USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was on application of Information Communication Technology for Effective Teaching and Learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Niger State, Nigeria. Accordingly, five (5) research objectives, five research questions and five null hypotheses each guided the study. Descriptive survey method was employed and the population of study was thirty-one thousand four hundred and sixty-seven (31,467), out of which a sample of four hundred and forty respondents (440) was selected for the study through the use of proportionate sampling technique. The instrument titled Application of ICT for Effective Teaching of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by research supervisors, language expert and statistician, while reliability co-efficient of 0.880 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to report the descriptive data collected, while the independent samples t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS II and

JSS III students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger state, Nigeria. However, significant difference was not found between the mean opinion score of JSS male and female as well as urban and rural teachers differ on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS male and female; urban and rural students on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, Government should provide Information Communication Technology devices such as handheld computers, Ipads or mini-computers with installed programmes, themes and topics on Social Studies for junior secondary school students in Niger state. This will help bridge the gap in knowledge of JSS students on application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in the state; Niger State Government should ensure that ICT policy statements are translated into reality. An ICT policy implementation commission should be created, funded and given the power to provide ICT facilities to both male and female social studies teachers in junior secondary schools and monitor their use.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE  DECLARATION            i

CERTIFICATION             ii DEDICATION            iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                                    iv

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                           vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       vii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                 ix

LIST OF FIGURE                                                                                                                  xi

LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                                                        xii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                               xiii

           CHAPTRER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                 1

1.1  Background to the Study                                                                                                     1

1.2 Statements of the Problem                                                                                                   3

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                        4

1.4  Research Questions                                                                                                             4

1.5  Null Hypotheses                                                                                                                  5

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                                     6

1.7  Scope of the Study                                                                                                               7

           CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                            8

2.01 Introduction                                                                                                                        8

2.02  Theoretical Framework                                                                                                     8

2.02.1 The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology                                         8

2.03.1 Concept of Social Studies                                                                                             11

2.03.2 Scope, Nature and Objectives, of Social Studies Education in Nigeria                       13

2.04 History and Justification for the Introduction of Social Studies in Nigeria                    17

2.05 Concept of Information Communication Technology                                                     25

2.06 Information Communication Technology and Social Studies curriculum                      27

  1. 07 Teachers‟ Gender and Application of ICT for Effective Teaching of Social Studies 43
    • Students‟ Gender and Application of ICT for Effective Learning of Social Studies 46
    • Students‟ Location and Application of ICT for Effective Learning of Social Studies 48
    • Teachers‟ Location and ICT Application for Effective Teaching of Social Studies 51
    • Review of Related Empirical Studies 54

Summary                                                                                                                          62

           CHAPTER THREE; RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                     63

3.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        63

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                                 63

3.3 Population of the Study                                                                                                      63

3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                     65

3.5  Instrumentation                                                                                                                  66

3.5.1 Validation of the Instrument                                                                                           66

3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                           67

3.6 Data Collection Procedure                                                                                                 68

3.7  Statistical Analysis Procedure                                                                                           68

           CHAPTER FOUR; DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSIONS                              69

4.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        69

4.2 Bio-Data of Respondents                                                                                                   69

4.2.1 Response Rate by Questionnaire                                                                                    69

4.2.4. Demographic Variables of Respondents                                                                        70

4.3 Answering the Research Questions                                                                                    71

4.4 Testing the Null Hypotheses                                                                                              74

4.5 Summary of Major Findings                                                                                              78

4.6 Discussion of Findings                                                                                                       79

           CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS         81

5.1 Introduction                                                                                                                        81

5.2 Summary                                                                                                                            81

5.3 Conclusions                                                                                                                        83

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge                                                                                                84

5.5 Recommendations                                                                                                              84

5.6 Suggestion for Further Research                                                                                        85

REFERENCES                                                                                                                         86

APPENDICES    98 LIST OF TABLES

Table                                                                                                                                   Page

