A STUDY OF PRINCIPALS’ DIRECTORIAL PRACTICE ON TEACHERS’ DUTIES PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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A STUDY OF PRINCIPALS’ DIRECTORIAL PRACTICE ON TEACHERS’DUTIES PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the Principals‟ Supervisory Practice on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Six (6) objectives were raised to guide the study, which are to examine the impact of principals‟ classroom visitation on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State; assess the impact of principals‟ supervisory practice of record checking on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State among others. Six (6) research questions and six (6) research hypotheses were formulated to guide study and they are in line with the stated objectives. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population of the study is six thousand, two hundred and nine (6,209) respondents which consists of five thousand, five hundred and eighty (5,580) teachers, four hundred (400) principals and two hundred and twenty nine (229) school inspectors in Kaduna State. 357 respondents were used as the sample size in the study. Simple random sampling technique was used to obtained the sample size for the study. The instrument used for the collection of data was questionnaire. Descriptive statistics of  frequency counts and simple percentage were used to analyze the bio-data of the respondents and mean was used to answer the research questions. Inferential statistics of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the six (6) formulated null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that Principals‟ classroom visitation promotes attendance of teachers which enhances their role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. The findings also revealed that principals‟ supervisory practice of record checking such as checking of teachers‟ lesson note, scheme of work and lesson attendance register enhance the teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. The study recommended that school principal should promote the practice of classroom observation as instructional supervisory tool for the realization of their mandates of improving the performance of teachers. This can be done by taking notes of the classroom observation and recording exactly the activities of both the students and the teacher and make suggestions for further improvement.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                              i

Title Page                                                                                                                                   ii

Declaration                                                                                                                               iii

Certification                                                                                                                              iv

Dedication                                                                                                                                  v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                    vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                    vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                            xi

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                              xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                              6

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                                  9

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                       9

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                                   10

1.6       Basic Assumptions                                                                                                      11

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                             11

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                                       12

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                                  14

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                               14

2.2.1    Concept of Supervision of Instruction                                                                         15

2.2.2    Purposes of Supervision of Instruction                                                                        18

2.2.3    Principles of Supervision of Instruction                                                                      19

2.2.4    Techniques of Supervision of Instruction                                                                    24

2.2.5    Supervisory Role Performance of Principals in Secondary Schools                          27

2.3       Concepts of Classroom Visitation                                                                               29

2.3.1    Impact of Principals‟ Classroom Visitation on Teachers‟ Role Performance            31

 

2.4       Concept of Schools Records                                                                                        32

2.4.1    Purposes of School Record Keeping                                                                           33

2.4.2    Types of School Records                                                                                             35

2.4.3    Impact of Principals‟ Supervisory Practice of Records Checking on Teachers‟

Role Performance                                                                                                       41

2.5       Concept of Continuous Assessment in Secondary Schools                                        43

2.5.1    Characteristics of Continuous Assessment                                                                 45

2.5.2    Importance of Continuous Assessment                                                                       46

2.5.3    Impact of Principals‟ Supervision of Instruction on Teachers‟ Role Performance

of Continuous Assessment                                                                                          48

2.6       Concept of Instructional Materials                                                                              49

2.6.1    Impact of Principals‟ Supervisory Practice of Instructional Materials Provision

on Teachers‟ Role Performance                                                                                  51

2.7       Concept of Instructional Methods                                                                               53

2.7.1    Types of Instructional Methods                                                                                   54

2.8       Concept of Interactive session                                                                                    63

2.8.1     Impact of Principals‟ Supervision of Conference on Teachers‟ Role Performance 66

2.9       Models of Instructional Supervision                                                                           69

2.9.1    Cogan‟s Eight-Phase Model of Clinical Supervision                                                  71

2.10     Empirical Studies                                                                                                         72

2.11     Summary                                                                                                                     83

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                                  85

3.2       Research Design                                                                                                          85

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                               85

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                              87

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                                            88

3.5.1    Validity of the Instrument                                                                                           89

3.5.2    Pilot Study                                                                                                                   89

3.5.3    Reliability of the Study                                                                                                90

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                     90

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                             90

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                                  92

