well-coordinated plant planning and maintenance practices recorded better students‟ performance.

However, on the aspect of utilization of school plants in secondary schools, Adeboyeje (2000) stated that utilization is the-degree or extent to which an item has been rut into effective use. According to him, various degrees of utilization include non-utilization, under-utilization, maximum utilization, optimum utilization and over-utilization. Non-utilization occurs when a facility is not put into use all. When a facility is not used in its full capacity, under utilization occurs. There is over-utilization when a facility is used more than its capacity. These degrees of utilization constitute a waste of resources and are counter-productive.

Nwadiani (2001) observed that the facilities are not only over utilized, they are also poorly maintained. Similarly, in a study conducted by Aigboje (2007) on Universal Basic Education in Nigeria, he found out that some school facilities were inadequate while others were not available at all .These situations are posing challenges to administrators of schools who are supposed to manage available facilities efficiently and effectively.

Burkett and bowers (1987) reported that students in newer schools with adequate school facilities outperformed students in older schools with inadequate school facilities. Conducive school physical environment could enhance students‟ school attendance, involvement in academic activities and academic performance positively. In addition, Adesina (1999) stressed that the quality and quantity of educational facilities available within an educational system positively correlates with the quality and standard of the educational system. Durosaro (1998) examined school plant planning in relation to administrative effectiveness of secondary schools in Oyo state of Nigeria. He found that schools that planned and maintained their facilities had higher students‟ retention and is more effective than the others. Many scholars, researchers, administrators and educational planners have confirmed that school facilities in Nigerian schools are inadequate and few available ones are being over utilized due to the astronomical increase in school enrolment. Ikoya and Onoyase (2008) reported that only 26% of secondary schools across the country have school infrastructures in adequate quality and quantity.

Ajayi (1999) reported that most of the Nigerian primary schools are dilapidated due to inadequate funding while most tertiary institutions are living in their past glories. Such situation hinders effective teaching and learning, making the process rigorous and uninteresting to students and teachers. Similarly, Owuamanam (2005) noted that the inadequacy of infrastructural facilities and lack of maintenance for available facilities were major problems facing Nigerian educational system. The school facilities are grossly inadequate to match the student‟s population and the available facilities were poorly maintained. The availability and maintenance of school facilities will enhance teaching and learning and improve academic performance of students.

Researchers like Wilcockson (1994), Lawal (1996), Ajayi (1999) and Owoeye (2000) have long identified the importance of school facilities in teaching and learning while the inadequacy, deterioration and lack of maintenance of these facilities will spell doom for the teachers and students in the teaching and learning activities. Negligence in the maintenance of school facilities has many negative consequences. When school facilities are not well managed and maintained, they constitute health hazards to pupils and teachers who use the facilities.

For instance Ogonor (2001) reported the killing of pupils and teachers of a primary school in Nigeria when the school walls and roofs collapsed. Even large amount of money invested on school facilities are wasted when school buildings and equipment are left to deteriorate without maintenance. It has been observed that school facilities are not been maintained by school administrators and hence their depreciation. the administrators appears to spend much time on instructional planning, curriculum development, personnel development and community relations claiming that the management and maintenance of school facilities is the sole preserves of the government. This study examines the teachers and learners attitudes on the utilization and maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. With focus on the area of teaching, learning, convenience and sport/recreational facilities based on their utilization and the maintenance provided, factors encouraging school facilities depreciation and the roles of school administrators in the management and maintenance of school facilities.

1.2        Statement of the Problem

Education facilities are like raw materials to an industry and thus they are very essential to the whole processes involved in the educational enterprise. Educational development has come a long way, enrolment has risen tremendously while more money is continuously being spent on the educational enterprise with the hope of improvement in terms of classrooms, computer facilities, laboratories, libraries, furniture, water and electricity supply, etc, but the problem of implementation has continued to be crucial.

Secondary schools in Nigeria require adequate infrastructural facilities such as laboratories, classrooms, libraries, and recreational facilities for the teaching and learning to take place effectively. The quality of education that our students receive bears direct relevance to the availability or lack of infrastructural facilities and overall environment in which learning takes place. In other words, educational programmes and processes are greatly influenced by the school environment. The availability and general appearance of classrooms, libraries, laboratories and instructional materials such as textbooks, blackboards and furniture of school constitutes the bases upon which many patrons make their initial judgment about the quality of the school and the educational programmes, the absence of these facilities often leave a lot of doubt in the minds of students, parents and the general society as to what type of learning and teaching that could take place in such a situation. Nigeria‟s secondary schools face the combined challenges of deteriorating conditions, out-of-date design and capacity utilization pressures. These combined deficiencies impair the quality of teaching and learning and also create health and safety problems for staff and students. The effects of deteriorating condition and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students‟ academic performance. The poor academic success of students in examinations had been largely attributed to inadequate provision and management of school plant which include teaching facilities, learning, recreational and sport and welfare facilities. This consequently leads to ineffective implementation of the school curriculum. Hence, there is a big gap in quality, resulting from large number of students in crowded classrooms, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusioned teachers.

Appearance and general condition of school facilities are the striking basis upon which many parents and friends of any educational institution make the initial judgment about the quality of what goes on in the secondary schools. Africa in general and Nigerian in particular are characterized by low maintenance culture, especially in respect of government owned properties. Halimatu (2003) observed that school infrastructure is fast deteriorating, while maintenance culture is declining. Many facilities are mismanaged or over utilized which result to damage or collapse of such facilities. Shortages of facilities bring about stretching the inadequate facilities available and consequently result to complete breakdown. Inadequate maintenance of facilities leads to waste and thereby making plans ineffective. Musa (2003) opined that lack of facilities management result in depression in the academic programme and waste of resources.

