ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF ASSETS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING BUSINESS EDUCATION IN FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-WEST ZONE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF ASSETS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING BUSINESS EDUCATION IN FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-WEST ZONE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This research work was carried out on the assessment of availability and utilization of resources for teaching and learning of Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone Nigeria. The study had four objectives, four research questions and four null hypotheses. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels of significance. Survey and expost facto research designs were employed. The populations of the study consisted of 140 lectures and 952 N C E III students, 20% of each were used as a sample for the study. Questionnaire and checklist were used as instruments for data collection and all the data collected were analyzed.  Percentage, mean, standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in testing hypotheses 1 and 2 and for hypotheses 3 and 4 Pearson  Product Movement Correlation (PPMC) was used. The study revealed that there is no significant difference in the level of availability of physical facilities and equipments in the teaching and learning of Business Education in the Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria, with p-value of 0.984. The findings further revealed that significant relationship exist between utilization of Physical facilities and equipment and the learning of Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria with p-value of 0.002. Based on the findings the study concludes that teaching and learning of Business Education in the five Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria require not only available resources (physical facilities and equipment) but also need to meet up with the standards requirements as stipulated by the NCCE. Furthermore proper and effective utilization of physical facilities and equipment will enhance skills acquisition in the teaching and learning of Business Education. In line with this, recommendations were made among which are that computer Laboratories, Shorthand Studios and Model Offices for Business Education Departments should be adequately equipped with relevant equipment and staffs to meet the NCCE minimum standard requirement. Business Education Departments should regularly appraise and review the status of their physical facilities and the equipment vis-a-vis the students‟ sizes for the enhancement of academic achievements.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover                                                                                                                                       i

Title                                                                                                                                          ii

Declaration                                                                                                                             iii

Certification                                                                                                                            iv

Dedication                                                                                                                               v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vii

List of Tables‟                                                                                                                        x

List of Appendices                                                                                                                  xii

Operational definition of terms        xiii Abstract                              xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           3

1.3       Objective of the Study                                                                                                4

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                    5

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                                  5

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                            6

1.7       Basic Assumptions                                                                                                     7

1.8       Delimitation of the Study                                                                                           8 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework                                                                                              9

2.2       Concept of Business Education                                                                                  12

2.3       Concept of Resources                                                                                               17

2.4       Resources Required for Teaching and Learning Business Education                        30

2.5       Availability and Utilization of Resources in Business Education                              34

2.6        Benefits of Availability and Utilization of Resources in Business Education          35

2.7       Challenges of Availability and Utilization Resources in Business Education           38

2.8       Related Empirical Studies                                                                                          42

2.9       Summary of Related Literature Reviewed                                                                 51

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOLOGY

3.1       Research Design                                                                                                         52

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                                              53

3.3       Sample Size and Sample Procedures                                                                          53

3.4       Instruments for Data Collection                                                                                 54

3.4.1  Validation of Instrument                                                                                               55

3.4.2    Pilot Study                                                                                                                  55

3.4.3    Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       55

3.5       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                  56

3.6       Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                          56 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSES

4.1       Distribution of respondents by their Colleges                                                            59

4.2 Answer to Research Questions              60 Research Question One                 60

Research Question Two                                                                                           63

Research Question Three                                                                                         66

Research Question Four                                                                                           69

4.3       Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                     70

Null Hypothesis One                                                                                                  70

Null Hypothesis Two                                                                                                 71

Null Hypothesis Three                                                                                               72

Null Hypothesis Four                                                                                                 74

4.4       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                      75

4.5       Discussion of the Major Findings                                                                               76

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                    79

5.2       Contribution to Knowledge                                                                                        81

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                                  81

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                                      81

5.5       Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                                   82

REFERENCES                                                                                                                       83

APPENDICES                                                                                                                        90

LIST OF TABLES

Tables  1:         Population                                                                                                           53

2:         Sample size                                                                                                         54

3:         Distribution of respondents by their colleges                                                     59

4:           Answers to research question one on the level of availability of physical  facilities for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal

Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                           60

 

5:         Descriptive mean statistics on difference in the level of availability of  physical facilities in the teaching and learning of Business Education among the Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria          62

 

6: Answers to research question two on the level of availability of equipment  for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of

Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                                              63

 

7: Descriptive mean statistics, on the level of availability of equipment for  the teaching and learning of Business Education  among the Federal

Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                           66

 

8:           Answers to research question three on the level of utilization of physical  facilities for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal

Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                           67

 

9:           Answers to research question four on the level of utilization of equipment  for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges

of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                                          69

 

