ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF ANALYSIS AND TASK-BASED SYSTEMS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF ANALYSIS AND TASK-BASED SYSTEMS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the “Assessment of Effects of Inquiry and Task-based Methods on Students‟ Performance in Economics Among Secondary Schools in Imo State, Nigeria”. The objectives of the study were to: determine the performance of students taught Economics using inquiry and those taught using task-based methods in secondary schools in Imo state; find out the performance of experimental group in pre-test and posttest using inquiry method in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Imo state; determine the  performance of experimental group in pre-test and post-test using taskbased method in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Imo state; ascertain the effect of inquiry method in the performance of rural and urban students taught Economics in secondary schools in Imo state; find out the effect of task-based method on the performance of rural and urban students taught Economics in secondary schools in Imo state; determine the effect of performance of male and female students taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo state; ascertain the effect of performance of male and female students taught Economics using task-based method in secondary schools in Imo state; Seven research questions and seven hypotheses were drawn based on the objectives of the study.  The study reviewed both theoretical and conceptual frameworks; under the theoretical framework, the following theories were considered; Brunner‟s theory of instruction, Gagne‟s theory of instruction, and Cultural-

Historical Activity theory but Brunner‟s theory of instruction was considered best due to its emphasis on the process of pedagogy as it affects students overall academic performance in school. Research design employed was the two by two pre-test, post-test quasi experimental/control design. The targeted population was ten thousand, two hundred and forty four public secondary school two (SSII) students that offered Economics in the six educational zones of Imo state. A purposive sampling technique was adopted to draw two educational zones, six schools and three hundred and six SSII Economics students from both urban and rural areas of the state. Sixty lesson plans were developed by the researcher to guide the field work. Economics Inquiry Task-based Performance Test (EITBPT) made of twenty five items of objectives and theory questions from SSII scheme of work were developed and validated as instrument for data collection. The research instrument (EITBPT) was pilot tested and subjected to PPMCC analysis and there reliability index were .733, 0.77, and 0.69 respectively. which were considered by experts to be reliable. Research questions were answered by descriptive statistics of means and standard deviation while hypotheses were tested using independent t-test, paired sample t-test and ANCOVAR at 0.05 level of significance. The results amongst others revealed that both inquiry and task-based group methods performances are the same and therefore the inquiry and task-based methods are effective for the teaching of Economics in secondary schools in Imo state. The result also showed that there was no significant difference in the effect of task-based method on students‟ performances in rural and urban located schools in Imo state. Based on the findings, it was concluded that inquiry and task-based methods were very effective for higher academic performance among SSII students in the study area. It was therefore recommended that, Economics teachers should ensure that daily class work and assignment given to students should include relevant inquiry and task-based activities as much as possible.

             

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                         Pages

Cover Page                                                                                                                  i

Title Page                                                                                                                    ii

Declaration          iii Certification          iv

Dedication                                                                                                                   v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    vi

Abstract                                                                                                                       vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                       ix

List of Tables                                                                                                              xi

List of Abbreviations and Symbols                                                                            xii

List of Appendices                                                                                                      xiii

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               5

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                   7

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        8

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                      8

1.6     Basic Assumptions                                                                                           9

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                10

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                          13 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1      Introduction                                                                                                     14

2.2    Theoretical Framework                                                                         15

  • 1Bruner‟s Theory of Instruction                                                21
    • Conceptual Framework                                                                         21
      • Concept of Inquiry                                                                                        21
      • Concept of Task                                                                                     30
      • Concept of Economics                                                                         39
    • Economics Curriculum in Nigeria                                                                40
      • Economics Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools                         44
      • Need for Economics Education                                                             46
      • Methods of Teaching Economics                                                             50
      • Concepts of Students‟ Performance                                                 65
    • Challenges of Teachers and Students in Teaching and                                 73

Learning ofEconomics in Secondary Schools

  • Empirical Studies                                                                                     75
  • Summary of Literature Review                                                                     93

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • Introduction                                                                                     94
  • Research Design                                                                                     94
  • Population                                                                                                 95
  • Sample and Sampling Technique                                                             96

3.4.1    Determinant of Samples Homogeneity                                                          98

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               98

  • Table of Specification                                                                                   99
  • Validity of the Instrument                                                                         100
  • Pilot Study                                                                                                 100
  • Reliability of the Instrument                                                             101

