ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL MAPPING ON DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The study is titled “Assessment of school mapping on allocation of school facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by five objectives, five research questions and five corresponding null hypotheses. The design of the study is descriptive survey design.The study‟s population consisted of principals, teachers and supervisors numbering 10,931 comprising of 541 principals, 10,294 teachers and 96 supervisors from twelve (12) educational zone in Kaduna State.Purposive sampling technique was used.The sample size used in the study was 378 which consisted of 40
Principals, 326 Teachers and 12 Supervisors.Self-developed structured questionnaire titled
“Assessment of school Mapping on Allocation of School Facilities in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State,Nigeria” was usedas instrument for data collection.The instrument was duly validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and construct validity.The instrument was pilot tested and the reliability coefficient index power stood at 0.7 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used as instrument for data analysis. The study among others found that school mapping created a balance in the establishment of new secondary schools in Kaduna State.In the light of the foregoing, some recommendations were proffered which includethe need for Kaduna State Government to ensure existing tempo of school mapping maintained and improve upon in secondary
schools, this will ensure that schools are distributed according to need specification.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables viii
List of Abbreviations ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Hypotheses 8
1.6 Basic Assumptions 9
1.7 Significance of the Study 9
1.8 Scope of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Conceptual Framework 11
2.2.1 Assessment 13
2.2.2 School Mapping 14
2.2.3 School Plant 19
2.2.4 School Library 23
2.2.5 Science Laboratory 28
2.2.6 Classroom 32
2.2.7 Multi-Purpose Hall 34
2.3 Theoretical Framework 35
2.4 Influence of school mapping on allocation of new secondary schools 39
2.5 Influence of school mapping on allocation of science laboratories inschools 40
2.6 Influence of school mapping on allocation of school library in secondaryschools 44
2.7 Influence of school mapping on allocation of classrooms in secondary schools 48
2.8 Influence of school mapping on allocation of multi-purpose hall in secondary
2.9 Empirical Studies 53
2.10 Summary 62
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 63
3.2 Research Design 63
3.3 Population of the Study 63
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 64
3.5 Instrumentation 65
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 65
3.5.2 Pilot Study 66
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 66
3.6 Methods of Data Collection 67
3.7 Methods of Data Analysis 67
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Introduction 68
4.2 Analysis of Bio-Data 69
4.3 Response to Research Questions 69
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 80
4.5 Summary ofHypotheses Testing 83
4.6 Summary of Major Findings 85
4.7 Discussion of the Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 88
5.2 Summary 88
5.3 Conclusions 89
5.4 Recommendations 90
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 92
|LIST OF TABLES|
|Table 3.1:||Population of the Study||64|
|Table 3.2:||Sample of the Study||65|
|Table 4.1:||Bio-Data of Respondents||69|
|Table 4.2:||Mean Scores of Respondents on|
|Table 4.2:||Mean Scores of Respondents on influence of school mapping|
|on allocation of new secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria||70|
|Table 4.3:||Mean Scores Respondents on influence of school mapping on|
|allocation of Science Laboratories in Kaduna state, Nigeria||72|
|Table 4.4:||Mean Scores Respondents on influence of school mapping on|
|allocation of school libraries in Kaduna state, Nigeria||74|
|Table 4.5:||Mean Scores Respondents on influence of school mapping on|
|allocation of classrooms in secondary schools in Kaduna State||76|
|Table 4.6:||Mean Scores Respondents on influence of school mapping on|
|allocation of multi-purpose halls in Kaduna state, Nigeria||78|
|Table 4.7:||Summary of One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on influence of school mapping on allocation of new secondary schools in|
|Kaduna state, Nigeria||80|
|Table 4.8:||Summary of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistics on influence of school mapping on allocation of science laboratory in secondary|
|schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria||81|
|Table 4.9||Summary of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistics on influence of school mapping on allocation of school libraries in secondary|
|schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria||81|
|Table 4.10:||Summary of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistics on influence of school mapping on allocation of classrooms in secondary|
|schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria||82|
|Table 4.11:||Summary of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Statistics on influence of school mapping on allocation of multi-purpose hall in secondary|
|schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria||83|
|Table 4.12:||Summary of the Hypotheses Testing||84|
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study
Education is a critical factor in the development of both human and non-human
