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This study focused on Assessment of Records Creation and Maintenance in for proper administration in Islamic Schools in Zaria City. Five (5) research questions were raised to find out the types of records that are created in Islamic Schools in Zaria City, the medium used in records creation, how are records maintained in Islamic Schools among others. The research design adopted was cross-sectional survey; the population of this study consisted of all the teachers and headmasters in the Islamic Schools in Zaria City located in wards of Zaria City. Giving the total number of (391) in the (30) Islamic schools studied. Questionnaire was used to collect data. The data obtained from the copies of questionnaire was analyzed using simple percentages, and frequency. The findings of the study among others revealed that records created in Islamic Schools in Zaria City are financial records, contract records, promotion records, demotion records, PTA records, examination records, students certificates, staff records, attendance register, staff duty book, newly admitted students records, attendance register, are the records which are mainly generated. The medium through which records are mostly maintained in the Islamic Schools in Zaria City are Papers, Computer, Video Camera, and Handset. The study concluded that Islamic Schools in Zaria City creates and receive records through some of the events happening in the schools but the way they maintain such records leads to inability to provide them when needed. It was recommended among others that, school administrators should come up with a written and clearly spelt out records keeping and disposition policy which every teacher should be familiar with. Adequate computers, printers, scanners, flash dives, and other ICT facilities should be provided in the whole schools for creation and maintenance of records.




Cover Page                                                                                                                                   i

Title Page                                                                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                                                                 iii

Certification                                                                                                                               iv

Dedication                                                                                                                                   v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                     vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                                     viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                              x

List of Figures                                                                                                                            xi

Abstract                                                                                                                                     xii





1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                            7

1.3       Research Questions                                                                                                     8

1.4       Null Hypothesis                                                                                                           8

1.5       Objectives of the Study                                                                                                8

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                             9

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                                     10

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms                                                                               10




2.1       Introduction                                                                                                                 14

2.2    Records Creation in the Organizations                                                                          14

2.3    Types of Records Created in the Organizations                                                         16

2.4         Records Maintenance in the Organizations                                                             17

2.5       Records Continuum Model                                                                                         18

2.6       Previous Studies that Adopted Record Continuum Model                                        20

2.7       Application of Records Continuum Model to the Creation and Maintenance

of Records                                                                                                             20 2.8 Summary of the Review                                                                                     23




3.1        Introduction                                                                                                              27

3.2         Research Design Adopted for the Study                                                                     27

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                              28

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                               31

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                   32

3.6       Validity of the Instrument                                                                                          33

3.7        Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                     33

3.8       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                    34

3.9        Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                    34




4.1       Introduction                                                                                                                 37

4.2       Response Rate                                                                                                            37

4.3       Demographic Analysis                                                                                               38

4.4       Descriptive Statistical Analysis                                                                                  41

4.5       Inferential Statistical Analysis                                                                                   52




5.1    Introduction                                                                                                                   58

5.2       Summary of the Study                                                                                                58

5.3       Summary of the Major Findings                                                                                 59

5.4        Contributions to Knowledge                                                                                     60

5.5       Conclusion                                                                                                                  60

5.6       Recommendations                                                                                                      60

Bibliography                                                                                                             62

Appendix I                                                                                                                  68 Appendix II                                                                                                             72



                 1.1       Background to the Study

Records creation is a continuous process taking place in organizations. Examples of such records include Annual Parent Teachers’ Association meeting records, admission letters to new intakes, forms for new intakes, school fees receipts are created on term basis. These records are the ones created after every three (3) months. They include terminal examination results, terminal continuous assessment records, students’ terminal school fee receipts, staff terminal minutes of the meeting, general school terminal reports etc.

