ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND EXERCISE OF SOLID WASTE ORGANIZATION AMONG FAMILIES IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND EXERCISE OF SOLID WASTE ORGANIZATION AMONG FAMILIES IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was used. Seven hundred and twenty (720) respondents were sampled from a population of 3,250,960 households in Katsina State, Nigeria. The respondents were drawn through multistage sampling technique, which consisted of stratified, simple random, and proportionate sampling techniques. A close ended questionnaire was used to obtain responses from the respondents. Seven hundred and eleven (711); copies of questionnaires were returned. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to describe the demographic characteristics of the respondents and to answer the research questions respectively. For the purpose of the study, research hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance using one sample t- test and Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). The findings of the study revealed that the knowledge, attitude and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina State were significant,(P=0.000 ). Also significant relationship existed  between knowledge and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina State,(P=0.020<0.620) and significant relationship existed  between knowledge and attitude of solid waste management among households in Katsina State,(P=0.010<0.751). On the basis of the findings of the study, it was concluded that households in Katsina State have adequate knowledge of solid waste management and that with this knowledge the attitude and practice correlated with one another. However, it was, recommended that health educators/environmental health officers should organize and facilitate seminars, workshops and conferences that will educate households more on solid waste management. Government should provide trucks, incinerators, wheel barrows and other equipment that can be use to improve waste management practice in Katsina state of Nigeria.

        

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         ii

DECLARATION                                                                                                                  iii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                 iv

DEDICATION                                                                                                                       v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                   vi

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                        vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                     viii

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM                                                                            xi

LIST OF TABLE                                                                                                                 xii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                                    1

INTRODUCTION                                                                                                                  1

1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                                   1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                  5

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                           7

1.5 Hypotheses                                                                                                                       8

1.5.1   Major Hypothesis                                                                                                         8

1.5.2   Sub- Hypotheses                                                                                                          8

1.6Basic Assumptions                                                                                                            9

1.7    Significance of the Study                                                                                                9

1.8 Delimitations of the Study                                                                                               10

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                                 11

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                                                              11

2.1 Introduction                                                                                                                    11

2.2 Conceptual Framework                                                                                                   12

2.2.2 Solid Waste Management                                                                                             14

2.2.2 Classification of Solid Wastes                                                                                       26

2.2.3.  Biomedical solid waste- Infections Waste                                                                    29

2.3 Solid Waste Management in Nigeria                                                                                30

2.3.1 Collection of Solid Waste                                                                                             31

2.3.2 Disposal of Solid Waste                                                                                               32

  1. Landfills 33
  2. Recovery and Recycling 34
  3. Plasma gasification 35
  4. Composting 35

2.4 Knowledge of Solid Waste Management Among Households                                            36

  • Attitudes towards Solid Waste Management Among Households 37
  • Practice of Solid Waste among Households 43
  • Influence of Demographic Characteristics on Solid Waste Management among

Households                                                                                                                          48

2.5 Environmental Effectiveness                                                                                           49

  • Governance networks 50
  • Four Determinants of Environmental Effectiveness 52

2.6   Solid Waste Transfer and Transport                                                                               57

  • Solid Waste Processing and Recovery 58
  • Solid Waste Disposal 59

2.7. Problems Facing Solid Waste Management in Katsina state                                              59

  • Empirical Studies 60
  • Summary 66

CHAPTER THREE                                                                                                              67

METHODOLOGY                                                                                                               67

  • Introduction 67
  • Research Design 67
  • Population of the Study 68 4 Sample and Sampling Technique 68
  • Instrument Error! Bookmark not defined.
  • Validity of the Instrument 70
  • Procedure for Data Collection 70
  • Procedure for Data Analysis 71

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                                72

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                                            72

  • Introduction 72
  • Results 73
  • Research Questions 75
  • Hypotheses Testing 81

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                                 89

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                89

5.1 Summary                                                                                                                       89

  • Summary of the findings 90
  • Contribution to knowledge 91
  • Conclusion 92
  • Recommendations 92

5.6  Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                      93

REFERENCES                                                                                                                    96

APPENDICES                                                                                                                   105

 

             

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERM

KNOWLEDGE: Is the awareness of Households on solid waste management.

ATTITUDE: Is the behavior of Households on solid waste management.

PRACTICE:  Refers to an action of Households on solid waste management.

MANAGEMENT: Is a process whereby Households collect their west and deposit properly.

