ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION EFFECT ON PROCUREMENT AND DISPLAY OF INFORMATION ON CORE -VALUES FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NIGERIA
This study was no assessment of Social Studies Education influence on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge core-value for National Integration among Undergraduate Students in Nigeria. Accordingly, seven (7) research objectives, questions and null hypotheses each guided the study. Descriptive survey method was employed and the population of study was all undergraduate Social Studies students in North-west geo-political zone of Nigeria numbering two thousand one hundred and thirty-five (2,135). A sample of four hundred respondents (400) was selected through the use of purposive and proportionate sampling techniques. Mean and standard deviation were used to report the descriptive data collected, while t-test was used to test all the seven (7) null hypotheses developed. The findings from the study established, significant difference between the influence of Social Studies learning activities/ experiences on federal and state undergraduate students in the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on religious tolerance and social justice for national integration. However, significant difference was not found between the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents, learning objectives and learning experiences/activities on federal and state undergraduate students in the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on self reliance, integrity, discipline, dignity of labour and patriotism for national integration in North-west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Based on the findings from this study, the researcher recommended that, State Governments should enact admission policy that will accommodate non- indigenes of different religious groups to study in state owned institutions of higher learning across the North-west geopolitical zone. This will promote religious tolerance as well as provide fertile ground for ethnic and religious understanding; The NERDC and other stakeholders in curriculum development should integrate entrepreneurial aspect at undergraduate Social Studies curriculum and training by promoting learning by discovery method, experiential learning, and participatory approach, through interactive environments that fosters positive attitudes, values and skills receptive to self reliance among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURE xii
LIST OF APPENDICES xiii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1.3 Objectives of the Study 9
1.4 Research Questions 11
1.5 Null Hypotheses 12
1.6 Significance of the Study 13
1.7 Scope of the Study 15
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 16
2.01 Introduction 16
02 Theoretical Framework 17
- 1 Schwartz Theory of Basic Values 17
2.02. 2 Social Exchange Theory of George Homan 23
2.02.3 Hodgkinson’s Value Theory 25
2.03.4 Integrated Social Studies Model of Value Development for National Integration 30
- Concepts of Social Studies 33
- Social Studies Education in Nigeria: An Overview 40
- Nature, Scope and Objectives of Social Studies Education in Nigeria 46
- Social Studies Objective for Higher Education 50
- Concepts of Value, Core Values and Types 53
- Concept of National Integration 63
- Concept of Acquisition 73
- Concept of Exhibition of Knowledge 74
2.05 Social Studies Learning Experiences/Activities and Religious Tolerance 75
- 06 Social Studies Curriculum Contents and Self Reliance for National Integration 82
2.07 Social Studies Learning Objectives and Integrity for National Integration 88
08 Social Studies Methodology and Discipline for National Integration 96
- Social Studies learning activities/experiences and Social Justice for National Integration 106
- Social Studies Curriculum Contents and Dignity of Labour for National Integration 117
- Social Studies Learning Objectives and Patriotism for National Integration 123
- Review of Related Empirical Studies 129
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 153
- Introduction 153
- Research Design 153
- Population of the Study 154
- Sample and Sampling Techniques 154
- Instrumentation 155
- 1 Validity of the Instrument 156
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument 157
- Procedure for Data Collection 157
- Statistical Analysis Procedure 158
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS 159
- Introduction 159
Preliminary Analysis and Demographic Variables of Respondents 159
- Analysis of Missing Data 159
- Analysis of Outliers 160
- Response Rate by Questionnaire 160
4.2.4. Demographic Variables of Respondents 161
4.3 Answering the Research Questions 162
4 Testing the Null Hypotheses 179
- Summary of Major Findings 186
- Discussion of Findings 187
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 194
- Introduction 194
- Summary 194
5.2 Conclusions 198
- Contributions to Knowledge 199
- Recommendations 200
- Suggestions for Further Studies 202
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Institutions of higher learning are social organisations where values are imparted. Research shows that education aims to create desired changes in learners (in terms of knowledge and skills) by transmitting values to improve learners‘ behaviour. The school, being the first place where learners are formally placed in the society, outside the protective zone of a family, is seen as a starting point to orientate young persons or students on the Nigeria core values as well as need for national integration. It is a place where students are exposed to others who they may not have the opportunity to mingle with, in other contexts. Institutions of higher learning in Nigeria are also platform to introduce the existence of other cultures, customs and religions and to enable the students to see those differences as part of life. Eventually these young minds could, with the right guidance, accept and celebrate differences, rather than seeing differences as stumbling blocks. Hence, institutions of higher learning can develop the core values in students that could lead to national integration in Nigeria (Ruslan, Othman & Ahmad, 2009).
