ASSESSMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS SUPPORT IN THE USE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY FACILITIES BY CHILDREN IN KADUNA STATE

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ASSESSMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS SUPPORT IN THE USE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY FACILITIES BY CHILDREN IN KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the Assessment of Stakeholders Support in the Use of Public Library Services by Children in Kaduna State. Five research questions were used in the study. The research questions sought to find out the type of services provided for children to use in Public Libraries in Kaduna State, who are the stakeholders, types of support provided by stakeholders, strategies used in soliciting stakeholders support and the extent at which stakeholders support has influenced the use of public library services by children in Kaduna State. The research method adopted was survey research method and the population of the study comprised of all the librarians in Public Libraries in Kaduna State with the total of seventy nine (79), since the population was not too large, there was no sampling exercise therefore the whole population was used. Structured questionnaire containing closed-ended questions was used. Data collected from the research questions was analyzed using frequency, tables and percentages. The findings of the study revealed that the Public Library Services for children in Kaduna State lack adequate support from relevant stakeholders. Majority of the support received was from the State Government authors and publishers. The study concluded that there is need to encourage relevant stakeholders to support the use of public library services for children in Kaduna State. It was recommended among others that there should be a strong synergy between the relevant stakeholders in order to improve the use of public library services for children in Kaduna State.

 

 

             

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Declaration – –             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Certification – –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Dedication –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Acknowledgement – –              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Table of contents         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

List of Tables –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

Operational Definition of Terms-       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1.      Background to the Study –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2.      Statement of the Problem –     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.3.       Research Questions – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           6

1.4.      Objectives of the study –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.5.      Significance of the study –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.6.        Scope of the study – –             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.7.      Limitation of the Study           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

References – –              –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES

2.1       Public library services for children     –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.2.1. Public Library information resources for children  –                –           –           –           17

2.2.       Stakeholders Support/Collaboration with children section of Public Libraries-       20

2.3.       Role of relevant stakeholders in providing information resources and services

to children       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.3.1. Library Manager           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

2.3.2. Parents               –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           27

2.3.3. Friends of the Library –             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           29

2.3.4. Private organization and agencies         –           –           –           –           –           –           33

2.4.      Strategies of improving and funding the children library services     –           –           34

2.5.      Influence of stakeholders in the use of public library service for children    –           37

2.6.      Utilization of public library resources and services by children        –           –           37

2.6       Summary of the Review         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

References       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.        Introduction  –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

3.2.       Research Method Adopted – –            –           –           –           –           –           –           52

3.3.      Population of the Study –        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

3.4.        Sample and Sampling Techniques – –            –           –           –           –           –           53

3.5.      Instrument for Data Collection –         –           –           –           –           –           –           54

3.6.      Validity and Reliability of the Instrument-     –           –           –           –           –           55

3.7.      Reliability of the Instrument – –          –           –           –           –           –           –           55

3.8.      Procedure for Data Collection-           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

3.9.      Procedure for Data Analysis – –          –           –           –           –           –           –           56

References       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           57 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.0.        Introduction  –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           58

4.1.      Response Rate –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           58

4.2.      Data analysis and discussion –            –           –           –           –           –           –           59

4.2.1. Types of services provided for children in Kaduna State Public Libraries –                60

4.2.2. Stakeholders that provide support for children in Kaduna State Public Libraries- 63 4.2.3. Types of support provided by stakeholder for children in Kaduna State

Public Libraries –        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

4.2.4. Strategies for soliciting stakeholders support for children in Kaduna State

Public Libraries-         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           69

4.2.5. The extent which stakeholders support has influenced the use of Public Libraries

Services by children in Kaduna State –           –           –           –           –           –           72

References-      –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           74

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0.       Introduction – –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           76

5.1.      Summary of the study –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           76

5.2.      Summary of the findings –      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           76

5.3.      Conclusion      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           77

5.4.        Recommendations – –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           77

5.5.       Suggestion for further study –            –           –           –           –           –           –           79

5.6.      Contribution to knowledge     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           79

Bibliography –             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           81