3.6     Procedure for Data Collection                                                                          101

  • Treatment Procedure                                                                                     104
  • Control of Extraneous Variables                                                                   105

3.7     Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                106 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 

  • Introduction                                                                                                 107
  • Description of Study Variable                                                                       107
  • Response to Research Questions                                                             108
  • Hypotheses Testing                                                                                     115
  • Summary for Findings                                                                         126
  • Discussion for Findings                                                                         129

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Summary                                                                                                       136
  • Conclusion                                                                                                 138
  • Recommendations                                                                                     139
  • Contribution to Knowledge                                                             140
  • Suggestions for Further Studies                                                             141

References                                                                                                      142

Appendices                                                                                                     159

 

             

 

  LIST OF TABLES  
Table 1: Population Distribution of SSII Economics Students   in Imo State 96
Table 2: Sampled SSII Economics Students in Imo State 97
Table 3: Table of Specification 99
Table 4: Distribution of Students according to Location 104
Table 5:

 

Distribution of Students by according to the Treatment groups 107
Table 6: Mean scores statistics on the Effect of Inquiry and Lecture   Methods on the Students‟ Performance of SSII students  in Imo state.

 

108
Table 7: Descriptive Statistics on the Pre-test and Post-test scores of  students taught reasons for demand for money in Imo state.

 

108
Table8: Mean scores statistics on the Effect of Inquiry and Lecture   Methods on Location on the Performance scores among  SSII Economics students in Imo state.

 

109
Table 9: Descriptive Statistics on male and female taught historical   development of money

 

109
Table 10: Independent t-test statistics on the differences in the   Performancesof students in experimental and control  groups taught using inquiry and lecture methods in Imo state.

 

110
Table 11: Paired Sample t-test statistics in the performance of pre-test  and post-test of students taught reasons for demand for money  using inquiry methods

 

111
Table 12: Independent t-test statistics on difference in post-test   performance of male and female students‟ taught historical  development of money using inquiry method of secondary  school students of Imo state.

 

113
Table 13:

 

Independent t-test statistics on difference on effect of inquiry  method on location on the mean performance of students‟ scores  among SSII Economics students Imo state. 116
     

LIST OF APPENDICES

 

Appendix I:  Univariate Analysis of Variance

 

  159
Appendix II: The Breakdown of WAEC May/June Chief

Examiners Report, Comments and Suggestions

Economics Paper 2 Performance from the Year  2011 – 2013, with a Summary Comment of the Head  of WAEC National Office on 2014 result released

 

  181
Appendix III: Economics Performance Test (EPT) for SSII

(Pre-Test and Post-Test)

 

182  
Appendix IV:  Marking Scheme for Economics Performance Test   for SSII (Pre-test and Post-test)

 

  185
Appendix V: SSIIScheme of Work For 2ndTerm New Curriculum

 

187  
Appendix VI: Economics Students Inquiry and Task-based               Performance Test (ESITBPT)

 

  189
Appendix VII: Post-test marking Scheme     Performance Test (ESITBPT)

 

  192
Appendix VIII: SS II Scheme of work for 2nd Term New Curriculum

 

  194
Appendix IX Inquiry Lesson Plan

 

  195
Appendix  X: Task-based Lecture Lesson Plan

 

  235
Appendix XI: Lecture Lesson Plan

 

  279
Appendix XII: Experimental Groups Urban and Rural

 

  317
Appendix XIII: Request Letter

 

  323
Appendix XI:  Training Manual for Research Assistants   327

 

 

 

LIST ABBREVIATIONS

CESAC Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre
CI Confirmation Inquiry
EPT Economics Performance Test
FRN Federal Republic of Nigeria
GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education
GI Guided Inquiry
HSC Higher School Certificate
IBM 23 International Business Method Version 23
IM Inquiry Method
ISAT  Integrated Science Achievement Test
JAMB Joint Admission and Matriculation Board
LM Lecture Method
MAN Mathematics Association of Nigeria
MAS Mathematics Attitude Scale
NABTEB National Business and Technical Education Board
NAS National Academy of Science
NECO National Examination Council
NPE National Policy on Education
NTI National Teachers Institute
OP Open Inquiry
SAS Science Attitude Scale
SSS II Senior Secondary School Two
SST Sensory Stimulation Theory
ST Structured Inquiry
STAN Science Teachers Association of Nigeria
WAEC West African Examination Council

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Academic Performance:            Refers to as the assumed effect of the use of inquiry and

task-based methods of teaching on students‟ overall academic achievement in school.