Religion is gradually becoming a tool for fighting political, social and economic battles. In light of the destructive ways religion is used in our society today, there is need as educators to seek ways in salvaging future generations from being engulfed in this self destruction in the name of religion. While there may exist several ways to build bridges to foster religious tolerance and national integration in Nigeria, there is also a need to explore the curriculum potentials of Social Studies as an existing subject area in promoting religious tolerance. For the fact that, education is one of the most effective means of combating intolerance and stereotypes (Moore, 2007; Otuenu, 2011; UNESCO, 2014 & Scheiner, 2015).
Nigeria has reviewed her curricula across educational institutions in order to provide education that will equip the learners with basic knowledge, thinking, and problem solving skills for self reliance. One of those subjects that were affected by these changes is Social Studies Education and saddled with the responsibility of all round development of critical thinking skills of learners in order to be a united, strong and self-reliant nation as stipulated in Nigeria National Policy on Education (Osalusi, 2014).
Similarly, the core value of integrity, which are honesty, trust, fairness, accountability, transparency, respect and responsibility, lie at the heart of all institutions of higher learning activities and this form part of the of the objectives of Social Studies at undergraduate level given that, Social Studies education aims at developing a wholesome critical thinkers, ethical, honest and reliable learners (Chapfika, 2008). Although these aims of education are important at every level of education, it should be stressed that they are most crucial in higher education. Both lecturers and graduates from institutions of higher learning have the responsibility of contributing to the development of their nations and the world as a whole. Such a responsibility rules out any element of hypocrisy, scandal, deceit, corruption and deception that run rampant in our society today all day and in all walks of life.
Moreover, its worthy of note that whenever the school system, lecturers, teachers and other stakeholders in the running of education fail to instil proper discipline in learners, this action will definitely makes students to misbehave. Misbehaviour is any behaviour that, through intent or thoughtlessness, interferes with teaching or learning, threatens or intimidates others, oversteps society‘s standards of moral, ethical, or legal behaviour and as well hamper national integration (Olanrewaju, 2016). In order to this address problems of indiscipline in the society, Social Studies education though its curriculum activities and learning experiences inculcate positive societal norms and values of honesty, respect, obedience and self control in learners.
Also, education is a means for humanity to create a common vision of life that value and respects difference which in turn, helps to address problems of discrimination, denial of rights, ethnicity, prejudice, stereotyping, gender inequality and violence among others that militate against achieving the value of social justices in our society. Education is society‘s first line of defence in combating inequities, to create autonomous individuals who act collaboratively for the good of all societal members and this substantiate the objective of Social Studies education, that is to help young people make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society. This establishes the fact why, many scholars believe Social Studies education is an appropriate field to explore these topics of injustice (Wade, 2007).
Also, institutions of higher learning serve as the engine room that produce the required manpower or labour force which drives the overall development of a nation. Apart from this, through its curriculum learning experiences and other activities, it instils in students values of hard work, dedication, respect for profession(s), occupations (manual and intellectual), punctuality in order to uplift human dignity and labour. The dignity of labour depends not on what we do, but how we do it, for dignity consists not in possessing honours, but in the consciousness that we deserve them and this is very much in agreement with the aims of Social Studies education in Nigeria (Lawal, 2014).
Furthermore, an important aspect of Social Studies education programmes in all countries relate to the development of the spirit of national identity and patriotism in learners. This is necessary for the purpose of integrating and strengthening a nation, especially if security and unity is threatened in some form as experience in Nigeria today (Ikwumelu, Bassey & Oyibe, 2015). That is why President Buhari argued Nigerians to show greater selfdenial, sacrifice and patriotism to resolve the myriads of problems confronting the nation…… if we are to quickly recover from our numerous problems and start moving in a positive direction (New Express Online, 2015).
Effective development of these core values among Nigerians are possible through the use of Social Studies education which has as one of its objectives as, equipping the learners with the right types of values and attitudes that will enable the learners contribute toward the improvement of world peace and intellectual human relationship. By using the school to get this task done, Social Studies education is a feasible subject. On the face of it, as stated in National Policy on Education, the overall principle of Social Studies is to produce citizens who can live in unity and harmony as one indivisible, indissoluble, democratic and sovereign nation founded on the principles of freedom, equality and justice (FRN, 2014).
