ASSESSMENT OF ROLE PERFORMANCES OF PRINCIPALS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSERVATION OF AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF ROLE PERFORMANCES OF PRINCIPALS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSERVATION OF AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Zaria educational zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was carried out with five research objectives among which are; to determine the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State, to asses the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State. Also, five research questions and five null hypotheses were raised for the study. The population of the study comprised 15 principals and 276 teachers. Survey design was adopted for the study and data were collected using a researcher designed questionnaire. The data gathered were analyzed using Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and hypotheses tested at 5% (P < 0.05) significant level. The findings revealed among others that no significant difference exists in the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State. Also, findings show a significant difference in the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State. Based on the findings, recommendations were made, that since principal of a school is the main administrator of that organization, he/she should ensure that teaching facilities are highly provided and maintained in the school. Similarly, as adequate learning facilities are determinants of students’ success, principals should ensure that learning facilities are provided and well maintained in schools.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title page        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        i

Cover Page      …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        ii

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii

Certification……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v

Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi

Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vii

Table of contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ix

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xii

List of Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………. xiv

Operational Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………………. xv

AbbreviationsCHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  ……………………………………………… xvi

 

1.1       Background to the Study        …        …        …        …        …        …        1

1.2        Statement of the Problem       …        …        …        …        …        …        5

1.3       Objectives of the Study          …        …        …        …        …        …        7

1.4        Research Questions    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        7

1.5        Hypotheses     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        8

1.6        Basic Assumptions     …        …        …        …        …        …        …        9

1.7       Significance of the Study        …        …        …        …        …        …        9

1.8       Scope of the Study      …        …        …        …        …        …        …        10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        11

2.2        Conceptual framework           …        …        …        …        …        …        11

2.3        Types and nature of school facilities …        …        …        …        …        14

2.4        Role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of school

facilities in secondary schools            …        …        …        …        …        18

2.5         Categories of school facilities maintenance …         …        …        …        19

2.6        Personnel involved in maintaining school facilities …         …        …        25

2.7       Maintenance of School Facilities for Teaching and Learning           …        26

2.8       Challenges regarding facilities maintenance at schools         …        …        27

2.9        Methodologies for facilities maintenance      …        …        …        …        30

2.10      Empirical studies        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        32

2.11      Summary of literature reviewed        …        …        …        …        …        35

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        37

3.2        Research Design         …        …        …        …        …        …        …        37

3.3        Population       …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        37

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques     …        …        …        …        …        38

3.5       Instrumentation           …        …        …        …        …        …        …        39

3.5.1    Validity of Instrument …        …        …        …        …        …        …        39

3.5.2    Pilot Study      …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        40

3.5.3     Reliability of the Instrument …         …        …        …        …        …        40

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection            …        …        …        …        …        40

3.7        Procedure for Data Analysis …         …        …        …        …        …        41

CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       Introduction    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        …        42

4.2        Findings on the bio-data of the respondents …         …        …        …        42

4.8 Hypotheses Testing    …        … 55
4.9 Summary of hypotheses testing 60
4.10 Summary of Major Findings … 60
4.11 Discussions of the Findings … 61

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary        …        …        … 65
5.2       Conclusions    …        …        … 66
5.3       Recommendations      …        … 66
5.4       Suggestions for Further Study 67
References      …        …        …        … 68
Appendices     …        …        …        … 72

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Page

3.1       Population of the study           …        …        …        …        …        …        38

3.2       Sample of the study    …        …        …        …        …        …        …        38

4.2.1      Classification of the respondents by Status …          …        …        …        42

4.2.2     Classification of the respondents by Gender …        …        …        …        43

4.2.3    Classification of the respondents by Age       …        …        …        …        43

4.2.4    Qualifications of the respondents       …        …        …        …        …        44

4.2.5     Classification of the respondents by their Location …         …        …        44

4.2.6    Teaching Experience of the respondents        …        …        …        …        44

4.3       Opinions of the respondents on the impact of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State …       …        …        …        …        45

4.4       Opinions of the respondents on the impact of role performances of principals  in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State …       …        …        …        …        47

4.5       Opinions of the respondents on the impact of role performances of principals  in the provision and maintenance of sport and welfare facilities in secondary

schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State      …        …        …        49

4.6       Opinions of the respondents on the impact of role performances of principals  in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in urban and rural  areas in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State …    51