10 Analysis of Variance ANOVA statistics on difference in the level of           availability of physical facilities in the teaching and learning Business             Education among the Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone,

Nigeria                                                                                                                71

 

11:       Analysis of Variance ANOVA statistics on difference in the level of availability of equipment in the teaching and learning Business Education among the Federal Colleges of Education in North-west

zone, Nigeria                                                                                                      71

 

12:       Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) on the relationship between  the level of utilization of physical facilities and the teaching and learning

of Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west

zone, Nigeria                                                                                                      72

 

 

13: Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) on the relationship  between the level of utilization of equipment and the teaching and  learning of Business Education Programme in Federal Colleges of

Education in North-west zone, Nigeria                                                              74

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

In Nigeria, the primary role of Colleges of Education is to train teachers who will after completion, be awarded the minimum teaching qualification of Nigeria Certificate of Education (NCE). This certificate qualifies one to teach in Junior

Secondary and Technical Colleges and the programme has duration of three years. These teachers‟ Institutions were formally known as Advanced Teachers Colleges and were affiliated to different Universities in Nigeria. They were later transformed into

Colleges of Education under the supervision of one umbrella body known as National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) established in 1989. There are eighty two (82) Colleges of Education in Nigeria classified according to their ownership; hence we have twenty (22) Federal, forty six (46) State and fourteen (14) Private Colleges of Education. The State‟s Colleges of Education are established and founded by their respective State governors, (NCCE, 2012).

Contextually, resources are tools for up-lifting the standards of education and the level of compliance in implementing the resource for teaching and learning process is decided  at level and the type of education to be provided. For instance, resources can be natural, human and material. The natural resources are those resources that come from nature such as air, water, iron, oil, etc. The human resources are set of individuals who occupy certain positions in an organization, be it in the business or public sector domain. The material resources are assets that are in form of material possessions and they can be sourced or supplied for achieving organizational or societal objectives.

Resources availability is a description of facts that resources are available and ready for use. The availability of resources in teaching and learning processes provide interesting and compelling platforms for learners, to acquire basic skills. For example, National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) identified resources required for Business Education to include physical facilities, such as classroom that will take thirty (30) students conveniently, laboratories/studios at least one (1) each of the typing pool, shorthand laboratory, model office and  information technology room, among others. Staff/student ratio for skill subject like shorthand, typewriting and accounting should be 1:20 and 1:30 for the other subjects, while equipments, such as typewritersmanual thirty (30) of various make and types, Computer at the ratio of one (1) computer to three (3) students. While utilization of resources is the extent to which resources are optimally utilized. Utilization of resource in teaching and learning promote teaching and motivates learners to learn better, easy and faster. It also lead to motivation, informing, instructive and presented the subject matter more attractive.

The desire to assess resources for teaching and learning Business Education stems from the fact that resources occupy significant position in the teaching and learning of Business Education. Thus, the smooth running of Business Education largely depends on the availability and utilization of resources such as: personnel, equipment and physical facilities among others in teaching and learning process. Business Education is one of the types that require available and relevant resources for effective teaching and learning; hence resources are requisite in the teaching and learning of Business Education.

The situation of Nigerian Educational system has subsequently brought serious concern about the quality and quantity of trained teachers, equipment and facilities in the schools set-up. As the public intensifies their criticisms of education system in Nigeria, experts in education are also intensifying their search to enhance the quality of education (Onyesom, 2013).  Hence, the need for this study to assess the availability and utilization of resource in teaching and learning of Business Education in Colleges of

Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

Resources constitute the major strategic factor that fosters excellent academic achievement but, what constitutes the resources in education is determined at the level and the type of education to be provided. Business Education is designed to provide instructions for and about business; that is to equip learners with right skills that will enable them to engage into economics activities in the society. To achieve this laudable objective, resources such as physical facilities and equipment among others are not only important but are expected to be available and effectively utilized in the teaching and learning processes.

However, it is being disturbance to note that Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigerian seem to be backward, especially in terms of resources required for teaching and learning processes. Some of these Colleges administered Business Education with very few resources, which led to factors such as inefficiency or lack of seriousness or commitment on the part of both lecturers and students. A careful looked at some colleges the few resources available are hardly utilized due to obsolescent and or improper installation which grope most of the students stuffed with theoretical knowledge at the expense of practical skill training which affected their academic achievements. These statements agree with the report of National Educational Research and Development Centre (NERDC) (2004) which confirmed that human and material resources are inadequate in the teaching and learning of vocational business education. Similarly, Azih (2008) found that students offering Business Education in schools find it difficult to acquire the needed skills and competencies as a result of lack of adequate resources in the schools. In the same vein, Okoro (2008) also observed that, Business Education at the various Colleges of Education in Nigeria lack adequate facilities and equipment such as laboratory, studio, word processors, Dictaphones, computer transmitting units and so on, Okoro added that, Colleges of Education in Nigeria are faced with the dearth of teachers in terms of quality and quantity to teach Business Education. This further state that, those few teachers available are overused and some engaged beyond their capability to the extent that their productivity and efficiency can hardly be guaranteed.