Appendix –                  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           94

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Total number of librarians in Kaduna State Public Libraries –           – 53
Table 4.1 Distribution of the response rate         –           –           –           –           – 59
Table 4.2 Services Provided for Children in Kaduna State Public Libraries     – 61
Table 4.3 Stakeholders that provide support for children services in Kaduna State  
  Public Libraries           –           –           –           –           –           –           – 64
Table 4.4 Types of support provided by stakeholders for children services in  
  Kaduna State Public Libraries –          –           –           –           –           – 67
Table 4.5 Strategies for soliciting stakeholders support for children services in  
  Kaduna State Public Libraries            –           –           –           –           – 70
Table 4.6 Extent at which stakeholders support has influenced the use of  
  public library services by children in Kaduna State –             –           – 72
     

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are the operational definition of terms for easy understanding

Assessment: Is the process of evaluating the performance and extent of support stakeholders provide for children in Kaduna State Public Libraries.

Children:  Children, is a term for everyone under the age of eighteen, using public libraries in Kaduna State.

Information resources: They are items that contain or carry information which include children books, children periodicals, and children audio visual materials provided for use and arranged in a systematic order for easy retrieval in public libraries in Kaduna State

Library services: These include means by which a librarian makes services or programmes available that will entice, entertain and educate the children in Public Libraries in Kaduna State.

Library use:- refers to self reported utilization or non utilization of the library resources and services for independent study, class work, recreational reading and doing assignment by children in Public libraries, Kaduna State

Stakeholders: Stakeholders are those people or agencies that contribute to the welfare of the

Public Library in Kaduna State, for example Government, Agencies, N.G.O‘s, Community Members, Parents, School Heads, teachers, and Children.

Support: Support is providing everything necessary in making Public Library Service for Children in Kaduna State successful through gifts donation either inform of money, resources or services.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.       Background of the Study

The first few years of a child‘s life are the most critical for shaping the brains development and growth of the child and one of the ways of achieving this is by providing adequate library services for children. Library services for children play a very vital role in enhancing the child‘s development by providing them with the right access to information and education (Rankin & Brock, 2012). Stakeholders play an important role in the development of children library services. According to Greene (2010) stakeholders are those people or agencies that have an interest in or have some relationship with the library association. It is very essential to identify the right stakeholders because they significantly influence the success of public library service to children.  Schamber (2006) stated that, poor use of public library by children has resulted to poor reading habit and poor performance/achievement in their educational pursuit adding that children have been identified as the leaders of tomorrow but the vehicle to get them to the required destination has most times not been fixed to take them there. Children have information needs and the public library is one of the agents designed and saddled with the responsibility of meeting the information needs of children.

Public library is a library in the community that serves the generality of the public without any surcharge. Generally, Public Libraries are accepted as public goods. They are universities of the people since it gives access to every intending member of the public. Akanwa (2010) citing Emenalor defined the public library as a library that provides information resources, services and recreational outlets for the generality of the citizenry, namely, the young, the old, the literate and the non-literate. Aina (2004) also noted that while other types of libraries are meant for a specific group of users, the public library is not restricted to any group of users. It is expected to serve all kinds of people including young children, people with disabilities or even people who for one reason or the other are incapacitated. It means that the public library is a library for all, and that is why library services to children are placed under its care.

The idea of children‘s library services being taken care of by the public library is an age long phenomenon. In every public library, there is a space or section mapped out as the children library. In this section of the library, children are served with library resources and programmes that correspond with their ages. Akanwa (2006) defined the children‘s library as that section of the public library that provides books, extension activities and other educational resources free of charge to all children within a certain age bracket.  The public library not only provides library resources and services to children, but also library staffs who supervise and guide them in their choice of books to read and programmes to participate in. The library helps children to discover for themselves by independent study and learning how to read and ask questions (Ikenwe 2014). Library must not only provide the resources but also ensure effective use of the resources by its users.  Furthermore in order to attract and hold children‘s interests to use the Public Libraries, the library must be stocked with many good books which would attract children‘s interest and enthusiasm to read, mainly books that will catch children‘s attention, captivate their imaginations, and make them want to return to their pages again and again  (Adeleke, 2005). Okiy (2004) corroborated this and posited that for the library to perform its role adequately, its resources must be effectively utilized, thus access to relevant information resources is very necessary.