4.7        Opinions of the respondents on the impact of role performances of principals

in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State …    …        53

4.8.1    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State            …        …        …        …        55

4.8.2    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics on the role performances of principals  in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State            …        …        …        …        56

4.8.3    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics on the opinion of stakeholders  on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of  sport and welfare facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone,

Kaduna State …         …        …        …        …        …        …                    57

4.8.4    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics on the opinion of stakeholders on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of  teaching facilities in urban and rural areas in secondary schools in Zaria

Educational zone, Kaduna State         …        …        …        …        …        58

4.8.5    Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics on the opinion of stakeholders    on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of  learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria

Educational zone, Kaduna State         …        …        …        …        …        59

 

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

          Page
Appendix A: Request to Fill Questionnaire … 72
Appendix B: Questionnaire …           …        … 73
Appendix C: Result of Pilot test         …        … 80

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Facilities are those things of education which enables a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided.

School facilities are the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which will increase the production of results. Such as, classroom, school bay clinic, libraries, laboratories, administrative offices, auditoriums, toilets, cafeteria, common rooms, workshops, parking lots, power and water plants, transportation facilities, classroom furniture’s, first aid box, sport and recreational grounds, refuse disposal facilities, drainage facilities, gardens and so on.

Facilities maintenance as any work carried out on any component of the facility with a view to keeping it at good working condition.

Role Performance are the functions performed by the principal which include; definition of goals and purposes, organization of the school, staff development, curriculum development and instruction, discipline, school community relations, provision and maintenance of facilities and equipment, guidance and counselling, financial matters, and evaluation.

Provision of facilities are those basic infrastructures and all educational equipments that are provided in the school in order to cater for the general and specific needs of students as well as to ease the process of teaching and learning both in class and outside the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

PTA      Parent Teachers’ Association
WAEC West African Examination Council
NECO  National Examination Council
NERDC Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council
SSS Senior Secondary School
JSS        Junior Secondary School
NPE National Policy on Education
ANOVA Analysis of Variance
NPTA National Parent Teachers Association
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
UBE Universal Basic Education

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to  the Study

Education has been accorded a high rating in Nigeria, and the demand for it is popular because of the desire of members of the society to give their children a better chance in life. The demand for education has become explosive and one which no government can afford to ignore.

Quality education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary, is desired by many Nigerians. At the secondary level, quality education is absolutely necessary because it serves as the foundation for tertiary level and for people to provide self employment if they cannot continue with the tertiary level. If that basic foundation is weak it will lead to national catastrophe as progress in the society becomes very difficult. Hence all concerned with secondary education should make their best input in order to ensure that a very solid foundation is laid.

The principal of a school is the main administrator of that organization (Okonkwo, 2011). The success or failure of the school depends on his administrative effectiveness. The principal has formal responsibilities for provisions, maintenance of facilities and implementation of educational goals and priorities that are the basis for on-going program of school improvement and professional development (NPE, 2004).

If the position of the principal is such an important one, he is expected to posses a number of qualities facilitative of schoolwork. According to Odo (2005), qualities expected of the principal are; commitment, drive, energy, vision, common sense and mental alertness. Peters (1996) stated that the principal should be wise and capable of moral leadership. In addition, the principal should be academic and professionally competent.

Facilities are very important aspect of education. Education has been the bedrock of development all over the world. Nations and individual all over the world agree that the way out of series of bondages plaguing them is through education. Thus the educational standard set of the school must be challenging to meet the need of the student and the society Olaniyonu, Adekoya and Gbenu (2008). Secondary schools are established by the government to provide services to the people. All these schools are expected to operate in the same curricular and admit children that have completed their primary education. They are also expected to provide the necessary teaching and learning facilities, such like classrooms, teaching materials, libraries laboratories etc. Secondary education in Nigeria could be said to be occupying a strategic position in the national system. This is in consideration of its consumer and producer status i.e. consuming the produce of the primary school and producing candidates for higher education (Yabo, 2006). Ayodele (2000) has argued that no matter how efficient and effective administration is, he hardly achieves success without the support and operation of well qualified and dedicated staff. Qualified staff are education best resources and asset. On the relationship between educational resources and students academic performance, Idiaghe (2004) conclude that “teacher’s qualification and adequate facilities were determinant of student’s success and that facilities influence the academic performance of the students. This is in consonant with Nwangwu (1997) who said that educational resources facilitate teaching and learning process. School facilities can be said to be those things that enable the teacher to do his/her work very well and helping the learners to learn effectively. The chalk-board for example facilitate the imparting the information on the learner. School facilities also include school building e.g classroom, assembly hall, laboratories, workshops, libraries, teaching and non teaching staff quarters, ventilated improve toilet facilities, refectory, administration block etc. They also include teaching materials, chairs, tables, devices such as modern educational hardware and software in the forms of magnetic tapes, films etc. Facilities are very important aspect of education. School facilities are all the things that are needed for effective teaching and learning process to take place. They are designed to enhance the process of teaching. The absence of school facilities implies the non existence of any set that may referred to as school.