Absence facilities management also result in low students‟ performance as learning becomes difficult. Inadequate utilization and maintenance of infrastructural facilities in secondary schools has apparently given rise to the allegation of falling standard of education in Kaduna state as well as the country. a researcher has observed during visit to some schools for supervision that most schools compound were bushy, have dilapidated building with leaking roofs, broken chairs and desks, rough floors and windows without louvers. In some of the schools, the buildings were dirty, no lighting while some have blown roofs. The road leading to sport field in some schools were weedy. This shows adequate utilizations, management and maintenance are not provided on the available school facilities. School facilities are supposed to be kept in good condition in near their original state as much as possible by school administrators. But from observation and complaints, it shows that school administrators are neglecting on the role of school facilities utilization and maintenance.

 

1.3        Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to assess teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on Utilization and Maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study is guided by the following specific objectives which are to:

  1. Examine teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  2. find out teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  3. investigate teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of convenience facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  4. determine teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of sport/recreational facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  5. ascertain teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  6. determine teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of learning facilities in

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

  1. examine teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of Convenience facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  2. investigate teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of sport/recreational facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

1.4        Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of

School teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

  1. To What extent is the difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of school learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State Nigeria?
  2. To What extent is the difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of schools Convenience facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State

Nigeria?

  1. What is the difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the utilization of school sport/Recreational facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State Nigeria?
  2. Is there difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of school teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State Nigeria?
  3. Is there difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of school learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State Nigeria?
  4. What is the difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of school Convenience facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Nigeria?
  5. Is there difference between teachers‟ and students‟ attitudes on the maintenance of school sport/recreational facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

1.5    Research Hypotheses

This study formulated validates the following null hypotheses:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and students on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on utilization of school teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on utilization of School learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on utilization of School convenience facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on utilization of sport/recreation facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  5. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on maintenance of school teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  6. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on maintenance of School learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  7. There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on maintenance of school convenience facilities in

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinion of principals, teachers‟ and students‟ on teachers‟ and students‟ attitude on maintenance of school sport/recreational facilities in

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

1.6    Significance of the Study

The study titled Assessment of Teachers’ and  Students’ Attitudes on the Utilization of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria will be of great importance and relevance to various stakeholders in the business of teaching and learning and the education industry at large.  The purpose behind the above is partly attributed to the lack of proper handling of teaching and learning facilities in school by both the teachers and the learners. mostly, lack of proper maintenance of the school teaching and learning facilities leads to nit shortage which that causes a serious setback in proper impartation of knowledge by the teachers and also causes setback on the learners to assimilate easily. Therefore if education as an instrument put forward by Nigeria to assist in its quest for national growth and development, then effective utilization and maintenance of school facilities is inevitable in our educational institutions. This will help immensely in producing well-informed and articulated workforce/citizens who can fully contribute their quota towards national development. This research work will be of great importance to the educational policy makers in locating the problems behind poor utilization and maintenance of school facilities by the teachers and students in secondary schools, especially in providing Conducive environment and atmosphere for its application. Further, the study will be of great significance to the education policy administrators in the Nigerian secondary schools, Colleges of Education Universities and other educational sector. This is because their decisions affects all and sundry in the business of teaching and learning and education industry at large.

The study’s literature revealed some of the hitches militating against adequate utilization and maintenance of school facilities most especially teaching, learning, convenience and sport/recreational. This will assists the policy makers to identify the problems with a view to finding sustainable solution to them. The findings of this research will be useful to the students, as it makes them have a better understanding in making appropriate use and maintaining of school facilities. The findings of the study will also be of benefit to the teachers, in the sense that, teachers as the curriculum implementers help them in understanding the negative effect of under-utilizing and not maintaining of school facilities

The findings can provide information with which educational administrators can organize seminars, conferences and workshops for teachers. Such in-service training programmed will acquaint teachers with alternative instructional strategy for proper utilization and maintenance of school facilities in the area of teaching, learning, convenience and sport/recreational facilities. The study will also hopefully be of immense benefit to text book publishers, teacher-training institutes such as colleges of education and as well faculties of education in Nigerian

universities.

The study will also serve as a contribution to knowledge and learning to all and sundry but most especially relevant to stakeholders in the teaching and learning and the education industry at large and the government of Kaduna state in specific. Further still, researchers in the field of educational school facilities as a whole will find it rich in contents and facts which serve as a reference source and a point to build upon for future researches.  The research work will also bring to the limelight the need for the authority concerned to pay adequate attention to the teachers and students on effective utilization and maintenance of school

facilities.

1.7     Scope of the Study

The study is delimited to secondary schools in Kaduna state. Nigeria. Therefore, the study is restricted only on the assessment of the teachers and Students attitudes on the Utilization and Maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State Nigeria. (Teaching facilities, learning facilities, Convenience facilities and sport/recreational facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State Nigeria) the study will cover both junior and senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. Nigeria

ASSESSMENT OF TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ OUTLOOKS ON OPERATION AND MAINTAINANCE OF SCHOOOL FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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