Elkin (2011) stressed that children need time to read independently every day. Most authorities recommend about 20 minutes of uninterrupted time per day to ―get lost in a book‖.

Akanwa (2013) citing Elster (1994) suggested that parents and teachers should establish a daily ―sustained engagement time and make sure children use the public library resources‖ where all children are expected to be engaged with books in whatever manner most comfortable to them, whether browsing through books, looking at pictures, or reading the books alone or with other children. He further stated that children are more likely to use Public Libraries and actively participate in them when they are physically attractive with lots of play items. Dengel (2004) stated in her article on providing library outreach to a child that children’s library equips children with lifelong learning and literacy skills enabling them to participate in society. “By providing a wide range of materials and activities, Public Libraries provide an opportunity for children to experience the enjoyment of reading and the excitement of discovering knowledge and works of the imagination.

As a matter of fact, there is no public library that is well funded and can meet the needs of children without relying on extra findings from other stakeholders. Stakeholders support and assist Public Libraries to procure, render service, maintain and sustain resources that can meet the information needs of children Stakeholder is anybody who can affect or is affected by the library organization and has interest or concern in the children library service. One need that cuts across all the stakeholders is the issue of funding as it makes easy the attainment of the goal when available and makes useless efforts of other stakeholder when it is not available. Thus, the availability of matching funds from stakeholders makes a lot of differences (Bryson, 2004).

Akanwa (2013) citing Curie (2000) specifically pointed out that ―the library is indeed the cultural centre for a child which calls for the creation of strong linkages and relations with all stakeholders in the community, such as the local governments, community members, schools, universities, parents, non-governmental organizations and researchers. However, in order to be relevant and to survive in these changing times, Public Libraries need to create a culture of collaboration and reach out for formal and informal partnerships from stakeholders in their communities to improve the children library services (Hovis, 2005). It has become very important for children to have access to Public Libraries as the library instills a good reading habit in them. Stakeholders however, form an important part of public library success and they need to be informed of the activities of children‘s section of Public Libraries. The more informed they are, the more interested they would be in supporting and partnering with the children library service. Therefore, in order to instill a good reading habit among children the library service for children should be improved.

In library, the term stakeholder typically refers to anyone who is investing in the welfare and success of a library and its users. Stakeholders may also be collective entities, such as local businesses, organizations, advocacy groups, committees, media outlets, and cultural institutions.

In addition, other stakeholders could represent specific groups, such as library associations, Parent-Teacher Organizations, heads, librarians, teachers, students, parents, families, N.G.O.s, agencies, community members, local business leaders, and elected officials such as library board members, city councilors, and state representatives.  In other word, stakeholders have a ―stake‖ in the library and its users, meaning that they have personal, professional, civic, or financial interest or concern.

The Association of Library Service to Children (ALSC, 2015) categorized children library stakeholders into primary and secondary stakeholders. They include the following individuals and groups:

 

  • Children of all ages,
  • Parents and their surrogates,
  • Educational partners e.g. schools, teachers,
  • Non Governmental organization and agencies serving children

 

The secondary stakeholders are individuals and groups in the community who may not reap the immediate benefits of library programs and services for children but who share the passion for supporting children and families, they are:-

  • People of influence: Government, Politicians; policy makers and their staff; religious institutions; local service clubs and organizations including Friends of Library groups; and library commissioners, managers and trustees.
  • Local government agencies and departments serving children, youth, and families.
  • Local business people. These community leaders can provide funds or in-kind contributions. They can share their expertise in library activities and programs, help publicize the libraries programs and generally create goodwill.
  • Cultural and special interest organizations e.g. museums, arts organizations, science groups and other interest-based groups; they sometimes have resources or can apply for grants when the library cannot.
  • Funders and philanthropic individuals and groups.