Castadi in Peretomode (2001) conclude that “education facilities are those things of education which enables a skillful teacher to achieve a level of instructional effectiveness that far exceeds what is possible when they are not provided”. Adaralegbe in Abraham

(2003) posited that “the type of atmosphere required for effective learning is that consisting of better building, more and better teaching facilities”. Adesina in Abraham (2003) posited that “quality of education that our children get bear direct relevance to the availability or the inadequate facilities and overall atmosphere where the learning take place”. Educators must realize that there are many elements that influence the condition of school facilities. These elements could range from educational leadership and community involvement. There is no one element that operates in isolation (Lyons, 2001). Educators needed to be informed about the conditions of their school facilities as well as appreciate the differences that facilities could make in helping educate their children.

Sihneider (2002) noted that most of the school buildings were about fifty years old. Faced with an aging building stock and growing, shifting student’s enrollments state and community were working out to build and modernize k – 12 facilities. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly facilities. To him school facilities are physical resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning. They include blocks of classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries, equipments, consumables, electricity, water, audio and audio-visual aids, tables, desks, chairs, play ground, storage spaces and toilets. For the school to be effective, school facilities which serve as the tools of a workman in the hand of the teacher must be adequately provided. It’s outmost important that the availability of school facilities will duly contribute to the successful and effective instruction. These facilities must not only be provided, they must also be in good condition to enhance teaching and learning. This implies sound maintenance culture. This is supported with the view of Castaldi (2000) who opined that, school building becomes important because of the extent that it helps in improving teaching and learning effectiveness.

Many school facing aging facilities simply put off performing critical facilities maintenance and upgrade due to lack of adequate founding. The proper maintenance of school facilities make learning to be more real to the students and also serve as great assistance to the teacher in the school. Szuba and Young (2003) observe that school facilities maintenance affects the physical, educational and financial foundation of the school organization and should be the focus of its day-to-day operations and long-range manage priorities. Provisions and maintenance of school facilities should therefore be regarded as an integral and prominent aspect of all school operation and received particular attention in all educational planning and development aspects of the school operations. The Guyana Ministry of Education (2008) aptly describes the phenomenon of a whole school approach and states that a whole school approach to school facilities maintenance and improvement and thus, requires that planning becomes coherent and integrated part of the life of the school’s aims of raising learner achievement.

Bastidas (1998) view that “good maintenance means keeping a watchful eye for condition that may cause tripping hazards or water drainage towards the school building”. He further maintained that any tripping hazards should be eliminated through repair, ramping or clearing and that repairs must also be done if the condition of the materials deteriorates and create and eyesore. Bastidas, (1998) indicates that drive ways and parking lots are typically built of either paving bricks, concrete or graved and most important that all these features require some degree of maintenance. The issue of facility maintenance entails providing a clean and safe environment for teaching and learning. It also involves the provision of adequate facilities for teaching and learning. This type of maintenance should be adopted in the facilities maintenance plan. These are preventive, routine, emergency repairs and preventive maintenance. It is important to observe that, while the provision and rehabilitation of school facilities assist in the delivering of quality of teaching and learning, some intervention is needed to plan and utilized such facilities  effectively in the teaching and learning process. Teachers constitute the single most important group of stakeholders in determine good quality of education. What they know and can do can be an irreparable loss to the children (Ukeje, 1991). Support of the above statement Marks and King (1999) agreed that to help solve the problems interfering with school programme experience administrators and researchers have identifies school supervision as important ingredient in school and educational administration.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, public schools enrollment has continued to increase in facilities for effective teaching and learning. As a result of under funding of education in Nigeria, the government has been encouraging proper maintenance of available school facilities. Maintenance of facilities in the schools entails ensuring that facilities are kept near their original state as possible. This involve keeping the sports and football field clean, periodic renovation of building structure, servicing the school bus and generator sets, continue supplying instructional facilities, keeping the school record in their original state etc. for the purpose of restoring the facilities to optimum working condition.