RECYCLE: Is the modern way of combining waste into useful.

 

 

LIST OF TABLE

 

Table 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents.                                                      73

Table 4.2.4: Co relational statistics on relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management based on gender among households in Katsina state? 80

Table 4.2.5: Correlational statistics between knowledge and attitude of solid waste

management based on gender among households in Katsina state                                              81

Table 4.3.1 a: One sample t-test analysis on Knowledge, attitude and practice of solid

waste management in Katsina states                                            Error! Bookmark not defined.

Table 4.3.1: One sample t-test analysis on knowledge of solid waste management among

households in Katsina State                                                                                                         81

Table 4.3.2: One sample t-test analysis  on attitude of solid waste management among

the households in Katsina State                                                                                                   82

Table 4.3.3: One  sample t-test analysis on  Practice of solid waste management among

the households in Katsina State                                                                                                   83

Table 4.3.4: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient(PPMC) analysis on relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management among

households in Katsina State                                                                                                         85

Table 4.3.5: Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis on relationship between knowledge and Attitude of solid waste management among households in

Katsina State                                                                                                                                 83

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Waste management is one of the most visible urban services whose effectiveness and sustainability serve as an indicator for good local governance, sound municipal management and successful urban reforms. Waste management, therefore, is a very good indicator of performance of a municipality. Waste management is the process by which unwanted materials are being treated either through recycling or by complete destruction or burning of waste materials. Waste management in urban centers of Africa has for a long time been centralized with the use of imported refuse truck that collects wastes from sources or transfer point and delivers to designated waste dumps (Rotich, Zhao & Dung, 2006). Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) system in Nigeria has changed from the colonial days in the 40s, 50s and early 60s when it was efficient because of the lower urban population and adequate resources to the current status that displays inefficiencies (Okumu & Nyenje 2011).The centralized waste management system has evolved into the current management mixtures that included centralized as well as the involvement of the private sector (Okot-Okumu & Nyenje 2011)

This calls for efficient collection system to avoid health, aesthetics and environmental impacts. The global trend of increased use of electrical and electronic goods is also evident in Nigeria where E-waste is becoming a significant threat to the environment and human health in Nigerian urban centers (Blaser& Schluep, 2012).

Waste sources are households (residential), commercial premises, markets, institutions, industries and health care facilities. Residential areas or households are the major contributor of wastes followed by markets and commercial areas respectively (

Okot-Okumu & Nyenje 2011). Densely populated urban zones (e.g. slums) have low income markets with waste generation estimated between 0.22 and 0.3kg/cap/day. Solid waste generation by the higher income markets is-estimated between 0.66 and 0.9 kg/cap/day on average (Kaseva,& Mbuligwe, 2005) Overall waste generation rate for Nigeria urban centers vary on average between 0.26 (low income) and 0.78 (high income)kg/cap/day (Rotich, et at., 2006; Scheinberg, 2011). Low income urban communities generate lower waste volumes because they buy little and are less wasteful in consumption. In contrast the higher income groups have higher disposable income and purchase larger volumes of consumable goods, that have high waste portions and also practice a more wasteful consumption pattern ( Scheinberg, & Anchutz, 2007).This observation is consistent with what has been reported by other authors (Hina, Zia,& Devadas, 2007). Low income urban community spend most of their disposable income for purchase of food items most part of which are consumed and little disposed, while the higher income groups purchase a variety of goods some with associated wastes in form of non-consumables (e.g. packaging, containers, etc.).

When solid wastes are disposed of by water, it is referred to as sewage. The pipes that channel sewage from building and apartments are called sewers, while the networks of sewers in the community are called sewerage. Much water is required for sewage disposal, which is made up of 99.9% water and 0.1% organic and inorganic matter,

(West Africa Examinations Board 1991). According to Akpofure, (2009); Omodu, (2007), and Miller (1992), 97% of earth’s volume of water is found in oceans and seas. The remaining 3%, only, is fresh water, out of which 2.997% is locked up as ice glaciers in the poles, or as ground waters, too deep and expensive to harness. It means that only 0.0003% of earth’s water is available to humans, in lakes, soil moisture, exploitable ground water, atmospheric water, streams and rivers. In other words, if the world’s water were only 100 liters, our usable amount of fresh water would only have amounted to 0.003 liter, which is just a half teaspoonful, for all mankind (Miller, 1999). This is the reason that fecal disposal by water is a difficult task, especially in rural and semi-urban communities.