Inquiry Skill: This is referred to as the students‟ability to be pro-active during instruction by thinking deep and ask questions.
Inquiry Teaching: Involves creating, conducting and evaluating learning experiences that require students to go through the same processes and knowledge they would use if engaged in independent rational thinking.
Instruction: Is referred in this study as a process of taking the learner from the known to the unknown.   
Education: Is referred in this study as a public service and a right to

every citizenry.            

Effect: Refers to either positive or native changes brought about by one variable factor or another.
Knowledge: Refers to the ability of a learner, to analyse educational concepts and principles thereafter be able to convert them into practical life situation.
Structured Inquiry: This is a teaching strategy which significantly influences

knowledge inquiry by helping students ask questions and providing guidance.

Teaching Method: This is referred to as course of action which varies according to circumstances.
Teaching: Is referred in this study as a form of setting the stage so that someone can learn.
Task-based Method: This is a method that allowed teachers to assign someform of activityto students during instruction.
Task: Is referred in this study as the hundred and one thing people do in every life, at work, at play, and in between.
Learning: Is referred to as an active process in which learners construct new ideas based upon their current and past knowledge.
   

            

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Education has been described as the master key to rapid social, economic andpoliticaldevelopment of any nation. It is therefore seen as a sure process of developing the citizenry cognitively, affectively and psychomotively. Education is further regarded as the process of teaching, training and learning which could be formal or informal with the aim of improving knowledge and to develop skill in the recipients.  It is a type of life-long learning process which starts from the cradle and ends in the grave. This is no doubt why the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2009) in the

National Policy on Education stressed that education is an instrument “par excellence” for effecting national development in all ramifications. Therefore, any positive social change that occurred to humanity at one time or the other is likely to be attributed to the quality of education provided, be it formally and or informally. It is no surprise why the public regarded education as a public service and therefore a right to everyone which the state should provide for all her citizenry.One of the cardinal objectives of education in Nigeria is to equip every citizen with such knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will enable him/her derive maximum benefits from his/her membership ofsociety. Indeed, quality education will enable the Nigerian child to have a fulfilling life and hence contribute towards nationaldevelopment.

The concept of teaching is synonymous to education. Teaching in thisstudy shall be considered in two distinct forms. Firstly, teaching can bereferred to a particular occupation or profession in which people may be engaged in. Secondly, teaching denotes the variousactivities undertaken by a more experienced and more knowledgeable person in order to enable otherslearn. It is “teaching” in the later sense that concerned the researcher in this study.Like learning, teaching is a polymorphous activity. It takes many different forms; so much so that there seems no limit to its activities. This means that teaching can be characterized by looking at the purpose of the various teaching activities. It is by classifying the aim and the intention of what is going on, that teaching can be said to have occurred.Teaching is the process of making it possible for someone to learn. According to Guga and Bawa (2012), teaching is the act of systematically presenting stimuli, and or cues. Unless learning has taken place as a result of some effort, such effort cannotbereferred to as teaching.Traditionally, teaching was “conceived as a process of making impression on passive learners that is, „hammering on the facts‟. Sometimes ago in the United Kingdom, some candidates seeking admission for teacher training were asked why they chose teaching as a career. Some replied that they felt that they were “under some obligation to pass on to the students the knowledge they themselves had acquired”. Many teachers in different parts of Africa today still boast of their ability to pour into, or stuff the headsof their students with book knowledge.

However, teaching is more than the delivery of carefully prepared lesson. It is an activity designed by a person more experienced, more knowledgeable and more matured with respect to learning experience to further the education of another.A more global conception of teaching is that it is an attempt to help someone to acquire or change an attitude, knowledge, idea, or skill. Essentially, teaching consists of setting the stage so that someone can learn (FRN, 2008).

Teaching methods are an important aspect ofteaching and learning process. They are referred to as a process, a courseof action or a method of operation which varies according to circumstances. Some methods of teaching Economics include: lecture, discovery, discussion, project, problem-solving, co-operative, field-trip, inquiry, demonstration, role play and so on (Ogunsanya, 2012).