However, in school system there are records that are created whenever the need arises. For example, emergency meeting leads to the creation of minutes of that meeting. Also, other records of unscheduled visitation by some people in the community such as parents, group of elders in the community etc. Mukhtar et al (2014) had a view that in schools generally, records such as punishment book, records cards, examination time-table, school revenue and expenditure book, duty roster (staff duty roster) students duty visitors book, staff attendance book and the rest of school records are created. These records are created and kept in schools for many purpose.

Records are created on daily basis in all organizations including Islamic schools. Records in Islamic schools are documents that contain information about students, staff; parent teachers’ association. Mukhtar et al (2014) asserted that the essence of record creation and storage in Islamic schools is for reference purpose. Also, Pino (2000) maintained that proper record keeping in Islamic schools provides information needed on ex-students by higher and other related institutions and employers of labor for admission or placement. Islamic schools records are used as reference materials by the teachers. Many Islamic schools create and store records which are retrieved for future use. These records are created and kept in Islamic schools for many purposes.

Administrative value is one of the purposes of creation and keeping of these records in Islamic schools. Administrative value has to do with utilization of records to make planning’s such as the next number of students to be admitted, the number of chairs or tables to be acquired for the next set of students and the rest  (Adikwu, 2007). Other purposes of records creation in Islamic schools include financial, research, legal, informational and evidential purposes. Evidential purpose is very critical among these purposes. Pino, (2000); Opara and Nnadozie, (2006); Aduku and Sanusi, (2012) opined that evidence is an important value of records created by individuals or organizations. This is because records have the capacity of given account of the event that took place.

Maintenance of the records is done in the organizations in order to preserve the intellectual contents of such records. For example, in schools as organizations records are preserved and conserved in order to protect such records against damage. The records created in such schools are filed, arranged, using devices such as file, drawer, and box. In order to preserve such records through activities such as filing, storage, shelving, dusting among others in order to elongate the life span of such records Adcock,(2006); Osayuwa and Eneh, (2011); Mincika,

(2012). These activities are carried out in schools on Students’ payment receipts, Parent Teachers’ Association records, minutes of the meeting, students’ examination results, and attendance register. These records are preserved for future use by students and teachers of particular schools. Furthermore, Balloffet and Hille, (2004); National Archives of St. Kitts,

(2014) showed that preservation of records involves steps taken to prevent records from losing their physical as well as intellectual set up. Physical set up of the records includes the color of the records, the texture of the pages, and the strength of the cover etc. while intellectual set up of the records includes the appearance of the text in normal way, and the arrangement of words sentences in relation to the schools activities.

Furthermore, apart from the preservation of both physical and intellectual content of the records, maintenance of records includes proper organization, labeling, filing, storage and retrieval of such records owned by an individual or organization. Borglund and Oberg (2008) opined that records maintenance involves keeping of such records in a proper condition from the time the records are created, distributed, used and disposed. These comprise the stages of the life cycle of the records where maintenance is included. Records maintenance is a continuous process, this is because, filed, stored, arranged, dust, shelved and retrieved basis when a business transactions are being carried out in both profit and non-profit organizations. Records maintenance determines the success or failure of the individual or organizational operations. This is because effective records maintenance enables the individual or organization to preserve its corporate memory that is needed for future decision making. While poor records maintenance leads to the experiencing of litigation risk by individual or organization. All these are applicable to the records created in the schools.

With regards to organizations, every organization creates records that guide its daily operations. No organization can function without records which are either internally generated or externally received. Records created in the organization can be in print or electronic formats.

These records help organizations in different ways. For example Khan and Silverberg, (2000); Unger, (2007); Nelson and Simex, (2009); Swartz, (2009,) believed that records created in the organizations protect them from the risk of litigation. Also, Joseph, Debowski and Goldschmidt (2014) agreed that records help organizations in planning for their day to day activities. Organizations like universities, schools in which Islamic schools are inclusive create and maintained records the purpose of record keeping and management is to ensure that accurate and proper records of students’ achievement and growth, information on school activities and matters that will promote efficiency and effectiveness of the school system are kept, among others.  According to Durosaro (2002), records are important tools for effective planning and administration of a school. School records occupy strategic position in the effective and efficient organization and administration of the school. It helps for effective planning and implementation of appropriate course of actions, thereby introducing proper monitoring of school activities tasks.