Little is known of waste from urban agriculture that has emerged and this together ‘ with poor sanitation in the semi-urban areas pose high risk to human health (Asomani, Boateng,& Haight, 1999; Okot-Okumu, 2008). Disposal of waste in household is largely carried out using storage containers (e.g. sacks polythene bags and boxes) which is mostly used by the poorer urban community arc dumped with the wastes. There is no sorting as such, but people separate components of wastes considered of value such as vegetables and food leftover used at source or sold and sometimes given free (for animal feeds), plastic bags (reuse), bottles- plastic/glass (reuse and sale), tins (reuse and sale) and scrap metals (for sale) are separated by some people from waste that is usually stored and mixed. Sorted/separated wastes are either reused at source or sold to itinerant buyers who afterwards sell them to middlemen who supply recycling industries. Waste separation also takes place at transfer stations (e.g. bunkers, skips, road verges) on transit to the landfill and at the landfill or dump sites (Miller, 2010).

The generated wastes are transported to transfer points (Skips, bunkers, standby trailers, open lots and mostly by the waste generators) e.g. (households, commercial ‘.premises, market traders) themselves or hired (informal) labor, before collection by urban council workers or private operators. Industries, large institutions (e.g. educational, hospitals), shopping malls, large markets have their own transfer stations served by skips, bunkers, trailers and other waste containment facilities. Three main methods of wastes collection can be identified as the informal primary or pre-collection phase mainly from households to community collection points (e.g. skips, bunkers or open roadside) mostly by households or hired labor. The secondary phase collection is from community transfer points to final disposal sites or landfills and is mostly by formal institutions like urban councils and private operators. Private operators mostly collect wastes directly from generating sources (door to door). Private operators collect waste at negotiated fees with the individual clients (Miller,2010).Industries and shopping malls in most cases contract private waste collectors to pick wastes from their premises, while community markets and hospitals still rely mainly on urban council collection. Other collection modes take the form of a “summon to “bring” system, where a truck is parked at a location and a horn (hooting) summons people to deliver wastes to the truck. The introduction of private operators has increased solid waste collection levels compared to when it was dependent entirely on the urban councils (Oberlin, 2011; Okot-Okumu,& Nyanje, 2011). However most of these reported collection efforts only apply to wastes that have reached community collection points (Transfer points). This means that a higher percentage of urban solid waste does not reach the legal disposal points but ends up in the environment. Open dumping is the most common waste disposal methods in urban areas (Oberlin, 2011;OkotOkumu,&Nyenje, 2011). Where skips and waste bunkers are too far, the communities dump wastes indiscriminately and some disposal points are often overflowing with uncollected wastes.

The use of skips has been terminated in many parts of northern Nigeria since 2002 (Kusu, 2007). Skips were found to be linked to lack of cleanliness and most urban residents were dissatisfied with its use. The current operating systems in Nigeria are open ground disposal and in the remaining skips. Katsina state is one of the 36 states in Nigeria and carved from former Kaduna state on 23 september1987 located on 12015‘N

7030E Coordinate in the North waste geopolitical Zone. The management of solid waste is the mandate of ministry of environment and co-ordinate by the state environmental protection agency (SEPA). For the Households the state has reiterated the monthly environmental Sanitation conducted last Saturdays of every month (2015). Most of those households participated in the exercise not for their benefit but for the fact that it is a directive from the state government. The solid waste disposal method used is mostly the dumping method used is mostly the dumping method which takes long time be evacuated, creating more hazard to the environment. Communities without access to transfer stations resort to open disposal methods which include burning, burying, using of wastes as animal feeds and indiscriminate disposal. There is rampant i littering caused by the indiscriminate disposal of wastes in storm drainage channels, road verges and open lots. They carelessly disposed wastes block storm water drains causing floods and also cause health hazards and poor aesthetics. Hence the purpose of this study is to assess knowledge attitude and practice of solid waste management among household in Katsina State, Nigeria.

                   1.2            Statement of the Problem

Solid waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing states and local government environmental protection agencies in Nigeria. The volume of solid wastes being generated continues to increase at a faster rate than the ability of the agencies to improve on the financial and technical resources needed to parallel this growth. Solid waste management in Nigeria may, however, be characterized by inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal ‘of solid wastes. Most developing countries, including Nigeria have solid waste management problems different from those found in industrialized countries in areas of composition, density, political, and economic framework, waste amount, access to waste for collection, awareness, and attitude. The wastes are heavier, wetter and more corrosive ‘in developing cities than developed cities (Ogwueleka, 2009).