resourcesfor national development in the education sector. It occupies a central position in the dynamics of national development plans of countries across the globe, but more pronounced in the developing ones that are desperately struggling against the pains of ignorance, illiteracy, hunger, disease and marginalization. Whether viewed from investment or social perspective, education remains vital to the process of improving the productive capacity of individuals, and by extension, the socio-economic development of a nation. This is expected to be attained through proper and adequate planning of school plant facilities in school organizations in the entire country most especially secondary schools in Kaduna State. School mapping goes a long way in the process of making forecast for formidable school plant facilities. The planning of education is imperative. This is founded on the strict adherence to the principle of systemic integration in the educational planning process. Educational planning is basically a decisionmaking task that rationally analyses the prevailing situation, harnessing the available human and material resources for the attainment of predetermined goals in the future. One of the fundamental reasons for educational planning is economic efficiency in resource utilization. A very important and integral part of educational planning is school mapping.
School mapping is the systematic process of determining the future needs for education,School facilities at the different levels and types and their continuous rationalization within a definite geographical area. School mapping is periodically carried out to determine the existing school network, the distribution of educational facilities and to project into the future, the demands that would be made on them as a result of the dynamic nature of a given society.
This is primarily with reference to population behavior and occupational changes. School mapping is carried out basically to ensure equity, access and economic efficiency.School mapping is an important planning technique to arrive at rational decision regarding distribution of educational facilities across different geographical locations. The term “school mapping” seemingly implies the exercise that is confirmed to location of schools and distribution of school facilities. School mapping could be considered as a process of identifying the educational need of a given society through investigation and survey exercise and it is a set of techniques and procedures used to plan the demand for school places at the local level and to decide the institutional level. It is the geographical location of schools. It is not only concerned with the drawing of maps, but deals with school location, planning, the distribution of sizes, spacing of schools and school facilities.
School mapping is seenas the planning tool in the education sector which provides an analytical framework for the implementation of education plans. They offer methods and techniques to estimate future needs and to identify ways to meet them. They can help to overcome the limitations of centralized planning through the correct understanding of local realities, the necessary consultation of relevant stake holders to facilitate a better fit between educational supply and demand. School mapping techniques (diagnostic,projections,use of norms and standards) and other relevant tools such as geographical information system (GIS) software, hardware, for the elaboration of a prospective school map.
The Universal Primary Free Education programme in 1955 in the education sector in Nigeria was bedeviled with the avoidance of proper school plant planning.This development allowed some communities, societies in both the rural and urban areas to take advantage of school plant allocation of school resources over the other due to unevenly distribution of school plant facilities. This up till present led to the challenges facing education in the country. School Mapping techniques help us to identify the mostappropriate locations of schools or their alternatives so that maximum number of children can bebenefited from the same level of investment and to reduce regional inequalities in the educationalfacilities. The following are the major objectives of the school mapping. To identify most appropriate location (Habitation or Village) for opening of new/ upgrading Secondary School; to identified most appropriate location (Habitation or village) to open alternatives of new school; to identify the location for opening of alternatives to formal school; to level out existing disparities in the distribution of educational facilities and to create equality of educational opportunities
The subject of school facilities had received considerable attention from the public as well as educators. Educators are faced today with a growing challenge of distributing the nation‟s educational facilitiesdue to paucity of fund;at the same time, educators were held accountable for students‟ achievement School Facilities Distribution Task Force (2003). Technically speaking, school facilities, refer to those material things that help or aid the teaching and learning process in school.School facilities could be viewed from two perspectives, namely, those facilities needed specifically for the academic or curriculum development of the students and those facilities that are either generalist in nature or that help the physical or non-curricular (including co- curricular development of the students. Examples of the former classification include teaching aids like books, filmstrips, chalk, marker pen, stationery, syllabus, scheme of works, charts audio-visual materials, writing board etc. The latter include seat/desks, sizeable classrooms, functional libraries, well equipped laboratories, electricity, water, offices, play field, hostels, gardens, space for future expansion. School facilities have been observed as a potent factor to quality education.