To unveil the intellectual acumen inherent in the subject Economics, the need to teach it using the most effective method cannot be over-emphasized. It is now being recognized that there are better ways to learn than through the lecture method of teaching. Both tertiary, secondary and primary institutions are beginning to show an increased awareness of the importance of the ways students learn.Many ofthe standard methods of conveying knowledge have been shown to be relatively ineffective on the students‟ ability to master and retain important concepts, hence the need to explore other method such as inquiry and task-based. Inquiry methods which are student-centred and teacherguidedinstructional approaches that engages studentsin investigating real world questions that they chose within a broad thematic framework.

They complement lecture method by providing a vehicle extending and applying the learning of students in a way that connects with their interests within a broad thematic framework. Njoku (2009), Leaver (2010) opined that both learning methods are primarily a pedagogical method developed during the discovery learning movement of the 1960s as response to traditional forms of instruction. The students use both inquiryand task-based process to develop curiosity from their observation by integrating what they already know with what they have learned. It is expected of the learners to go beyond the simple memorization of facts and regurgitation of information into the realm of creating new and deeper understanding through identification and subsequent applicationof solutions to a specific issue (Rankin, 2013).

Much like a woodworker continually acquires new tools to perform different tasks in his shop, educators such as Economics teachers should search for tools (methods) to add to their repertoire of educational practices (Frary, 2007). One tool is not sufficient to do every task a woodworker must complete, so one teaching method should not be considered adequate for teaching all topics and meeting the learning requirements of all students. Inquiry and task-based teaching methods provides Economics teachers with other teaching techniquesfor developing life-long learners (Carin, 2009).Inquiry and taskbased teaching strategies are useful in delivering concepts that rely heavily on creativity and critical thinking. The efficacyof both teaching methods discussed above in enhancingstudents‟ academic performance in Economics in secondary schools in Imo

state is the focus of this study.

On the other hand, task-based teaching method is a form of pedagogical approach which helps teachers select and device useful classroom activities that could lead to taskbased learning and help students to further exercise their cognitive potentials by becoming self-sufficient and problem-solvers during the course of instruction. It is a form of learning approach in which instruction revolves around the completion of meaningful tasks. In the TBL approach, the main focus is the authentic use of activities (tasks) in helping learners‟ develop critical thinking skill during and after a teaching period. This form of teaching procedure increase students instinct to engage in an active dialogue with their teachers in the course of teaching process. With thismethod of instruction, learners are organized in pairs or small groups to find out facts through various sources, while teachers‟ role is to guide the students arrive at factual conclusion. Most researchers would agree that effective learning process takes place only when earners are allowed to employ their cognitive, effective and psychomotive domains during instruction.

Ololobou (2012) reported seriousness of deplorable performance of students in Economics and identifiedpersistent use of the lecture modeof instruction as one of the major short-comings affecting the learning and higher achievement in Economics. Economics educator seeks for solution to societaleconomic and social problems and hence the need to be taught with solution finding pedagogies like inquiry or task-based methods but the present teachers at the secondary schools tend to adopt the lecture or conventional method (note taking) in teaching and learning of the subject Economics. Harlen (2010) opined that lecture method of instruction is no longer effective for the teaching of Economics. She therefore advised Economics teachers to move away from lecture teaching stylesto creative (experimental) teaching styles which will make students move from lecture learning goals of subject assimilation to becoming critical and creative individuals. As Economics teacher must accept his responsibility by involving learners in classroom activities if they are to achievelearning and behavioural skills that will make them become living economists.Furthermore, the teacher must willingly accept that the applicationof some of the teaching strategies required the collaboration and cooperative efforts of some of his fellow teachers and other experts in order to bring about desirable learning outcomes in the learners (Adeshina, 2015).

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The fundamental goal ofEconomicseducationis to equipped learners with positive knowledge, attitudes, values and skills for the purpose of producing competent, humane  and effective citizenry who can contribute positively to thegood of society by beingefficient managers of the nation‟s scare resource (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2008). However, academic performance of Nigerian students in school subjects including Economics at the secondaryschool level has remained poor over the year (Obika, 2010).