4.2       Presentation and Analysis of Respondents‟ Bio-Data                                                 92

4.3       Analysis of Responses                                                                                                 95

4.4       Hypotheses Testing                                                                                                   132

4.5       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                     139

4.6       Discussions of Findings                                                                                            139

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                                144

5.2       Summary                                                                                                                   144

5.3       Conclusions                                                                                                               145

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                                     146

5.5       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                 147

References                                                                                                                 149

Appendix                                                                                                                   154

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Population of the Study                                                                                           87

Table 3.2 Sample of the Study                                                                                                88

Table 4.1: Distribution of the Respondents by Status                                                             94

Table 4.2: Distribution of the Respondents by Gender                                                           94

Table 4.3: Distribution of the Respondents by Highest Academic Qualifications                 95

Table 4.4: Distribution of the Respondents by Years of Working Experience                       95

Table4.5: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Classroom

Visitation on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in

Kaduna State                                                                                                            98

Table 4.6: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Supervisory

Practice of Record Checking on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior

Secondary Schools in  Kaduna State                                                                   104

Table 4.7: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Supervision         of Instruction on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior Secondary Schools

in Kaduna State                                                                                                    110

Table 4.8: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Supervisory

Practice of Instructional Materials Provision on Teachers‟ Role Performance

in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                                                      116

Table 4.9: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Supervisory        Practice of Evaluating Instructional Methods on Teachers‟ Role Performance        in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                          122

Table 4.10: Opinions of Respondents on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟ Supervision          of Interactive Session on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior Secondary

Schools in Kaduna State                                                                                     128

Table 4.11: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Principals‟ Classroom Visitation on

Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State    134

Table 4.12: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟

Supervisory Practice of Record Checking on Teachers‟ Role Performance in

Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                                                       135 Table 4.13: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟

Supervision of Instruction on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                                                                   135

Table 4.14: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟

Supervisory Practice of Instructional Materials Provision on Teachers‟ Role

Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                               136

Table 4.15: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟

Supervisory Practice of Evaluating Instructional Methods on Teachers‟ Role

Performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                               137

Table 4.16: Summary of One-Way-ANOVA on the Perceived Impact of Principals‟

Supervision of Interactive Session on Teachers‟ Role Performance in Junior

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State                                                                  138 Table 4.17: Summary of Hypotheses Testing                                                                 139

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ANOVA Analysis of Variance
B.Ed Bachelor of Education
FRN Federal Republic of Nigeria
M.Ed Master of Education
NCE Nigeria Certificate in Education
NPE  National Policy on Education
PhD Doctor of Philosophy
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
SSCE

 

Senior School Certificate Examination

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Instructional Supervision can be done either through internal supervisors who are

Heads of schools or principals, their assistants, and the Heads of departments, or through External supervisors who are resource persons and consultants like university professors, education researchers, curriculum consultants and designated officials from ministry of education or teaching service commission. If there is effective instructional supervision there is a greater possibility of achieving the set goals, on the other hand a defective instructional supervision or poor instructional supervision will impede a successful implementation of the school programme (Olawole, 2009). Instructional supervision is a great determinant of a school‟s quality; it can affect it either positively or negatively.

In any school environment especially the public secondary schools setting, there must be a principal who occupies a high status by virtue of his appointment as the school head. The vitality of the school rests with his functional leadership traits and he should be capable of stimulating and invigorating the teachers and students to achieve institutional goals and objectives. The principal has the primary functions of exhibiting effective instruction leadership for the improvement of diversified curriculum and quality of instructional programme for effective attainment of set school goals (Onuma, 2016) .

The principals are vested with the administration of the secondary schools and their ability to plan, control, direct and co-ordinate the activities of the school involving both human and material resources is central to the achievement of educational goals (Adeyemi &

Bolarinwa, 2013). In the performance of this role, the principal‟s major task areas include human resource management, instructional supervision, school plant management and evaluation. The success of the school depends largely on effective leadership because policies and decisions which can help to direct activities of the school to success have to be executed by the principal.