Location of schools is function of school mapping. School mapping is therefore, the process of estimating and diagnosing school requirements and identifying the ideal communities and sites where new schools are to be located and where additional educational resources are to be provided. Many secondary schools have no library, where they exist; they are filled up with outdated textbooks. Classroom as a facility is one of key measures of quality as it determines the student-teacher ratio of any educational system. The availability and state of the classroom plays a key role in facilitating or engendering the teaching-learning process (Ahunanya&Ubabudu, 2006). School mapping therefore paves way for provision of well-equipped classroom with modern learning facilities. One of the most effective vehicles by which the process of inquiry can be learnt is the laboratory where the students‟ experience first-hand inquiry process. Instructional theory of learning interaction, hypothesized that the laboratory had a direct effect on both students‟ attitudes and academic performance. This has given rise to the expectation that laboratory facilities should be adequately provided to secondary schools for effective teaching and learning. School mapping therefore creates avenue for this to happen; it is the deliberate effort to ensure efficiency in school location and rationalization. This aspect has a more direct implication because it ensures that educational institutions are located where they can be optimally utilized by the end users
The dictum that “teaching is inseparable from learning but learning is not separable from teaching” is that teachers do the teaching to make students learn, but students can learn without the teachers. School facilities have an impact on teachers‟ effectiveness and students‟ performance. This is so because they determine to a very large extent the smooth functioning of any social organization or system including education. Their availability, adequacy and relevance influence efficiency and high productivity.From the foregoing, it has been observedthat school organizations face a lot of challenges on school mapping and school plant facilities citing, provision and distribution/allocation in the education sector in Kaduna State. To fill the gap, the researcher conductedthis research on the assessment of school mapping on allocation of school plant facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Challenges of educational planners and administrators have been to equalize
educationalopportunities for all, to provide easy access to educational facilities to all children. If allhabitation / villages are to be provided withschools then the question of inequality does not arise.But in real life situations schools are located in such villages so that other habitations and villagesalso benefit. How do we decide on the village/ habitations where schools are to be opened so asto ensure equality of educational opportunities? (Agu& Miyazawa, 2002).
Equalization of education opportunities is a necessary condition to promote faster progress of education this can be achieved through school mapping which has to do with effective allocation of schools and resources. Creation of easy access condition to schools or their alternatives becomes a necessity and essential step towards provision of equal opportunities for secondary schools. However, the distribution of senior secondary schools within Kaduna state is not equitable and this has resulted to better access to quality education.School facilities and distribution of same are necessary for effective teaching-learning process (Szuba& Young, 2003). Provision and distribution of school facilities are the corporate responsibility of the government and non-governmental organizations. The unending attention which school facilities have continued to receive from scholars in the field of education is a pointer to the necessity for
Available literature revealed that facilities are required for various activities of the school programme including extra-curricular activities. Some literature further revealed that the individual schools determine the types and qualities of facilities needed. The facilities often needed in schools include, e-learning facilities, chalk board, marker board, classroom apparatus such as wall, charts, maps, writing materials as well as polygraph, offices, laboratories, libraries and other equipment. All of which are necessary for achieving the quality education in schools.