Nigeria, as a nation, has core values which have been driving and sustaining her development and national integration over time. The present day core values (Discipline, Integrity, Dignity of Labour, Social Justice, Religious Tolerance, Self Reliance and Patriotism) of Nigeria have been shaped through coalescence and metamorphosis by the vagaries of the historical, political, economic and social evaluations of the nation from precolonial era (National Orientation Agency, 2009). Before the emergence of the geographical entity now called Nigeria, there were various kingdoms and empires. From about the 12th century, there were the Kanem-Borno Empire, the Hausa states and the Sokoto Caliphate in
Northern parts of Nigeria. In Central Nigeria were the kingdoms of Nupe, Igala, Kwararafa,
Jukun and Tiv. The Southern part had the Oyo Empire, Benin Empire, and other chiefdoms in
Igboland and the Niger Delta regions (N.O.A., 2009). Each of these kingdoms and empires had core values which enabled it to effectively exercise its own political, economic and social influence over its territory.
More so, the values served as sources of unity, legitimacy, group cohesiveness and enabled some of the kingdoms and empires to go to wars and expand their territories, engage in trade, commerce, political affiliations, and diplomatic relations with other territories (N.O.A, 2009). The first inkling of what was to later become colonialism began in 1471 when a European power, Portugal, visited Nigeria, and later established diplomatic, political and economic relations with the kingdom of Benin in 1481 (N.O.A, 2009). By the 17th century, the Portuguese influence in Nigeria was in succession replaced by the Dutch, the French and the British. In 1886, the British Government granted the Royal Niger Company a charter to operate business activities in Nigeria. The charter was revoked in 1900 and several parts of Nigeria were proclaimed protectorates of British. It was not until January 1st, 1914 that the
Northern and Southern Protectorates were amalgamated into one entity that was named
Nigeria and colonialism was officially entrenched for the next four and a half decades. The British Government, however, recognized that the various kingdoms and empires in the colonized territories had core values.
Consequently, the British administrators of the territories were admonished to establish a system of ―Indirect Rule‖ in their governance. The system, according to N.O.A (2009) was that of ―…non-interference with, but utilizing local customs as well as the potentially beneficial organizations and local relationships which promoted good trade and commerce…‖. But colonialism was extended beyond the economic sphere to include political, educational, religious and social spheres. The extension, therefore, had a major impact in changing the original core values prevalent in the kingdoms and empires, and substituting them with British-oriented values that would enable the colonialist to achieve their objectives of colonization. The stout resistance of colonialism by the Nationalist Movements in Nigeria eventually resulted in Great Britain granting independence to Nigeria in 1960. The country gained a Republican status in October 1963.
Nigeria’s independence was granted due to the nationalist struggle of people like Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Belawa, Sir Ahmadu Bello, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, Chief Obafemi
Awolowo, Ernest Ikoli, H. O. Davis, Chief S. L. Akintola, Dr. M. I. Okpara, Solanke and Eyo Ita among many other nationalists who were the pioneers of the nationalist grievances against the British system of indirect rule. After independence, Nigerians leaders‘ desires were to replace aspects of the British-oriented values with Nigerian core values. The desire, however, produced an admixture of the two sets values. The admixture generated conflicts in the prevailing value system and a consequent disaffection and disorientation among the citizenry that some citizens expressed the wish to return the century to colonialism. The general disaffection may have prompted the coup d‘etat of January 1966, the civil war of 1966 to 1970, and the military rule of the country for a substantial part of the 33 years after independence (NOA, 2009). At each military take-over of government, the coup plotters found faults with the previous administrations. Each administration, therefore, made concerted efforts to inculcate positive core values in the citizens. For example, General
Obasanjo‘s ―Jaji Declaration of 1970‖, General Buhari‘s ―War Against Indiscipline‖, General Babangida‘s ―MAMSER‖, and General Abacha‘s, ―War Against Indiscipline and Corruption‖ were some of the efforts made at inculcating positive core economic, social and political values in Nigeria (N.O.A, 2009).