Records are defined by different authors in different ways. For example, Smith, Ginn and Kallaus (2002) defined records as stored information, regardless of media or characteristics made or received by an organization that is evidence of its operations and that has value requiring its retention for a specific period of time. Also, these authors viewed records as data base element containing related files having related information concerning individuals or organizational operations. Records serve as documents that contain memory of the individuals’ or organization daily activities. Activities in the organizations such as staff movement, students’ academic records, meetings, seminars, workshops, and conferences, are recorded and

kept for future use. The documents are carriers of information.

Records have also been seen by International Standards Organization (2001) as information created or coming externally from one organization to another organization, maintained as evidence supporting individual or organization during legal justification or in the general business processes. This definition shows that records serve as tools that depends the occurrence of a particular issue of an individual or organization at large. Issues such as meeting, request for leave, request for the use of vehicle, classroom, among others are backed up with the documents that are used during the event in case of meetings and they also serve as backups showing the request and the approval of the use of a particular facility in a particular environment (Aduku, 2014).

Islamic schools are religious institutions created and managed by Muslim communities. These schools are owned and controlled by individual or group of individuals in the Muslim communities. Abd-el-khalik et al (2006) established that Islamic schools also known as are institutions combines the Islamic religious and western educational set up. These schools are found in different parts of Africa and the Nigeria in particular. For example, in Nigeria, these schools are mostly found in northern part of the country.

In the northern part of Nigeria, north-east and north-west are the regions where these schools are predominant. In north-eastern part of Nigeria, Borno State has the highest number of these schools compared to other states in the region. In north-western part of Nigeria, Kano has the highest number of these schools compared to other states in the region. The coming of these schools allows their students to have educational as well as career opportunities without ignoring their religious belief. As a result of the coming of these schools, many of their students graduate with certificates that enable them be employed in public and private organizations such as schools and ministries.

Islamic schools nowadays have structures like western education schools. Alex (2012) revealed that many Islamic schools operate under a designed curriculum, having time-table, and qualified teachers and issues certificates. Even though many of these schools still operate in combination of religious and western education, they have educational system that improves the lives of the students who pass through the system. The schools are now able to produce people who work in the society and improving the lives of other people.

Islamic schools are sometimes called Madarissul Islamiyya. Mohammed (2011) reported that Islamic schools are now linked with government. For example, national board for Arabic and Islamic studies is a body that regulates the activities of Islamic establishments including these schools. Management of these schools is done using the guidelines from this NBAIS. The board is responsible for monitoring and approval of the curriculum as well as the period when these schools are closed and opened with regards to public holidays.

                 1.2       Statement of the Problem

Records creation and maintenance in Islamic schools are everyday activities. These records emanates from examination records, Parent Teachers’ Association records, records created during registration of newly admitted student at a regular interval. Others include attendance register for students, staff duty reports, lesson plan, students’ duty records (prefects)  are created and maintained on a daily basis. The purpose of maintaining records created by institutions which Islamic schools are inclusive using techniques such as presentation, conservation to mention but few is to elongate the life span of such records for future use Osayuwa and Eneh, (2011); Mincika, (2012); Adcock (2014).

However, observation by the researcher revealed that most teachers who attended Islamic schools suffer when there is verification exercise in Kaduna State. Many have gone over eight (8) months to one (1) year without salary as a result of not been able to present their original certificates for verification. Furthermore, many of them were not able to find their original certificates in these Islamic schools they attended. Could this be as a result of improper records management in these Islamic schools they attended? As a result of these challenges, there is need for remedy.