In Imo state, performance of Economics students is observed tobe deplorable and below expectation following the WAEC of 2013 and 2014. Statisticsshowed that out of a percentage of 100 students that sat for the examination within the year under review, an approximate percentage of 34.89% passed with credit, while a total of 65.11% had ordinary pass and failure.

WAEC Chief Examiners‟ report of 2010-2014 (see appendix two) revealed that students in the study area had inadequate knowledge of the subject Economics. The report showed that students lacked knowledge of plotting graph, answer questions that involvecalculations, use of wrong terminology, failure to expantiate points, etc. These identified problems could have arisen due to insufficient knowledge and teaching methods employed on the side of the teachers. However, considering the inherent benefits associated with inquiry and task-based methods of teaching a subject such as; Economics might be of eminent benefit in solving these identified problems. As noted by the Chief examiners‟ report, most teachers are unable to cover all aspects of the Economics syllabus before presenting their wards for public exams. This couldbe associated with drawbacks attached with lecture method ofteaching popularly used in most of the secondary schools today.

Inquiry and task-based methodshas the potential to activate the students‟ curiosity to learn, develop their instinct in becoming creative and deep thinkers which is part of the quality of a good economists (Ciwar, 2007). This form of teaching if properly employed has the capacityto take care of students‟ individual differences irrespectiveof their gender and location. The above stated problems therefore, have informed the need to assess the Effectsof Inquiry and task-based methodson Students‟ Performance in Economics in

Secondary Schools in Imo State, Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

Objectives of this study were to:

  1. determine the performance of students taught Economics using inquiry and those taught using task-based methods in secondary schools in Imo state;
  2. find out the performance of experimental group in pre-test and post-test using inquiry method in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Imo state;
  3. determine the performance of experimental group in pre-test and post-test using task-based method in teaching Economics in secondary schools in Imo state;
  4. ascertain the effect of inquiry method on the performance rural and urban students taught Economics in secondary schools in Imo state.
  5. find out the effect of task-based method on the performance of rural and urban students taught Economics in secondary schools in Imo state;
  6. determine the performance of male and female students taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo state; and
  7. ascertain the performance of male and female students taught Economics using task-based method in secondary schools in Imo state.

      

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions were raised and guided the conduct of the study

  1. What is the performance of students taught Economics using inquiry and those taught using task-based methods in secondary schools in Imo state?
  2. What is the pre-test and post-test performance of students in the experimental group taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo state?
  3. Whatis the pre-test and post-test performance of students in the experimental group taught Economics using task-based method in secondary schools in Imo

state?

  1. What differences exist in the performance of rural and urban secondary school students taught Economics using inquiry method in Imo state?
  2. What differences exist in the performance of rural and urban secondary school students taught Economics using task-based method in Imo state?
  3. What is the performance of male and female SSII students taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo State? and
  4. What is the performance of male and female SSII students taught Economics using task-based methods in secondary schools in Imo State?
    • Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study.

H01: There is no significant difference in the performance of students taughtEconomics using inquiry and those taught using task-based methods in secondary schools in

Imo state.

H02: There is no significant difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of students in the experimental group taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo state.
H03: There is no significant difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of students in the experimental group taught Economics using task-based method in secondary schools in Imo state.
H04: There is no significant difference in the effect of inquiry method on students‟ performance in rural and urban located in secondary schools in Imo state.
H05: There is no significant difference in the effect of task-based on students‟ performance in rural and urban located secondary schools in Imo state.
H06: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught Economics using inquiry method in secondary schools in Imo state.
H07: There is no significant difference in the performance of male and female students

taught Economics using task-based methods in secondary schools in Imo state.

  • Basic Assumptions

The present study was based on the assumptions that:

  1. The schools used for the study were representative of SSII Economics Students in Imo state where the study was carried out.
  2. The inquiry and task-based methods of teaching were effective for teaching the selected topics: Role of Labour in Production, Entrepreneur, Historical Development of Money, Reasons for Demand for Money, Public Finance among

others.

 

  1. The topics selected were appropriate for the SSII Economics students as indicated in the senior secondary two scheme of work.
  2. The length of time for treatment was adequate to determine the effect of both methods of teaching.

1.7       Significance of the Study 

The search for innovations in teaching method is a continuous process in an educational system. The need to choose suitable instructional methods in the leaching and learning of Economics has been of great importance. This study is considered to be significant in a number of ways to Teachers of Economics, Curriculum developers, Ministry of Education Officials, Examination Bodies, Textbook writers, Parents,Students and future researchers.