Correspondingly, N.O.A (2009), noted that, there is also a historical component to the evolution of the economic and social core values of Nigeria. In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, agriculture was the mainstay of the Nigerian economy. Groundnut, Cocoa, Palm produce and rubber were the dominant commodities of the Northern, Eastern and Midwestern Regions respectively. It was then a thing of pride to be a cash crop farmer. Incidences of advance fee fraud  , cyber crime, armed robbery, kidnapping, pocket-picking and other fraudulent acts were minimal among Nigerians. However, the exploration of oil and gas and the attendant oil boom of the 1970s and 1980s shifted focus from agriculture. This led to overdependence on oil, resulting to a get-rich-quick phenomenon and other value-eroding practices. The dissatisfaction with governance of the various military regimes since 1966 created the desire and need for a duly elected civilian regime. Nigeria‘s second attempt at democracy was, therefore, achieved from October, 1979 to December 1983. The current and prevailing democratic rule began in 1999 (N.O.A, 2009). To arrest this situation further, the 1999 constitution saw it as mandatory to include the core values in the constitution as reminder to all Nigerians to be inculcated through the use of education and other related agencies so as to achieve national integration and prosperity in the country. It must be mentioned here that, the essence of society is solidarity through the cohesion of ideas (values) and mutual understanding. This ensures order, stability, peaceful relationship, continuity, development and sustainability.
Sequel to this, the Nigerian core values are the selected standards of behaviour that are fundamental to developing a stable and progressive nation. Core values are the acceptable, right and cherished pattern of behaviours that are capable of enhancing national integration and unity (Barrett, 2013; Falade & Falade, 2013). That is why, Ajere and Oyinloye (2011), asserted that, in every society across the globe, core-values are attached prime priority as social ingredients for social transformation, peace, unity, stability, growth and development. These values are in most cases enshrined in the national anthem and pledges of various countries of the world for citizens to internalize for inner transformation. It is, therefore, essential that every individual, group or indeed the entire nation must have core values which serve as the driving engines of development, integration, growth and progress. To uphold this democratic trend, the core values of Nigeria were enshrined in Chapter II, Section 23 of the
1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN,1999), which are ―Discipline,
Integrity, Dignity of Labour, Social Justice, Religious Tolerance, Self Reliance and Patriotism. This study, therefore examined the extent to which Social Studies education curriculum contents, learning experience and activities, methodology and evaluation techniques at undergraduate level helped students to acquire and exhibit knowledge on aforementioned core-values for National integration in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social Studies in Nigeria is widely regarded as one of the disciplines dedicated to the development of core values mentioned in the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria. That is why, Social Studies education has as one of its goals to develop values, moral character and civic virtue in our nation‘s youths as one means of promoting national integration, more compassionate and responsible society. Similarly, as part of Social Studies curriculum, based on its horizontal and vertical organization of contents, activities and learning experiences, learners at all educational levels in Nigeria are taught the national symbols which includes: coat of arm, national flag, currency and among others. Social Studies as a program of study recognizes that several factors contribute to the development of positive values and that school must do everything in their power to address the individual and social dimensions of value development in Nigeria which are enshrined in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as national ethics.
In spite of the fact that these core values of Nigeria are enshrined in the Constitution, Social Studies education helps in developing these core –values through its curriculum learning experiences and activities at primary and junior secondary school levels where it is a core subject in the curriculum, while, at senior secondary school the values are imbedded in civic education, though included recently and in some tertiary institutions all over the country as a course of study. It, however, appears that the conduct of political, economic and social activities is devoid of ethical and moral principles, a condition which hampers the process of national integration and development.
Sequel to this, socio-economic, political and educational problems have taken over the Nigerian society, ranging from armed robbery, murderer, human trafficking, prostitution, rituals, redundancy, civil restiveness, corruption, ethno-religious and communal conflict, examination and election malpractices, over dependency on the developed countries, indiscipline and many more. The existence of these problems prompted the researcher to ask the question, does Social Studies education really develop in learners the national core values? If yes, to what extent do Social Studies students in both federal and state institutions of higher learning acquire and exhibit knowledge on the core values in their interaction within the school environment and the society at large? This search for answers to these questions has led to the assessment of Social Studies Education influence on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on core-values for national integration among undergraduate students in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was assessment of Social Studies education influence on acquisition and exhibition of core values for national integration among undergraduate students in Nigeria. While the specific objectives were to:
- find out the influence of Social Studies learning experiences/activities on the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on religious tolerance for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- assess the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on self reliance for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- find out the influence of Social Studies learning objectives on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on integrity for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- find out the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on discipline for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- assess the influence of Social Studies learning activities/experiences on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on social justice for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- find out the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on dignity of labour for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
- find out the influence of Social Studies learning objectives on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on patriotism for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the influence of Social Studies Education learning experiences/activities on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on religious tolerance for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- In what ways do Social Studies curriculum contents influence the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on self reliance for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- What is the influence of Social Studies learning objectives on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on integrity for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- In what ways do Social Studies curriculum contents influence the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on discipline for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- What is the influence of Social Studies learning activities/experiences on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on social justice for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- What is the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on dignity of labour for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
- In what ways do Social Studies learning objectives influence the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on patriotism for national integration among undergraduate students by ownership in Nigeria?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at p≤ 0.05 level of significance:
HO1. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies learning activities/experiences on federal and state undergraduate students in the acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on religious tolerance for national integration in Nigeria.