All the functions the principal discharges daily are geared towards the fulfillment of the objectives of secondary education in Nigeria. Secondary education occupies a very strategic position in any nation‟s educational. Secondary education is the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage. The broad goals of secondary education shall be to prepare the individual for useful living within the society and Higher education. These goals implies that secondary education  aimed at developing a child better than the primary level and contribute his quota to the development of the society. Apart from serving as the link between primary and tertiary education, secondary education provides opportunity for a child to acquire additional knowledge, skills, and traits beyond the primary level, which will help him/her to be a member of the society to which he/she lived. A major factor that necessitates the acquisition of secondary education in Nigeria is that the education being provided at the primary level is proving to be insufficient for a child to acquire permanent literacy, communicative, and numeracy skills expected from him/her at the end of the training. In specific term, secondary education according to FRN (2004) shall:

  1. Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background.
  2. Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles.
  3. Provide trained manpower in the applied science, technology and commerce at subprofessional grades.
  4. Develop and promote Nigerian languages, art and culture in the context of world cultural heritage.
  5. Inspire students with a desire for self-improvement and achievement of excellence.
  6. Foster national unity with an emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity.
  7. Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live as good citizens.
  8. Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.

To achieve these objectives, the principal has an important instructional supervisory role to play in order to realize the objectives. To improve instruction in the school, the principal must understand his teachers and must always be prepared to work effectively with them. To do this, he should generate interpersonal interest, confidence and trust. He therefore has to respond to various requests by his teachers so as to boost their morale. He should also be exemplary to his staff by teaching some classes on regular basis. There is an array of activities that the principal as an internal supervisor can utilize to bring about desirable effect on teachers‟ behaviour for achieving teachers‟ classroom performance. One of these activities is classroom visitation/observation. Wambui (2015) citing Kimeu (2010) observed that the principal should visit the classroom frequently to encourage teachers in the instructional role performance. One way to help teachers improve instruction is through clinical supervision.

Model of clinical supervision presented a cyclical sequence of events which should ideally be implemented at least twice a year, The sequence included teacher pre-conferencing to determine the method and duration of the observation. The pre-conferencing is followed by classroom observation which involves making use of physical indication, visual indication and interpersonal or directive analysis. The last stage in clinical supervision which is post conferencing is aimed at discussing results on remedial action and a critique by both the supervision and the supervisee. Clinical supervision is the rationale and practice designed to improve the teachers‟ classroom performance.

Record keeping is an important component in the academic performance of a school, teachers are required to make and retain records i.e. schemes of work, lesson plan, records of work, mark book, progress record book and attendant register. Students‟ exercise books and lesson notes reflect the work load covered in class by teachers. It is the principal‟s role to regularly inspect on the students‟ exercise book/lesson notes to ensure that the school syllabus is covered appropriately and assignments are marked. The development of a lesson note serves as a road map to effective teaching. Teachers were therefore expected to take adequate care when writing their lesson notes while the principals or unit heads, who were their immediate supervisors, needed to be concurrent in checking their lesson notes to make the more responsible to their duties.

The use of instructional materials, form an integral part of successful teaching and learning. When instructional materials are selectively chosen and appropriately utilized, they can enable a good teacher to teach better and convey knowledge, which would have been impossible to achieve through spoken or printed form. The principals thus needs to provide these for their teachers. Where it is impossible to procure instructional materials due to cost, efforts should be made to encourage the teachers to improvise. The principal should therefore gather all possible resources from the ministry of education (MOE), the community and other organizations and ensure that the resources are fully and effectively used

The appraisal of teachers‟ pedagogical practices is necessary in order to safeguard quality standards in schools. In order to accomplish this task, the principal must have an intimate knowledge of the psychology of human learning, have a command of the various theories of instruction, be acquainted with the source and uses of instructional materials and be familiar with evaluation techniques (Adetula, 2005). Continuous assessment is an integral part of teaching process. Teaching without assessment is an incomplete educational process. It helps the teacher to assess different areas of course content, which a single final examination may not be able to cover. It is the responsibility of principals to ensure adequate supervision of teachers as regard the administration of continues assessment in school.