 

1.2.      Statement of the Problem

Children have information needs and one of the responsibilities of the public library is to meet the information needs of children. Children‘s services need their own library area which should be easily recognizable (special furnishings, decoration and colours) and distinct from other parts of the library. In every public library, there is a section mapped out as the children library but these children section do not have adequate services or programmes that will attract the children to use the public libraries, as a result the children section of the public library is highly underutilized, and these has resulted to poor reading culture, increase in examination malpractice and poor performance in examination.  This is because government has not provided adequate funding for the running of public libraries. Ajegbomogun and Salaam (2011) reviewed the state of Public Libraries in Nigeria and concluded that the problems facing the libraries are lack of financial support, lack of adequate infrastructure and facilities, unqualified personnel and lack of resources.  

Public Libraries need to launch new and sustained initiatives to generate fund and solicit information resources, this calls for the creation of strong linkages and relations with all stakeholders, stakeholders plays a very vital role in supporting the children library services.

According to Greene (2010) stakeholders are the people that control the definition of success. The present day financial realities have made it impossible for the children services of public library to do it all alone if they must meet the 21st century standard. Collaboration with relevant stakeholders in donating funds and other information resources is however needed to improve the children‘s library service in order for them to patronize and use the library. In the light of this, it is therefore, considered necessary to identify the extent to which stakeholders support the children library service in Kaduna State.

 

1.3        Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What types of library services are provided for children in Public Libraries in Kaduna

State?

  1. Who are the stakeholders involved in supporting Public Library service for children in

Kaduna State?

  1. What support do stakeholders provide for children in Public Libraries in Kaduna State?
  2. What are the strategies used for soliciting stakeholders support towards improving the

Public Library services for children in Kaduna State?

  1. To what extent has the stakeholders support influenced the use of Public Library services by children in Kaduna State?

 

1.4.      Objectives of the study

The research has the following objectives:

  1. To find out the types of services provided for children in Public Libraries in Kaduna

State.

  1. To identify the key stakeholders involved in supporting children‘s Public Library services in Kaduna State.
  2. To identify the type of support stakeholders provide for children in Public Libraries in

Kaduna State.

  1. To identify the strategies implored towards soliciting stakeholders support for improving

Public Library services for children in Kaduna State.

  1. To find out the extent to which stakeholders support has influenced the use of Public

Library services by children in Kaduna State.

 

1.5       Significance of the study

Public Libraries are significant institutions in the development of an individual, a state and the country at large but are now constrained by budget cuts and economic recession. The study reveals the extent to which stakeholders support the use of public library services for children in Kaduna state. The study will be significant to Stakeholders, Librarians, State Government and Children, the findings of the study will be of great importance to librarians working in public libraries, this will help them identify the relevant stakeholders and map out strategies on how to solicit stakeholders support in improving the children library services.

The study would serve as a guide to state government in policy formulation and development on strategies to ensure appropriate support for public library services for children in Kaduna State.

In addition, the study would serve as a feedback mechanism to all stakeholders in Public Libraries in understanding their role in the provision of support for children library services within Kaduna State and beyond. The study would also contribute to the improvement and provision of adequate library services for children in other to improve their cognitive skills

Finally, the study would contribute to the depth of literatures on stakeholders support for children library service.

 

1.6. Scope of the study

This study focuses on the Assessment of Stakeholders Support for the Use of Public Library Services by Children in Kaduna State. The study was only limited to librarians in charge of children section, the libraries to be used were all the Public Libraries within Kaduna State

.

1.7.      Limitation of the study

Just as every research entails challenges and limitation, this study is no exception. The major challenge was the time frame within which this research was carried out, presented and defended, proximity and logistics in which to cover all the Libraries in Kaduna State.

 

             

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Ajegbomogun, F.O. & Salaam, M.O. (2011). “The State of School Libraries in Nigeria“,

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ASSESSMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS SUPPORT IN THE USE OF PUBLIC LIBRARY FACILITIES BY CHILDREN IN KADUNA STATE

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