Through the findings of this study, teachers will learn the characteristics of the conventional method, both its pros and cons, and provide some practical alternatives teaching methods for teachers who do not think the method fit their teaching philosophy. Similarly, the outcome of this study would help the teacher to check and improve on themethod and quality of teaching which would in turn improve the performance of students in both internal and external examination. It would also help them in evaluating their performance in the teaching of the various aspects of Economics curriculum contents. The result of the study would reveal the aspects of the economics curriculum that are not properly implemented by teachers. This may lead to improvement in such aspects of thecurriculum for greater performance among the students.

Economics teachers who teach students will utilize the outcomes of this study to promote effective ways to motivate and increase students learning of Economics by guiding the students in theirapproach to problem solving and creating conduciveenvironment for competency in inquiry and task-based methods among students. The finding will also help in suggesting the way forward in the inculcation of inquiry and task-based methods in learning economics concepts as well as aid towards solutions to arising problems. It is hoped that the result of this-study will-encourage economics teacher to plan sequence, and organize properly, the contents of economics in order to enhance and encourage students to avail themselves to the learning opportunities that areavailable in inquiry and task-based methods.

Findings from this study will hopefully benefit the curriculum developers as they would utilize the factors that are found to promote effectives-ways of using inquiry and task-based methods of teaching and developingmaterials that could effectively enhance the teaching and learning of Economics. This research will equally be of great use to the curriculum developers as it will help them to suggest relevant teaching methodsforteaching different topics in the, curriculum. Hence, students‟ academic performance willimprove through the use of appropriate teaching-methods.

This study will be of great significance to Federal Ministry of Education and

StatesMinistries of Education. The findings will stimulate them to re-orient their Economicsteachers through workshops and seminars/conferences on the use inquiry and task-based methodsin their teaching process, to enhance the quality of teaching and learning at the secondary school level. In the same way, the outcome ofthis studywould help the Ministry of Education to check teachers‟ improvement on the method and quality ofteaching which would in turn improve the performance of students in both the internal and &external examination.

Bodies like Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) that carryout research, discuss and disseminate research findings can use the result of this search to facilitate effective teaching and learning, of economics curriculum and seek to inculcate team spirit in students through inquiry and task-based methods. This therefore lead to improvement in the way the curriculum is being implemented by the teachers for greater performance among the students.

Parents would as a result of the findings be able to advise their wards on strategiesthat students can adopt for effective problem solving in economics. Teaching ofEconomics using task-based method will enable students to search and find community actual problems, propose sound solutions to those identified problems and change them throughout their life. The practical experience will develop analytical, creative, participatory decision making, leadership and active citizenship skills and abilities among students, willingness and skills for realizing personal responsibility as a citizen. The students would be able to analyse various situations independently, express and defend personal opinions and attitudes and develop action plans.

Likewise, students can use the result of thisresearch to adopt effective study habits and achieve better performances, in test. As inquiry and task-based methods turns the student from passive information recipient to active, free self-learner and problem solver and slides the emphasis of educational programmes from teaching to learning. This research will enable student to learn new knowledge by facing him/her the problems to besolved, instead of burdened contents. By means of inquiry and task-based methods, some attitudes of students in relation to such areas as problem-solving, thinking, group works/ communication, information acquisition and information sharing with others will be affected positively. The outcomes of this research will afford students the skill to both merge their old knowledge with new knowledge and to develop their judgmental skills in a specific discipline or environment. Students   will   also   acquire   the   skills   of timemanagement, focusing, data collection, report preparation and evaluation. Findings from thisstudy hopefully will help develop self-control in, students and teach them how to plan respectively, facing realities and expressing emotions.

1.8       Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to the investigation of the “Assessment of Effects of Inquiry and Task-Based Methods on Students‟Performance in Economics among

Secondary Schools in Imo State, Nigeria”. The study covered all Economics students in public senior secondary schools in Imo state. However, the study was further delimited to only senior secondary schools (SSII), offering Economics in Imo state. It only examined the assessment of effect of inquiry and task-basedmethods on the performance of

Economics students in secondary schools in Imo state.

 

ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF ANALYSIS AND TASK-BASED SYSTEMS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ECONOMICS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

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