Demonstration teaching is an excellent way principals could use to illustrate specific teaching skill to the teachers. It helps teachers to grow professionally, to enrich the curriculum, to upgrade the materials of instruction, to better the physical facilities and to enlarge the scope of special services (Chike-Okoli, 2005). Since it is the teacher who gives the actual classroom instruction, the principal as an instructional supervisor should realize that elements of improvement lie within the teacher and so he should seek the cooperation and participation of the teacher in the instruction programme.

Teachers play a crucial role in ascertaining whether or not the desired educational results have been achieved. Teachers are the backbone and bedrock of the entire educational system. Their effectiveness is perhaps the most important factors affecting the future development of education (Ikegbusi & Iheanacho, 2016). According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004), the goals of teacher education should be:

  1. production of highly motivated, conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of our educational system;
  2. encourage further the spirit of enquiry and creativity in teachers;
  3. helping teachers to fit into the social life of the community and the society at large and to enhance their commitment to national goals;
  4. providing teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and to make them adaptable to changing conditions and;
  5. enhancing teachers‟ commitment to the teaching profession.

Several problems militate against the realization of these goals. One of these may be attributed to the falling measures of instructional methods and supervision in public schools. The smooth running of the school system calls for effective instructional supervision of principals to provides an environment conducive for effective teaching and learning for improved students‟ academic performance. It is against this backdrop that this research study assessed the principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.2      Statement of the Problem

Principalship is a well established position of the chief executive who provides instructional leadership by coordinating curricula, co-curricular programmes and is responsible for general administration of the secondary school. The principals being the instructional leaders are at the vantage position to supervise, monitor, assess, evaluate and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to teachers in order to stimulate them for scholarship and best practices in curriculum delivery.

In public Junior secondary schools in Kaduna State,  it has been observed that some school principals as instructional supervisors have tended not to have devoted adequate time to the supervision of instruction, including the inspection of teachers‟ lesson notes – the very steering wheel for driving lesson delivery. The situation is so bad that teachers write out just anything as lesson notes without adequate checking of the notes for positive pedagogical results. The resultant effect of which are poor classroom instruction, poor evaluation of students‟ performance during and at the end of the term, inappropriate adoption of teaching methods, poor use of teaching aids, poor supervision of students‟ extracurricular activities among others.

Nowadays, parents and guardians of students in Kaduna State are becoming more curious about the kind of education given to their children and wards. Quite often, they show their concern by demanding that the school should teach better than in the past. People no longer agree that secondary schools graduates are in any way comparable to primary schools leavers of yesteryears. Government are also worried that in spite of high colossal of money invested in education, things are not getting better with the sector.

Consequently, due to high cost of education, stakeholders are becoming increasingly interested in the school system. They monitor the teachers and their wards‟ activities critically to ensure that adequate teaching and learning activities take place. Accusing fingers from different quarters are pointed to ineffectiveness of teachers as they execute their daily duties and poor instructional supervisory practices by school heads. The mass failure of students in public examinations has no doubt made parents lost confidence in the ability of the public schools to produce good products. Admittedly, no educational system is problem free.

However, the decay in Nigerian secondary educational system is becoming embarrassing.

In view of above exposition, one continue to wonder what is wrong with Nigerian educational system? Are principals not adequately performing their supervision of instructional roles in secondary schools as expected? Or are teachers neglecting their role performance in schools? Do principals‟ internal supervision of instruction has any effect on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools? In other words, are principals not

adequately performing their internal supervision of instruction roles as expected?

There are complaints and reports that many principals do not devote much time and attention in planning, supervising, coordinating, directing and influencing academic activities in their schools. There are also complaints that teachers are no longer efficient and productive because they do not make optimal use of the available time to see that the students acquire necessary skills, knowledge and attitudes as specified in the schools‟ curricular activities

because of poor instructional leadership practices displayed by principals.