HO2. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on self reliance for national integration in Nigeria.
HO3. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies learning objectives on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on integrity for national integration in Nigeria.
HO4. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on discipline for national integration in Nigeria.
HO5. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies learning activities/experiences on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on social justice for national integration in Nigeria.
HO6. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies curriculum contents on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on dignity of labour for national integration in Nigeria.
HO7. There is no significant difference between the influence of Social Studies learning objectives on federal and state undergraduate students in their acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on patriotism for national integration in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is aimed at finding out the influence of Social Studies education on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on core-values for national integration among undergraduate students in Nigeria. The study is of particular benefit to the following:
The findings of this study would inform the government, the potentialities of Social Studies in development of core-values among citizens of the country which goes a long way in promoting national integration in Nigeria. It is a hope that, the findings of this study would be a new ground of focus to curriculum planners and developers especially regarding issues of core values development and national integration. The findings of this study may also indicate new grounds for Social Studies textbook writers on the need and necessity to incorporate national ethics in the planning and writing of Social Studies textbooks at all levels of educational system in Nigeria.
The findings of this study would be of great significance in the area of arranging how to help students acquire these core national-values, prepare curriculum that will engage students and provide relevant information that will help learners exhibit these core national-values. More so, it will help the curriculum specialist on Social Studies to refocus undergraduate Social Studies education curriculum so as to meet the challenges of nation building, national integration and development in Nigerian society.
The findings accruing from this investigation would provide pedagogical feedback to lecturers in department of sociology and religious studies at Universities and Colleges of Education who are expected to establish a strong basis for the subject in Nigerian schools. More so, the findings of this study will be of help to National University Commission (NUC) who by law are charged with the responsibility of providing minimum standards and periodic review of these minimum standards which requires periodic review of relevant research findings that will effect changes or influences learners and the society with a view to enhancing knowledge and find lasting solutions to man‘s problem, which is, one of the aims of Social Studies education.
This study will help in providing research based information which will help parent acquire knowledge of how to inculcate in their wards/children the various core-national values for enhancing national integration in contemporary Nigerian society. Also, the findings of this study will further strengthen the confidence of parent who believe that schools could function as training and preparatory grounds for students to develop positive attitudes and values for national integration.
Also, this study would be of immense benefit to Social Studies students who are undergoing training which will result in making them professional teachers and specialist in problems solving (Social Studies) for them to find out research based information about corenational values which will pave way for either to adjust, maintain or increase the extent of their acquisition and exhibition of these values for national integration.
To the members of the society, this study will help in enriching their knowledge and polish their perception from research based information about the core national-values and its effectiveness in promoting national integration in the society. It is also thoughtful that this research work would constitute a vital reference material and a source of empirical data for researchers and investigators who are interested in exploring the place of a variety of curriculum designs for the purpose of helping learners develop values which are vital for building the Nigerian nation.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study investigated the assessment of influence of Social Studies education on acquisition and exhibition of knowledge on core-values for national integration among undergraduate students in Nigeria. The study assessed the undergraduate Social Studies students on the seven (7) core values stated in the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, that is: religious tolerance, self reliance, discipline, integrity, social justice, dignity of labour and patriotism.
Thus, the study was delimited only to undergraduate Social Studies students of
2016/2017 academic session in tertiary institutions of north –west region of Nigeria that offer Social Studies at undergraduate level. In other words, the study covered six (6) institutions of higher learning that offer Social Studies at undergraduate level, that is: Ahmadu Bello
University (A.B.U), Zaria and the five (5) federal and state colleges of education that offer Social Studies at undergraduate level affiliated to A.B.U., Zaria, which are: Federal College of Education, Zaria; Federal College of Education (Technical), Gusau; Federal College of Education, Kano; Shehu Shagari College of Education, Sokoto; and Kaduna State College of Education, Gidan-Waya. The researcher used these tertiary institutions considering the fact that gender of the students are heterogeneous in nature which are variables of study, the ownership of institutions cut across federal and state government. Also, the students found in these institutions of higher learning are representatives of the religious and ethnic groups in Nigeria. Added to this, both institutions use same undergraduate Social Studies curriculum in teaching the students.
ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION EFFECT ON PROCUREMENT AND DISPLAY OF INFORMATION ON CORE -VALUES FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NIGERIA