ASSESSMENT OF ARABIC LANGUAGE SYLLABUS APPLICATION FOR ATTAINING SPEECH PROFICIENCY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF ARABIC LANGUAGE SYLLABUS APPLICATION FOR ATTAINING SPEECH PROFICIENCY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the Arabic Language Curriculum Implementation for Achieving Speech Proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State , Nigeria. The study was conducted with four objectives among which are to: assess the level and quality of the implemenattion of Arabic Language Curriculum achieved in speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State ; and ascertain the qualification of teachers available for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State. Also the study was carried out with four corresponding research questions and four hypotheses. The research design adopted for this study is the descriptive research design. The population of the study was made up of 3207 Students, with a total of 68 Arabic Language teachers, and 48 Principals. A sample size of 6 Principals, 9 teachers and 321 Students were used for the study. This sample size was arrived at using random sampling technique. The instrument titled “Assessment of Arabic Language Proficiency Questionnaire (ASALAPQ)” was used for data collection. The overall reliability of the instrument was 0.769. Data collected from the study were analyzed using non-parametric statistics of Kruskal-Wallis. Findings from the study among others show that significant difference exists in the extent of implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for the attainment of speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State . There is no significant difference in the qualification of teachers available for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State. It was concluded that the level of implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum was significantly low in speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State.  Most of the teachers are not qualified to implement the Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving the speech proficiency.  It was also concluded that most of the Arabic teachers are used to chalk and talk method in teaching Arabic Language Curriculum which impedes achieving speech proficiency among the targeted Students. Based on the findings and conclusion from this study, recommendations were made among others that Arabic Language Curriculum should be simplified to provide more skills that are geared towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students. Also, Kaduna State  government should employ only teachers with qualification in Arabic Language to implement the Arabic Language Curriculum so as to achieve speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Page

COVER PAGE                                                                                                           i

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                              ii

DECLARATION                                                                                                        iii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                      iv

DEDICATION                                                                                                            v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                        vi

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           ix

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                      xii

LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                                             xiii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                     xv

OPERATONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS                                                              xvii

CAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               5

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                   6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        7

1.5       Hypotheses                                                                                                     7

1.6      Basic Assumptions                                                                                           8

1.7     Significance of the Study                                                                                 9

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                          10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                     11

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                                  11

2.3       Concept of Curriculum                                                                                   14

2.3.1 Arabic Language Curriculum                                                                            16

2.3.2 The Role of Teacher in the Implementation of Oral Arabic Curriculum          18

2.4       Concept of Assessment                                                                                   21

2.4.1 Arabic Language Assessment                                                                            22

2.4.2 Types of Evaluation                                                                                           22

2.5       Language Learning                                                                                         23

2.6       Language Proficiency                                                                                     28

2.7        Arabic Language Education in Nigeria                                                          29

2.7.1 Characterizing Arabic in Nigeria                                                                       30

2.7.2 Examining Objectives and Teaching Methodologies of Arabic Language 32

2.7.3 Arabic Language Teaching Strategies                                                               35

2.7.4 Importance of Learning Arabic Language                                                         39

2.7.5 Some Benefits of Learning Arabic                                                                    41

2.7.6 Challenges of Learning Arabic Language                                                         44

2.8       Effect of Teacher‟s Qualification and Experience on the Students‟

Performance in Language Learning                                                               48

2.9       Formative Assessment Strategies                                                                   52

2.10     Formative Assessment in Second Language/Foreign Education                   56

2.11     Empirical Studies                                                                                            59

2.12      Summary                                                                                                        68

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                     69

3.2        Research Design                                                                                             69

3.3        Population                                                                                                       69

3.4        Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                   70

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               71

3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument                                                                                  72

3.5.2 Pilot Study                                                                                                         72

3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                              73

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        73

3.7        Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                          74

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                    75

4.2        Description of study Variables                                                                       75

4.3       Response to Research Questions                                                                    75

4.4       Hypotheses Testing                                                                                        82

4.5       Summary of Major Findings                                                                          87

4.6       Discussions of Findings                                                                                  87 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1        Summary                                                                                                        91