Over the years, empirical evidences and reports in literatures revealed that studies related to principals‟ internal supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance in schools has been conducted at different levels in different locations and from different perspectives. But, evidence from available literatures show that no such study has been carried out or reported in Kaduna State, hence, there is a need to fill the existing gap. In addition, most of the studies conducted only focus on a particular aspect of principals‟ instructional role performance and how it influences teachers‟ role performance or students‟ academic performances in secondary schools. It is against this backdrop that this research study assessed the principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

 

1.3    Objectives of the Study

The following objectives were raised to guide the study:

  1. examine the impact of principals‟ classroom visitation on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;
  2. assess the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of record checking on teachers‟ role

performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;

  1. examine the impact of Principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ continuous

assessment of the students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;

  1. assess the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of instructional materials provision on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;
  2. assess the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of evaluating instructional methods

on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State; and

  1. examine the impact of principals‟ supervision of interactive session on teachers‟ role

performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

1.4    Research Questions

The following questions were raised to guide the study.

  1. How does principals‟ classroom visitation impact on teachers‟ role performance in Junior

Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?

  1. In what ways does Principals‟ supervisory practice of record checking impact on teachers‟

role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?

  1. What is impact of Principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ continuous assessment of the students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?
  2. How does Principals‟ supervisory practice of instructional materials provision impact on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?
  3. In what ways does Principals‟ supervisory practice of evaluating instructional methods impact on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?
  4. What is the impact of principals‟ supervision of interactive session on teachers‟ role

performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State?

1.5     Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

HO1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of principals‟ classroom visitation on teachers‟ role  performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

HO2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of record checking on  teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

HO3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of Principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟  continuous assessment of the students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. HO4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of instructional materials  provision on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. HO5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of Principals‟ supervisory practice of evaluating  instructional methods on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in  Kaduna State.

HO6: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and school  supervisors on the impact of principals‟ supervision of interactive session on teachers‟  role performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

1.6       Basic Assumptions

The study put forward the following assumptions:

  1. Teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools will improve if principals regularly carried out classroom visitation.
  2. If principals‟ supervisory practice of checking teachers‟ records is not regularly carry out it will retard teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools.
  3. Principals‟ supervision of instruction will improve teachers‟ continuous assessment of the students in Junior Secondary Schools.
  4. Inadequate principals‟ supervisory practice of instructional materials provision will contribute to poor teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools.
  5. Principals‟ supervisory practice of evaluating teachers‟ instructional methods will enhance

teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools.

  1. Interactive session organized by Principals will improve teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools.

1.7       Significance of the Study

Assessing the principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools will be of important to principals, prospective principals, teachers, instructional supervisors, quality assurance officers, policy makers and future educational researchers. The study will be useful to principals as they work toward creating classroom climate and selecting instructional strategies and resources that are supportive to the effective teaching and learning process. The result of the study will be useful to principals and prospective principals to understand the supervisory role performance they are expected to perform in discharging their duties in schools. Through the result of this study, principals and prospective principals will become more skilful, competent and effective in the performance of their instructional roles toward the improvement of teaching and learning process.

The study will provide feedback to the teachers on the need to modify subsequent instructional practices and provide classroom environment that will help to improve the levels of students‟ academic performance in secondary schools. Furthermore, the result of this study will serve as a guideline to the school supervisors or instructional supervisors as well as the quality assurance officers in the ministries of education on how to assess the instructional role performance of teachers and how to improve such for effective teaching and learning operation.

In addition, the study will help policy makers in the ministries of education to formulate policies that will improve instructional practice of teachers as well as supervisory practice of principals toward achieving the educational goals. The study will add to the existing pool of knowledge in education, particularly in Educational Foundations and Teacher Education. The study will also serves as an additional academic reference on education for future education researchers who may want to conduct similar research study.

        1.8       Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to the assessment of principals‟ supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance in Junior Secondary Schools. The study covered only public Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, which comprises of twelve (12) Education Zones. This means that only public junior secondary schools in Kaduna State were the focus of this study. In addition, the study assessed areas of principals‟ internal supervision of instruction on teachers‟ role performance, which include; classroom visitation, supervisory practice of checking teachers‟ records, supervisory practice of provision of teachers‟ instructional materials, supervisory practice of evaluating teachers‟ instructional methods,

continues assessment and organizing interactive session after classroom visitation.

A STUDY OF PRINCIPALS’ DIRECTORIAL PRACTICE ON TEACHERS’DUTIES PERFORMANCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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