The quality and durability of the buildings largely depend on the type and level of the servicing, repairs and the rate at which the needs and requirement change. School facilities management involves keeping records of the facilities, maintenance and evaluating the available facilities, planning for the facilities, motivating the students and the teachers to participate in facilities maintenance etc.

Many scholars, researchers, administrators and educational planners have confirmed that school facilities in secondary schools in Nigeria are inadequate and few ones are over utilized due to astronomical increase in enrolment. Ikoya and Onoyase, (2008) reported that only 26% of secondary schools across the country have school infrastructure in adequate quality and quantity. Similarly, Owuamanan, (2005) noted that the inadequacy of infrastructural facilities and lack of adequate maintenance for available facilities were major problems facing Nigeria educational system. The school facilities are grossly inadequate to the student’s population and the available facilities were poorly maintained. The provisions and maintenance of facilities in the school will enhance teaching and learning and improve the performances of the students. The absence of effective and efficient school facilities management may lead to many problems in the school system. Some of this problems could include inadequate founding for facilities maintenance, inadequate equipment documentation which is not readily accessible, improper maintenance of school records, inadequate maintenance of furniture’s, inadequate maintenance of building structure etc. For the educational industry to carryout its functions effectively, there is need for adequate provisions and maintenance of facilities. This research work focus on the assessment of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Zaria educational zone, Kaduna state, Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

This study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. determine the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State;
  2. assess the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State;
  3. examine the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of sport and welfare facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State;
  4. assess the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in urban and rural areas in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State; and
  5. determine the opinions of principals and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions were set to be answered:

  1. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State?
  2. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impact of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State?
  3. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impacts of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of sport and welfare facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State?
  4. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impacts of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in urban and rural areas in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State?
  5. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the impacts of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State?

1.5        Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principal and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principal and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principal and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of sport and welfare facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principal and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in urban and rural areas in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

Ho5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of principal and teachers on the role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

1.6        Basic Assumptions

The study is based on the following assumptions that:

  1. principals of secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna state are competent in the provision and maintenance of the school facilities.
  2. when learning facilities are adequately provided and well maintain in the secondary schools, academic performance and standard will be enhanced.
  3. principals provide and maintain sport and welfare facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

  1. principals are competent in the provision and maintenance of teaching facilities in urban and rural areas in secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.
  2. principals are competent in the provision and maintenance of learning facilities in public and private secondary schools in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State.

1.7       Significance of the Study

Dewees (1999) noted that the primary purpose for school facilities should be to provide a quality educational environment for teaching and learning.

The National Parent Teachers Association (NPTA), (2008) contended that school environment significantly impacts students academic achievement. The NPTA believed that states must ensure that all students should receive the chance for quality education in facilities that are safe, well- equipped and sufficiently maintained.

The findings of the study will provide useful information to the state policy makers and school administrators on the the roles play by the principals in the provision and maintenance of school facilities in the secondary school setting in Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State. The finding of the study will be useful to the school administrators and how they can employ it to enhance effective maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in

Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna state.

Information gathered from this research will be useful to lawmakers and educators in planning and making decisions about future findings for facilities.

The teachers will also benefit from the findings of the study since the teachers are the major implementers of curriculum in the schools and thus qualitative school facilities will help them on their job performance.

The students will also benefit from the study since the supervision of the facilities is geared towards the improvement of quality of students learning process.

Finally, other researchers will find this study as a source of secondary literature in the research of the related topics like impact of school facilities on the learning environment, Assessment of the management of school facilities, impact of facilities on educational outcomes etc.

1.8       Scope of the Study

The area of the study is Zaria Educational zone, Kaduna State. There are three (3) Local Government under the Zaria Educational zone viz Sabon Gari, Soba and Zaria. The study will cover all secondary schools in Zaria educational zone. There are seven hundred and seven (707) such schools in the state at the time of the study. The subjects of the study are the principals and teachers in these schools. The study focuses on the assessment of role performances of principals in the provision and maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Zaria educational zone, Kaduna state, Nigeria.

ASSESSMENT OF ROLE PERFORMANCES OF PRINCIPALS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT AND CONSERVATION OF AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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