It is pertinent to ask this question; does availability and utilization of physical facilities and equipment influence the teaching and learning of Business Education? To answer this question, this study seeks to assess the availability and utilization of physical facilities and equipment in teaching and learning of Business Education in

Federal College of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.

 

1.3          Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study is to assess the availability and utilization of physical facilities and equipment for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria, while the specific objectives are to:

  1. assess the level of availability of physical facilities for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria
  2. determine the level of availability of equipment for teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone,

Nigeria.

  1. assess the level of utilization of physical facilities for teaching and learning

Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.

  1. determine the level of utilization of equipment for teaching and learning

Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone,

Nigeria.

1.4         Research Questions

This research work, answer the following research questions:

  • What is the level of availability of physical facilities for teaching and learning

Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria?

  • What is the level of availability of equipment for teaching and learning Business

Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria?

  • What is the level of utilization of physical facilities for teaching and learning

Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria?

  • What is the level of utilization of equipment in teaching and learning Business

Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria?

 

1.5         Research Hypotheses

In line with the specific objectives and research questions the following null hypotheses were tested: 

  • There is no significant difference in the level of availability of physical facilities for teaching and learning Business Education among the Federal Colleges of

Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.

  • There is no significant difference in the level of availability of equipment for teaching and learning Business Education among the Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.
  • There is no significant relationship between the level of utilization of physical facilities and the teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.
  • There is no significant relationship between the level of utilization of equipment and the teaching and learning Business Education in Federal Colleges of

Education in North-west zone, Nigeria.

 

1.6         Significance of the Study

This study will be of significance to the following: Authorities in Colleges of Education, the government and/or proprietors of Colleges of Education, and as well as the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and other stakeholders. It will also benefit curriculum planners, lecturers‟ students‟ and researchers especially in Business Education and other related areas of study.

The study will be significant to the Authorities of Colleges of Education in planning the recruitment and employment policies in a way that more staff will be employed where they are inadequate. In addition, the finding will help the authorities to plan for the procurement and update the available resources.

Government and proprietors of Colleges of Education will be aware of resources needed in Colleges of Education, by virtue of the information that would be provided by the finding of the study. The awareness will enable the government/or proprietors to focus on resources needed in the Colleges.

The findings of this study will provide facts and information to the NCCE to plan for its supervision and other regulatory activities on the Colleges of Education that are faced with problems of resources. Also the findings of this study will be of immense assistance to curriculum planners with a view to adjusting or creating a curriculum of business education which will be of favorable to the discipline and the entire system of education. In addition, the results of this study will help lecturers adjust to a better management and delivery of the courses with the limited resources available. This will bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of the programme. The students will also be more serious to learn and to acquire the basic skills needed to partake in the world of work or to engage themselves in establishing small business enterprise in the absence of employment opportunities after graduation from the Colleges. Furthermore, this study will help researchers in Business Education and other related areas of study by widening the rage of ideas and provision of input material, data, and facts for researches.

Finally, copies of this work will be made available to the National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and also the work will be published in reputable academic Journal, for the benefits of academics.

 

1.7         Basic Assumptions of the Study

The basic assumptions of this study are as follow:

  1. Physical Facilities to enhance skills acquisition in Business Education in Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria are available and properly

utilized.

  1. Student‟s academic achievements in Business Education in Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria are improved due to the availability and utilization of equipment.

 

 

 1.8         Delimitation of the Study

The scope of this study, delimited to availability and utilization of physical facilities and equipment for teaching and learning Business Education in Colleges of Education in North-west zone, Nigeria. The study is further delimited to Federal Colleges of Education in the zone. This is to enable the researcher to understand the strength and weakness in terms of availability and utilization of physical facilities and equipment in the Colleges. The study is also delimited to NCE III students‟ 2015/2016 academic section. This is because the researcher believed that students at that level might have acquired enough experience overtime and would be in better position to adjudge whether  these resources have been utilised or not.

ASSESSMENT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF ASSETS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING BUSINESS EDUCATION IN FEDERAL INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-WEST ZONE, NIGERIA

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