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      92

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          92

5.4       Suggestions for Further Study                                                                        93

5.5       Contribution to Knowledge

References                                                                                                      95

Appendices                                                                                                     102

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1:        Population Breakdown According to the Educational Zones in  Kaduna State                                                                         70

Table 3.2:        Sample for the Study                                                                             71

Table 4.1:        Classification of the Respondents                                                          75

Table 4:2          Classification of the Respondents by Gender                                      76

Table 4:3           Distribution of Teacher Respondents by Academic Qualification       76

Table 4:4  Distribution of Teacher Respondents by Year of Teaching Experience  77

Table 4.5:         Response to Research  Question One

 

Opinions of Principals, teachers and Students on the extent to  which the objectives of Arabic Language Curriculum are geared

towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary

School Students in Kaduna State                                                            77

Table 4.6:         Analysis of Data Collected on research Question Two

 

Opinions of Principals, teachers and Students on the quality of  teachers available for the implementation of Arabic Language  78

Curriculum towards achieving speech proficiency among

Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State

Table 4.7:        Response to Research  Question Three

 

Opinions of Principals, teachers and Students on the adequacy of  the instructional materials provided in Arabic Language Curriculum towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary

School Students in Kaduna State                                                                80

Table 4.8:        Analysis of Respodent‟s Responses on Research Question Four

 

Opinions of Principals, teachers and Students on the adequacy of  the methods used by teachers in the implementation of Arabic  Language Curriculum towards achieving speech proficiency among

Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State                                   81

Table 4.9: Summary of Kruskal-Wallis test on the extent to which the objectives  of Arabic Language Curriculum implementation are geared towards

achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School

Students in Kaduna State                                                                        82

Table 4.10: Summary of Kruskal-Wallis test on the quality of teachers  available for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum  towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary

School Students in Kaduna State                                                            84

Table 4.11: Summary of Kruskal-Wallis test on the adequacy of instructional materials provided in Arabic Language Curriculum towards

achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School

Students in Kaduna State                                                                     85

 
Table 4.12: Summary of Kruskal-Wallis test on the adequacy of methods used by teachers in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum towards achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary

School Students in Kaduna State                                                         86

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix I: Letter of Introduction                                                                           102

Appendix II: Biota of the Respondents                                                                    103

Appendix III: Questionnaire                                                                                       104

Appendix IV: JS I – III First Term: Arabic Grammar                                                106

ABBREVIATION

C.I.P.P:            Context input, process and products.

A.L.T:              Arabic Language Teaching

A.S.L:              Arabic as a Second Language

A.S.P:              Arabic for specific purposes.

J.S.S:               Junior Secondary School

N.C.E:             Nigeria Certificate in Education

U.B.E:             Universal Basic Education

I.C.T:               Information and Communication Technology

M.T:                 Mother Tongue

F.S.A:              Formal Spoken Arabic

E.S.A:              Educated Spoken Arabic

F.L:                  Foreign Language

S.L:                  Second Language

L2:                   Second Language

L1:                   First Language

C.L.L:              Community Language Learning

T.P.R:              Total Physical Response

T.I.P:               Total Immersion Programme

C.A.L.L:          Computer Assisted Language Learning

V.L.Es:            Virtual Learning Environments

M.S.A:            Modern Standard Arabic

A.L.Ls:            Arabic Language Learners

C.A.L.P:          Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

S.I.A.S.S:         Sheikh Ibrahim Arab Secondary School

  • S: Government Secondary School

G.G.S.S:          Government Girls Secondary School

O.P.E.C:          Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • S: Higher Certificate in Islamic Studies

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Assessment: This refers to the process of making judgement or forming an opinion after considering the capabilities, achievements and attitudes of individual teachers and Students.
Evaluation: Evaluation is the process of collecting data on a programme to determine its value or worth with the aim of deciding whether to adopt, reject or revise the programme.
Curriculum: An organized set of educational training intention for Students at all levels of education. It is guidance for teaching different subject.
Implementation: To make something such as an idea, plan or system start to work.
Spoken Arabic: Refers to the speaking skills in Arabic Language also known as oral Arabic.
Qualification: Diploma or Degree that is the basic requirement for teaching oral Arabic at the Junior Secondary School Level in Nigeria. In this case National Certificate in Education (N.C.E)
Experience: Knowledge and skill that is gained through time spent teaching

oral Arabic.

Language Proficiency: Refers to the learner‟s ability to use his communicative

knowledge (Language Competence) in different tasks in communication.

Language Learning: Is the imperfect realization of knowledge and language rules or

knowledge of the complex nature of learners developing ability.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Education plays a very important role in the development of a country and the whole world at large. It carters for the needs and aspiration of people in developed and developing countries, yet language is the monitor of any education. No learning process can be effective without a deep understanding of the language that conveys it.  The term „Curriculum‟ has several meanings depending on the context in which it is used. Many authorities defined Curriculum in similar terms. Curriculum is the process and content designed to effect learning of educational values (Ben Yunusa, 2008). Regan (1960), in Yusuf (2012), defined Curriculum as all experiences of the child for which the School accepts responsibility. In another development Curriculum is a description of the content or information that is going to be taught and the method that are going to be used to teach that content. (NAEYC, 2007).  Language is an act of communication; it is the art of passing message across, from one person to the other. Communication can be in spoken or in written form. Abercrombie (1965), in Media (2009), indicated that language is central to communication which makes it possible for individuals to live in a society. It therefore makes it easy for social, business, educational and religious interactions, which is why a learner does not learn until he masters the language of instruction.

According to Ben-Yunusa (2008), because of the important position of language in any nation‟s education system, each nation has a language policy in relation to education;

  1. A decision must be made on the language(s) of instruction in Schools where a nation has more than one language (Multi-lingua).
  2. If more than a language will be used for instruction, a decision must be made on when each of the languages would be used.

When we learn a language, there are four skills we need for complete communication.  When we learn our native language, we usually learn to listen first, to speak, then to read and finally to write. The four language skills are related to each other in two ways:

  1. The direction of communication (In & Out).
  2. The method of communication (Spoken or Written).

Input is sometimes called “Reception” and output is sometimes called “Production”.

Spoken is also known as “Oral”. These four skills are sometimes called “The Macro-

Skills”. This is in contrast to “The Micro-Skills” which are things like grammar, vocabulary, punctuation and spelling. This study intends to assess the Arabic Language Curriculum in achieving proficiency in speech that is, oral practice.  Arabic Language consist of four major skills that are: listening, speaking, reading and writing. Each of these skills is important but the most basic is the development of the skill of speaking. This is because, language is first and fore-most spoken before it is written and there has been problem with Arabic Language especially the speaking aspect. Language proficiency is referred to as the learner‟s ability to use his communicative knowledge (language competence) in different tasks in communication. Performance on the other hand, in language learning can be referred to as the imperfect realization of knowledge and language rules (or knowledge of the complex nature of learners developing ability).  Abbas (2007), as in Musa (2012), Oral Arabic comprised of two basic skills which are listening and speaking as stated in the Ministry of Education 9 years basic Education Curriculum (Arabic Studies) for JSI-II (2007). These two skills, listening and speaking; are closely related as one cannot be acquired without the other.

The lack of proficiency in speaking Arabic Language may be linked to the neglect of this aspect of the Arabic Language in the past. Afolabi (2008), pointed out that skills of oral communication have been largely neglected in the past, as such there is general low level of teaching of spoken Arabic as distinct from the written Arabic. Okafor (2009), opined that “if equal attention is given to the teaching of oral literacy, the traditional method of teaching language which tended to neglect the development of oral expression will be corrected”. In the light of the above submission, it could be concluded that more attention has been given to the written Arabic more than oral

Arabic. This researcher is not suggesting that oral Arabic is more important than written Arabic but that, the spoken aspect of Arabic Language is equally as important as the written aspect. The performance of Students in spoken Arabic depends on their ability to communicate meaningfully within their social-environment while adopting the approved linguistics patterns. Assessment in the contest of education deals with making judgement about Student‟s achievement and progress. It can be extended to the teachers as Curriculum implementers to see how far the teaching activities are achieved or not. Assessment is therefore, part of evaluation. Desmond (1990) as in Issa (2012), saw evaluation as a “Process used to obtain information from testing, from direct observation of behavior, from essays and from other devices to assess Students‟ overall progress towards some predetermined goals or objectives”.

Teachers of Arabic Language are disturbed by the low level of Student‟s performance in oral Arabic. This research work sought to find out the areas of strengths and weaknesses of Students at Junior Secondary level in oral Arabic practice. Thus, the research will provide remediation that is needed to make oral Arabic more effective. Moreover, it is the concern of this research work to assess the Junior Secondary School Arabic

Language Curriculum in achieving proficiency in oral Arabic in Kaduna State .

Galadanci (1993), in Adeyemi (2012), affirmed that language generally plays a crucial role in socio-economic interaction and is an all-important agent in the transmission of cultural and social values. It is shaped by the same political, social, and cultural forces which produce the world‟s diverse civilizations and cultures. Some languages are only spoken locally within a limited area but some transcend national boarders and are called international languages. One of such international languages is Arabic.

Arabic Language is one of the major languages in the world; it is one of the international languages, also a spoken language in the Arabian Peninsula and some part of the African countries. When talking about Arabic Language, this includes discussion on Islamic religion, because it is the language that always interprets Islam and also a language of the Quran, being a divine book for the Muslims.

In Nigeria, the importance of Arabic is evident with the fact that many Universities offered Arabic Language as a course of study. This is so because; Arabic is the language of Islam and Nigeria as a nation has many Muslims, and also Nigeria is a member of

(OPEC).  Arabic is very important to Nigeria as it is used as a means of diplomacy. Good Arabic Language communication will also boost Nigerian economy and this will guarantee the understanding of Islamic religion in the world which may lead to the development of peace and stability (Lawal, 2006).  Arabic as a discipline has many branches, notable among them: Arabic Literature, Syntax, Morphology, Prosody, Rhetoric and so on.  Galadanci (1993), in Adeyemi (2012); these are compulsory and basic subjects for all Junior Arabic and Islamic Secondary School Students, and Arabic Students cannot become successful Arabist without adequate and in depth knowledge of these subjects.

Arabic Language is a discipline faced with many difficulties experienced by Nigerian Secondary Schools.  One of the difficulties faced by Arabic Students is lack of exposure to practical aspect of the language, as most Students find it difficult to express themselves in public (Abbas, 2007), family and society with Arabic Language background play a vital role towards the achievement of Arabic Language proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students (Ango, 2010).  Poor knowledge in some subjects such as Arabic Literature Syntax, Morphology, and many more also contributes in the poor performance and achievement of Arabic proficiency among the Students at the Secondary School level.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

There is concern for the inability of School leavers to express themselves articulately in Arabic Language especially in Kaduna State . Mother tongue is not acceptable in the classroom, due to this, most of the Students especially at Junior Secondary School find it difficult to participate actively in class and most teachers award some marks for class participation in the examination. The problem is further compounded, because the Students‟ ability to write correctly is dependent on the Students‟ ability to speak fluently and correctly.  Abbas (2007), was of the view that this inability to communicate fluently in Arabic Language has generally led to Students‟ poor performance in both internal and external examination.

This study is also concerned with discovering whether teachers actually teach oral Arabic in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, whether the teachers that teach oral Arabic possess adequate experience to implement the oral Arabic Curriculum in Kaduna State, the importance of training and retraining of oral Arabic teachers due to the dynamic nature of Arabic Language is emphasized. Abdul (2012), noted that teachers of oral Arabic who may be academically qualified must be encouraged to undergo periodic training and retraining in other to stay abreast of the modern trends in oral Arabic. Other factors such as the availability of instructional materials, was identified by Olutola (2005), as factors that enhanced Curriculum implementation.

Arabic Language teachers often complain about the Students in oral Arabic practice at Junior Secondary School level. This study is concerned with the continuous complains of teachers at Junior Secondary School level, that Students cannot express themselves very well in Arabic Language, the Students themselves often complain to teachers about their poor performance in Arabic Language. This research work sought to find out the areas of strengths and weaknesses of Students at Junior Secondary level in oral Arabic.  Thus, the research work assesses the Arabic Language Curriculum implementation in achieving speech proficiency in oral Arabic and provides remediation that is needed to make speaking Arabic Language more effective.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The research work has the following objectives:

  1. assess the level and Quality of the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for the attainment of speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State;
  2. ascertain the qualification of teachers available for the implementation of Arabic

Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State;

  1. determine the       adequacy         of         instructional    materials         provided          in    the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State; and
  2. find out the adequacy of the methods used by teachers in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State .

1.4        Research Questions

In the course of carrying out the research, the following questions were raised:

  1. To what extent is the level and quality of implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for the attainment of speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State was achieved?
  2. What is the qualification of teachers available for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State?
  3. How adequate are the instructional materials provided in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State?
  4. How adequate are the methods used by teachers in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State?

1.5        Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested for the study:

Ho1 There is no significant difference in the extent to which the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for the attainment of speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State;

Ho2 There is no significant difference in the qualification of teachers available for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State;

Ho3 There is no significant different on the adequacy of instructional materials provided in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary

School Students in Kaduna State; and

Ho4 There is significant difference in the adequacy of methods used by

teachers in the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum for achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State.

1.6        Basic Assumptions

With respect to this work, the following assumptions were made:

  1. Constant practice of Arabic Language facilitate in achieving speech proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State;
  2. Availability of qualified Arabic Language teachers for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum contributes to Arabic Language proficiency in speech;
  3. Availability of Arabic Language instructional materials for the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum contributes to Arabic Language proficiency in speech; and
  4. Ability of teachers to use proper methods in the implemenatation of Arabic

Language Curriculum contributes a lot to Arabic proficiency.

 

 

 

1.7       Significance of the Study

This study is significant in that, it explored an aspect (spoken component) of the Arabic Language Curriculum which was previously neglected by the government, educational administrators, teachers, Students, other educational stakeholders such as publishers and producers of instructional materials and the general public. The outcome of this study will help to sensitize the government towards the provision of adequate instructional materials of the implementation of Arabic Language Curriculum.  The government will also deem it necessary to improve the general welfare package of teachers, especially

Arabic Language teachers because of the tedious nature of teaching Arabic Language. In addition the government will also ensure that resources needed for training and retraining of oral Arabic teachers are provided, owing to the fact that these teachers may also have peculiar mother tongue interference which if corrected in the teachers will not be passed on to the Students.

Educational administrators would deem it necessary to include oral Arabic on the Schools time-table. The current practice whereby oral Arabic is not allotted a specific period on the Schools time-table, create room for many Arabic Language Teachers to avoid teaching it. Apart from not being on the time-table, it is not tested through weekly continuous assessment and termly examination.  Therefore, there is no immediate representation for the teachers who refuse to teach it or the Students who will not be subjected to any examinations on oral Arabic at the end of their course in Junior Secondary School.

Curriculum evaluators will apportion some of the marks obtainable in Arabic Language in Junior Secondary School examination to testing of oral Arabic certificate examination, but with little modification which is that oral Arabic Junior School certificate examination should be tested orally because this researcher is of the view that testing oral Arabic via writing is an aberration. Also, the performance of Students in this examination will enable Curriculum evaluators identify the area that needs improvement or reform in Junior Secondary School oral Arabic Curriculum.  Findings from this research should bring about some improvement in the teaching and learning of oral Arabic. Publishers and producers of instructional materials on oral Arabic will be encouraged to produce more textbooks and instructional materials because the demand for them will increase since more teachers and Students will need them for effective teaching and learning. Findings from the research will also provide data for further researchers in oral Arabic.

1.8       Scope of the Study

This research work assessed the Arabic Language Curriculum Implementation for

Achieving Speech Proficiency among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State ; The study covers all the Educational Zones of the State. However, the research was limited to Zaria, Kaduna and Rigachikun in the three educational Zones of the State respectively. Specifically the research work studied Junior Secondary Schools that are offering Arabic in the three (3) Educational Zones of the State, all Arabic Students of JS II and all Arabic teachers of these Schools as well as the Principals.

ASSESSMENT OF ARABIC LANGUAGE SYLLABUS APPLICATION FOR ATTAINING SPEECH PROFICIENCY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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