Therefore, several studies on records creation and maintenance have been carried out by different people in different institutions including Pino (2000), Opara and Nnadozie, (2006); Odeyemi et al; (2011); Aduku and Sanusi, (2012); as well as Aduku and Abdul, (2012) to mention but few. These studies provided proper understanding of the nature, procedures and challenges faced by the institutions they studied with regards to the ways these institutions create and maintain their records. With regards to records creation and maintenance in Islamic Schools in Zaria, no previous study to the best of knowledge of the researcher existed in relation to the ways Islamic Schools maintain their records.

Hence, this study assesses records management in Islamic schools in Zaria City using the construct of creation and organization of record continuum model as a guide.

                 1.3       Research Questions

The following research questions guided this study:

  1. What types of records are created in Islamic Schools in Zaria City?
  2. What media are used for records creation in Islamic Schools in Zaria City?
  3. How are records maintained in Islamic Schools in Zaria City?
  4. How are records organized in Islamic schools in Zaria City?
  5. What are the challenges faced in the maintenance of records in Islamic Schools in Zaria





                 1.4        Null Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were tested for this study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the types of records created among Islamic Schools in Zaria City.
  2. There is no significant difference in the procedures through which records are maintained among Islamic Schools in Zaria City.

                 1.5       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are:

  1. To find out the types of records created in Islamic Schools in Zaria City.
  2. To identify the medium through which records are created in Islamic Schools in Zaria


  1. To determine the procedures through which records are maintained in Islamic Schools in Zaria City.
  2. To ascertain the ways through which records are organized in Islamic Schools in Zaria


  1. To determine the challenges faced in the maintenance of records in Islamic Schools in

Zaria City.

                 1.6       Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is borne on the fact that it is the first empirical study on creation and maintenance of records for proper administration in Islamic schools in Zaria City and aims at adding to the body of knowledge on how records should be created and maintained in these schools. The study when completed will be of significance to teachers in Islamic

Schools; this is because they are expected to get new ideas from contemporary scholars on records management. The study when completed will help provide the government with quick and accurate data for effective policy formulation and regulation.

Also, the study would be of significance to management of Islamic schools which will be presented with the views of teachers on the school management necessary for progressive records keeping in the school system. In the strength of the above, the national board for Arabic and Islamic studies will know the specific management theory and area of records keeping to be focused during staff seminars and workshop on school management and records keeping. In all, when teachers adopt better management on records keeping, to be ascertained in this work, falsification of data will be minimized, issue of ghost workers and sometimes half-hazard retrieval of information among principals and staff will be drastically reduced and teachers will be more committed to their work thus, yielding improved and productive personnel to the society.

                 1.7       Scope of the Study

This study has focus only on Islamic Schools in Zaria City  where records such as school fees receipt, examination results, attendance registers, parent teachers’ association (PTA) records among others are created and kept. Only Headmasters and teachers whose offices serve as records storage centers, having direct access to such records were used as respondents to this study. Therefore, the study has focused only on these heads of schools and teachers. Also only two of the models used in this research were found relevant to the study and were used in research questions these models are “creation” and “organization”. Furthermore, the whole of the study area is categorized into six wards namely: as Kwarbai“A” ward, Kwarbai“B” ward, Anguwan Fatika ward, Anguwan Juma ward, Kaura ward and

Limancin kona ward

                 1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally to ease their understanding and usage in this research:

Islamic used to signify knowledge that is peculiar and taught to muslims in Kaduna state. Islamic Schools These are Islamic formal establishment where youths and children are taught Islamic and western education in Kaduna state.

Records These are documents such as school fees receipt, examination results, attendance registers, and parent teachers’ association (PTA) records among others found in Islamic Schools in Zaria City.

Records Creation This is a process of generation of records in Islamic Schools in Zaria City Records Maintenance This has to do with filing, arrangement, storage, preservation and retrieval of records in Islamic Schools in Zaria City.

Assessment is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs to refine programs and improve student learning.




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