Despite the rapid increase in the establishment of secondary schools nationwide, and Kaduna state in particular, the mapping of the location and distribution of educational services have been sadly ignored by the educational planners, administrators and political leaders and the government. This is because many educationists still do not understand the concept of “school mapping” and at times, confuse it with the ordinary „map‟ showing the location of educational institution.But in actual sense, school mapping is more than simply compiling a map which show the locations and distribution of schools. School mapping is a process that involves planning and distribution of all input into the school system such as teachers, buildings and teaching and learning materials for the efficient functioning of an educational system. This basic knowledge is needed to be given more emphases rather than being ignored by those supposedly concerned with school mapping in Kaduna State.
This has led to many crises of school plant allocation such as inadequacy, non- distribution, inequality of resource allocation, in appropriate location of schools and in appropriatedeployment of teachers. In Kaduna state, there is problem of allocation of new secondary schools, science laboratory, school library, classrooms, and multi-purpose hall among others. This indeed is what prompted the researcher to embark on this study in order to assess school mapping on allocation of school plant in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study has the following specific objectives.
- To determine the influence of school mapping on allocation of new secondary schools in
Kaduna state, Nigeria.
- Ascertain the influence of school mapping on allocation of science laboratories in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
- Find out the influence of school mapping on allocation of school library in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
- Assess the influence of school mapping on allocation of classrooms in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
- Examine the influence of school mapping on allocation of multi-purpose hallin secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
- To what extent does school mapping influence theallocation of new secondary schools in
Kaduna state, Nigeria?
- How does school mapping influence the allocation of Science Laboratories in secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- In what way does school mapping influence the allocation of school libraries in secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- Do school mapping influence the allocation of classrooms in secondary schools in
- What is the influence of school mapping on the allocation of multi-purpose halls in secondary schools in Kaduna state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The study has the following Null Hypotheses
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents (principals, teachers andMOE) on the influence of school mapping on allocation of new secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondentson the influence of school mapping on allocation of science laboratories in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the influence of school mapping on allocation of school librariesin secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the influence of school mapping on allocation ofclassrooms in secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the influence of school mapping on allocation of multi-purpose halls insecondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study assumes that:
- Effective school mapping leads to establishment of more secondary schools in areas where they are most neededin Kaduna State;
- Proper and timely school mapping leads to identification of schools that need new science laboratories and those that need upgrading of the existing equipment in secondary schools in Kaduna State;
- School mapping bring about provision of modern school libraries, renovation and upgrading of the already existing ones in Kaduna State;
- Quality school mapping gives raise to provision of additional blocks of classrooms in areas they are most needed in secondary schools in Kaduna State;
- The provision and maintenance of multi-purpose school halls in most secondary schools will be given required attention through effective school mapping in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Thestudy is expected to benefit the various stakeholders in the business of education in Kaduna State and Nigeria at large.
To the Government, the findings of the study will provide fist hand information to the government of Kaduna state on areas that need new secondary schools, more blocks of classrooms, upgrading / establishment of modern school library and science laboratories.
The students will be the ultimate beneficiaries of the findings of the study. Whatever the improvement in the quality of service delivery in secondary schools in Kaduna state as a result of the findings of this study will directlybe enjoyed by the students.
The findings of this study will guide educational planners to make rational decisions about school mapping in the Kaduna state. The findings of this study will guide policy makers to make rational decisions in formulation of educational policies and programmes
Whatever is going to be provided in terms of school plant allocationwill assist the teachers in the process of teaching and learning in secondary schools in Kaduna state. The findings of this study will assist school managers on how to deploy available school resources to the right personnel at the right time and at the right place.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is on the assessment of school mapping on allocation of school facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria covered the twelve (12) educational zones of KadunaState; namelyGodogodo, Lere, Zaria, Anchau, Rigachikun, Zonkwa, Kachia, Giwa, Kafanchan, Kaduna, Birnin-Gwari and Sabon Tasha. The study covered principals, teachers and supervisors of secondary schools in Kaduna State.The study isdelimited to only public secondary schools in
ASSESSMENT OF SCHOOL MAPPING ON DISTRIBUTION OF SCHOOL AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA