ASSESSMENT OF INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS SEWING ABILITIES IN THE CREATION OF CHILDREN’S WEARS IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA
This study was conducted to access College of Education Home Economics students sewing skill in the production of children‘s wear in North central Nigeria. To achieve this, four objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to grade the study, the population for the study was three hundred and sixty-four N.C.E 111 Home economics students from twelve colleges of education in North Central Nigeria. Two colleges were purposely selected and a systematic sampling technique was used to select an intact class of 30 students from each of the two selected colleges were used. A descriptive survey was used for the study. A scorecard adopted from quality standard checklist inform of a rating scale was used to determine the sewing skills in making the French seam, constructing and attaching puff sleeve, construction and attachment of Peter Pan collar and construction of gathers. A panel of five judges who are expert in clothing and textiles were engaged to rate the students. IBM SPSS Statistics package was used to analyzed the data the findings of the study among others reveal that Peter Pan collar 4(PPC4) ―fix according to correct method bias that hides the raw edge at the neckline is neatly attached flat was rated poorly‖, while in the making of gathers, all the four aspects tested were rated high which is a clear indication that student performs better in all. One sample t-test was used to determine the significance of the sewing skills demonstrated by the students. The result of analyses shows the students had significance adequate knowledge of the four sewing skills. (t-2.291, p.001; t=2.13, p.001; t=2.291, p.00; and t-2.232, p.00). The study, therefore, concludes that the student had adequate sewing skills of children wears. The study, therefore, recommends that; teachers should maintain the standards but try to focus more on the areas of the student’s deficiency also clothing laboratory should be equipped and conducive enough to create interest in students to work. Teachers of clothing and textiles should teach in line with clothing construction skill to equip students with good sewing skill.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
List of Appendices x
Operational Definition of Terms xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the Study 6
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study 7
1.8 Delimitation of the Study 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical frame work 10
2.2 Concept of assessment 12
2.3 Home Economics and skill acquisition 15
2.4. Children’s wear 17
2.5 Concept of Sewing Skills 23
2.5.1 Types of sewing skills 25
2.5.2 Seams 26
2.5 3 Peter Pan Collar 30
2.5.4 Disposal of Fullness 33
2.5.5 Puff Sleeve 35
2.6 Sewing Machine 39
2.7 Clothing Construction Standards 45
2.8 Review of Related Empirical Studies 47
2.9 Summary Review of Literature 54
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 56
3.2 Population of the Study 57
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 58
3.4 Instrument for data collection 58
3.5 Procedure of Data Collection 60
3.6 Method of Data Analysis 60
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTAION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Answering of Research Questions 63
4.2 Test of Hypotheses 67
4.2 Summary of Findings 71
4.3 Discussion of Findings 72
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the study 75
5.2 Conclusion 77
5.3 Suggestions for Further Studies 77
5.4 Recommendations: 77
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 78
LIST OF TABLES
|Table 3.1||Population of the Study||57|
|Table 3.2||Sample of the Study||58|
|Table 4.1||Judge‘s agreement on the ability in constructing French seam on children‘s wear by the colleges of education students in north central. As in line with clothing construction skill||63|
|Table 4.2||judge‘s agreement on the ability in the construction of Peter Pan collar by the colleges of education Home Economics students in north central Nigeria. As in line with clothing construction skill.||64|
|Table 4.3||Judge‘s agreement on the extent of ability in the construction of gathers by the colleges of education Home Economics students in north central Nigeria as in line with clothing construction skill||65|
|Table 4.4||Judge‘s agreement on extent of ability in the construction of puff sleeve by college of education Home Economics students in North central Nigeria. As in line with clothing construction skills||66|
|Table 4.5||One Sample t test on the extent of ability in the-application of seams on the children‘s wear by Colleges of Education Home Economics students in line with clothing construction skill||67|
|Table 4.6||One Sample t test on the extent of ability in the-application of Peter Pan collars constructed by College of Education Home Economics students on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skill.||68|
|Table 4.7||One Sample t-test on the extent of ability in the application of gathers on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skills among College of Education Home Economics students||69|
|Table 4.8||One Sample t-test on the extent of ability in the application of gathers on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skills among College of Education Home Economics students.||70|
LIST OF APPENDICES
- Letter of Introduction 84
- Score Card 85
- Baby Dress with Selected features for accessing Skills 87
- Course Description of Home Economics 88
- Data Outputs 91
Students on Sewing Skill Testing 94
1.1 Background to the Study
Home economics is one of the pre-vocational subject taught at the primary up to tertiary education level in the Nigeria educational system (Yusuf 2016). It is one of the major courses offered in colleges of education it has been defined by different authors in different ways as an applied science, vocational subject for skill acquisition. Such is the skill taught in clothing construction class, the course introduces students to the basic principles and skills required to sew, sewing is the practice of fastening two pieces of fabric together using a needle and thread. Although sewing is a needle craft, it differs from knitting, crocheting and embroidery because sewing is more of constructive skill, skill in sewing can be displayed in different areas like skill in finishing, skill in application of features and skill in stitches among others. proper knowledge of sewing machine manipulation plays a very important role in sewing skill knowing how to set stitch regulator in line with texture of the fabric, proper threading of the machine, pedaling, and sewing straight to the precision are part of sewing skills that cannot be over looked for these are preliminary stages to a perfect sewing. Sewing skill in this work involve the usage of clothing construction techniques in the production of some selected features in a baby dress according to specification as contained in clothing construction skill which are criteria‘s for acceptable quality and covers all the characteristics that can be accurately measured or assessed.
Assessment, in relation to this work, is the art of examining, evaluating and rating an outcome of students sewing skill on some selected garment features like seams, collar, sleeve and gathers reflected on a child‘s dress with Peter Pan collar at the neck line, peter pan collar is a small, flat type of collar with rounded edges often used in children apparel. The dress has gather at the waist line, Gathers are produced by sewing the fabric only on one end of the fabric, and the remainder is left to fall loosely. This is to allow free movement especially in children who are active. With puff sleeve at the armhole, puff sleeves are designed with gathers at the cap line only or at the cap and hemline (see appendix 111 pp, 95) the closing up of the side seam of the dress with the usage of French seam. A seam is a line of stitching used to hold two layers of fabric together. French seam is an example of inconspicuous seam and is found most suitable for children dresses because it is easier to launder, and can withstand frequent washing because both raw edges are enclosed in a fell, which is pressed to one side of the seam, is a self-finished seam because no raw edges show through the fabric. Skill is the ability to do something expertly and well. It is essential for the development of intrinsic potentials in an individual (Okorie 2000). The manipulative ability in construction of garment features from structural level to the esthetic level, which brings about it neatness attractiveness and its acceptability by customers is what sewing skill is all about. Nigeria certificate in Education (NCE) is a certificate obtained after having graduated from college of education, is a special A- level grade course with three years‘ duration. It is a minimum qualification for all teachers in our schools as prescribe by national policy of education (2004). Expected to produce highly motivated conscientious and efficient classroom teachers for all levels of the Nigerian educational system.
There is an advantage in exposing students on training to practical sewing because completing a sewing project brings a sense of pride and accomplishment, thereby creating self confidence in an individual. New skills are learnt with each new project and knowledge built on prior knowledge; confidence are gained as attempting a challenge and mastering the skill.
Furthermore, this skill if learnt, would contribute to the achievement of educational goals, according to the National Policy of Education (FRN, 1998, FRN, 2016). In addition, these skills once acquired, increase the quality of classroom instruction. Seeing the need for skill acquisition after graduation in Nigeria is very high. Hence, it has become more imperative to assess the sewing skills of students in Colleges of Education offering clothing and textile in production of children‘s dress (pre-school of ages 3-5) that will be acceptable in a competitive market, seeing the relevance of skill acquisition presently in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The fluctuating job market and increasing awareness of the need for vocational graduates to become competent in their area of specialization have necessitated the study on emphasis in skill acquisition in Nigerian schools. Skill acquisition prepares individuals to be thorough in manipulative skill for high standard performance as challenges are faced on a daily basis, especially in one’s area of specialization. Competition in the labor market is high and nobody would like to settle for anything substandard. The world is changing and dynamic that our certificates are no longer enough. The graduate‘s inability to create jobs for themselves and others can be attributed to lack of proper acquisition of skills. Enough of theory without practicality, because output is the emphasis of the era, and the ability to produce tangible things that. Can be marketable for self-reliance is the need of the hour.
The researcher observed that most students of Home Economics in Colleges of Education upon graduation apparently lack practical skills to implement their professional training skills acquired during the course of study. Interactions by the researcher with some of the graduate of NCEs home economics students shows that the students are apparently not skilled enough to produce garments that meet up with the approved standards. To make the situation worst some of the students have phobia when they are asked to operate equipment‘s for making garments. This problem was also observed by Anikweze (2006) that graduates were unskilled in the use of conventional equipment and also incapable of technical solutions to routine problems as expected of individuals with their levels of training.
The researcher begins to wonder what could be the reason why graduates of colleges of education home economics students are unable to practices what they have learnt in the school. Could it be that students were not taught according to the quality standard checklist? Or laxity on the part of students, and lack of enough time allocated to the course, among others. However, this prompted the researcher to carry out a study to assess college of education home economics students selected sewing skills on children‘s wears in North Central Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study is to assess selected sewing skills of College of Education Home Economics students on children’s wear in North Central Nigeria. The
specific objectives are to:
- assess student‘s ability in the application of seams on children’s wears in line with clothing construction skills.
- assess student‘s ability in the construction of Peter Pan collar on children’s wears in line with clothing construction skills.
- assess student‘s ability in the making of gathers on children’s wears in line with clothing construction skills.
- assess students‘ ability in the construction of puff sleeve on children’s wears in line with clothing construction skills.
1.4 Research Questions
The research answered the following questions:
- What is the extent of College of Education Home Economics student‘s ability in the application of seams on children‘s wear in line with clothing construction skill?
- To what extent is the College of Education Home Economics student‘s ability in the construction of Peter Pan collars on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skill?
- What is the ability of College of Education Home Economics students in the making of gathers on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skill?
- What is the extent of College of Education Home Economics student‘s ability in the construction of puff sleeves on children wear in line with clothing construction skill?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The research answered the following questions:
- There is no significant ability in the-application of seams on the children‘s wear by Colleges of Education Home Economics students in line with clothing construction
skill is not significant
- Peter Pan collars constructed by College of Education Home Economics students on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skill is not significantly accurate?
- Making of gathers on children’s wear in line with clothing construction skills among
College of Education Home Economics students is not significantly accurate?
- Puff sleeves constructed by Colleges of Education Home Economics students on
children wear in line with clothing construction skill is not significantly accurate?
1.6 Significance of the Study
Apart from contributing significantly to the body of knowledge in Home Economics, this study will be beneficial to the following: it will be beneficial to institutions where Clothing and Textile is studied, it will also be beneficial to Home Economics students, lecturers, parents, consumers, management of Colleges of Education in North central Zone and the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE).
First and foremost, the outcome of this study will be beneficial to students in Home Economics Section by providing the opportunity to assess themselves in sewing task, which would enable them identify their strengths and weakness. The study will also serve as a tool for capacity building in sewing skills for entrepreneurial purpose, and a good resource material and for classroom teaching after graduation.
In addition, the findings will also assist lecturers teaching the course to assess the effectiveness of the teaching methods used, and show areas where improvement is necessary. This will help improve the effectiveness of the course in solving the problems of unemployment among students.
Parents will also find this research work useful since it will show and reflect their children’s performance in skill acquisition; this will serve as a source of encouragement to parents who are sponsoring their children in school.
Consumers most especially mothers will benefit in the sense that they would have garments of good standard available at affordable price. This will reduce the burden of buying second hand clothes and also discourage over reliance on imported cloths for their children.
Also, the study will keep the management of different Colleges of Education and
Home Economics Departments informed about how their students in clothing are performing in sewing skill. The evidence produced by the assessment would be used for program improvement and modification. It will also serve as a guide for modification of the curriculum process.
Furthermore, the school authorities and Home Economics Departments would be able to pinpoint the faults, and suggests alternative ways of achieving the set goals through assessment which can be made possible through seminars workshops and conferences.
Findings from this study will also help the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) that introduced Vocational and Technical Education courses and set the minimum level standard of the NCE requirement to know the extent of achievement in this laudable Program.
Also, findings of this study would be a reference material to researchers who may embark on further studies in the same or related area. This will add more to the materials needed to carry out their research with ease.
1.7 Basic Assumptions of the Study
The researcher assumed that acquisition of sewing skill by Home Economics students in Colleges of Education will enable the students to make good quality garment in line with quality standard check list.
Other assumptions of the study include the following:
- Home Economics students of college of education in north central know how to sew in line with quality standard check list after been taught by their teachers.
- Home Economics students of college education in north central know how to sew
garment features in line with clothing construction skill.
- Home economic students of colleges of education in north central have acquired the necessary sewing skill in line with clothing construction skill.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study is on assessment of Colleges of Education Home Economics students sewing skills on children‘s wear in North Central Nigeria. The study is delimited to a children dress of ages three to five years and to some specific parts of the dress like seams, Peter Pan collar, disposal of fullness (gathers and puff sleeve which wear measured in line with quality standard checklist. The study was also delimited to NCE III in two Colleges of Education out of the twelve Colleges of Education in the zone namely College of Education Akwanga, in
Nasarawa State, and College of Education Oju in Benue State Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS STUDENTS SEWING ABILITIES IN THE CREATION OF CHILDREN’S WEARS IN NORTH CENTRAL NIGERIA