Solid waste management is therefore, critical for all levels of management and control. New kinds of waste are always being introduced into the solid waste stream due to changing consumption patterns and rapid population increase. Consumer products have become a very important part of human life because of advances in the market industry and lifestyles over the last three decades. This has led to an increase in the use of products which have now become important part of human lives (More, 2006). This growth is significant because it has made life in homes, and markets uneasy, complicated, and unattractive. Though there are a number of private recyclers they are inadequate and their demand for waste falls short of the waste supply because waste hardly reaches transfer point but rather littered the environment. Also, there are inadequate collection programmers to ensure that most of the wastes are recycled. Finally, there are not enough legislation to properly regulate the handling and processing of these wastes. All these explain why much of the waste in the state may end up in streets, gutters, and indiscriminate dumping rather than in landfills and incinerators.

The researcher observed that failure of proper waste disposal in Katsina state leads to ill health to the community, air pollution, water pollution and land pollution and it served as a reservoir of infections, malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, etc. It is against this back ground that the researcher became interested in conducting a research on assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice on solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.

 

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to Assess Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Solid Waste Management Among Households in Katsina state, Nigeria. The specific purpose is to assess;

  1. Knowledge of solid waste management among households in Katsina state,

Nigeria

  1. Attitude towards solid waste management  among household in Katsina state,

Nigeria

  1. The practice of solid waste management  among households in Katsina state, Nigeria
  2. The relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.
  3. The relationship between knowledge and attitude of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.

                   1.4            Research Questions

This study is proposed to answer the following specific research questions

  1. What is the knowledge of members of households about solid waste management in Katsina state, Nigeria?
  2. What is the attitude of households towards on solid waste management in Katsina state, Nigeria?
  3. What are the practices of households on solid waste management in Katsina state,

Nigeria?

  1. Is there any relationship between knowledge and attitude of solid waste management based on gender among households in Katsina state?
  2. Is there any relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management based on gender among households in Katsina state?

                   1.5            Hypotheses

On the basis of the research questions of the study, the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

1.5.1   Major Hypothesis

Knowledge, attitude and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina state is not significant.

1.5.2 Sub- Hypotheses

  1. The knowledge of solid waste management among households in Katsina State is not significant.
  2. The attitude of solid waste management among the households in Katsina State is not significant.
  3. The practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina State is not significant.
  4. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina State.
  5. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude of solid waste management among households in Katsina State.

1.6 Basic Assumptions

On the basis of research questions the following basic assumptions were made for the purpose of this study that;

  1. Households have adequate knowledge of solid waste management in Katsina

state, Nigeria

  1. Households have positive attitude towards solid waste management in Katsina state, Nigeria
  2. Households practice adequate solid waste management in Katsina state, Nigeria
  3. Households practice good disposal of solid waste management in Katsina state, Nigeria

1.7    Significance of the Study

This study, if successfully completed, is hoped to be of significance to government, Health educators, Households, readers and researchers in related areas:

For the government, of this study could be useful in updating the policy on solid waste management so that health educators could enlighten the community on how to clean their environment in order to avoid occurring of diseases within the communities, also provide the government at both state and local levels the need to ensure that the solid waste management is given urgent and prompt attention. For the fact that practice of solid waste management would be published in this study.

The households in Katsina state would benefit from the outcome of this research, as it would change their behavior to practice the correct way of solid waste management at all time. More so, the study would provide basic and vital information on solid waste management among households in Katsina state.

For health educators, this study would contribute to the field of environmental health Education, as it would enable health educators organize seminar based on solid waste management issues which will enlighten the people of Katsina state and beyond.

The outcome of this study should serve as a source of literature for readers and researchers who want to conduct a research on any field related to the topic in question.

                   1.8            Delimitations of the Study

This study was purposely conducted to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria. In order to achieve this purpose; the study was delimited to:

  1. Knowledge of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.
  2. Attitude towards solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.
  3. Practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.
  4. The relationship between knowledge and attitude of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.
  5. The relationship between knowledge and practice of solid waste management among households in Katsina state, Nigeria.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND EXERCISE OF SOLID WASTE ORGANIZATION AMONG FAMILIES IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA

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