  • Population Distribution by LGAs, Schools and Gender 65
  • Sample of the study by Gender, Location and Levels of Study 66
  • Response Rate of the Questionnaires 69
  • Response Rate by Gender (Teachers & Students) 70
  • Response Rate by Location (Teachers and Students) 70
  • Response Rate by Level of Study 71
  • Means and standard deviation of JSS II and JSS III students 72
  • Means and Standard Deviation of Male and Female Teachers 72
  • Means and standard deviation of JSS Male and Female students 73
  • Means and Standard Deviation of Urban and Rural JSS Students 73
  • Means and Standard Deviation of Urban and Rural Teachers 74
  • Analysis of independent sample t-test of JSS II and JSS III Students 75
  • Analysis of independent sample t-test of Male and Female JSS Teachers      75
  • Analysis of Independent Sample t-test of Male and Female JSS Students 76
  • Analysis of Independent Sample t-test of Urban and Rural JSS Students 77
  • Analysis of Independent Sample t-test of Urban and Rural JSS Teachers 77

LIST OF FIGURE

Figure                                                                                                                                   Page

1                   The UTAUT Model                                                                                         10

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix                                                                                                                              Page

  • Questionnaire For Student 98
  • Questionnaire For Teaches 100
  • Sample Distribution Table           101
  • Summary of Pilot Study Result                                                              102

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AISI –   Africa Information Society Institute
ASESP –   African Social and Environment Studies Programme
CAI     –   Computer Aided Instruction
CESAC –   Comparative Education Study and Adaptive Centre
GSM –   Global System for Mobile Communication
GWIS –   Government Wide Information System
HIS –   Health Care Information System
ICT      –   Information and Communication Technology
IT         –   Information Technology
MIS     –   Management Information System
NCE –   Nigeria Certificate of Education
NERC –   Nigeria Education Research Council
NITDA –   Nigeria information Technology Development Agency
NNIEP –   Northern Nigeria Teacher Education Initiative Programme
NUC –   National University Commission
NUMIS –   Nigeria University Management Information System
OAU –   Obafemi Awolowo University
PDA  –   Personal Digital Assistant
PHCN –   Power Holding Company of Nigeria
QOS    –   Quality of Service
RINA –   Regular Information Network for Africa
SMART –   Simple Moral Accountable Resources Transparent Government
SOSAN –   Social Studies Association of Nigeria
SPSS –   Statistical Package for Social Science

TQ –                            Teaching Questionnaire

UAF    –                       University Access Fund.

UNESCO –                  United Nation Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization

USA    –                       United State of America

USAID –                      United State Agency for International Development

 

 

CHAPTRER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background to the Study

The emergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has ushered in a new era in our civilization in which digitalization has almost become a better alternative, because it has influenced every facet of human life, including education (Spiezia, 2011). Teachers in Nigeria need to be prepared to face the challenges of the 21st century for imparting the new age education. The entry of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into education has made education readily available and accessible to the very busy man in both the office and out of the office due to its networking facilities, as individual learners have access to internet facilities and can take educational courses, receive lectures and receive examination through the internet within and outside the confines of the classroom environment.

Today, as the educational sector is faced with a series of changes and reforms, it is good to involve ICT in teaching, reflecting on matters of concerned in Social Studies Education and the dissemination of Social studies curriculum contents at secondary school level. More recent reviews of research indicate that technology has a positive influence on teaching and learning in Social Studies classrooms (Gao, Choy, Wong & Jing, 2007). However, there is a need for both quantitative and qualitative research to assess the application of particular types of technology into Social Studies classrooms (Gao, Choy, Wong & Jing, 2007). National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) standards support the application of technology in the Social Studies as a means to teach civic participation and to afford opportunities for valuable critical thinking activities (NCSS, 2009). The technological shift in society has occurred very rapidly, and the field of education is attempting to keep up the pace. Recent advances now allow computer technology to serve many more functions for the Social Studies classroom than merely accessing information through the Internet (Gao, Choy, Wong & Jing, 2007). For educators to fully take advantage of the technology available, the technology must be infused more into daily instruction and not used as a mere appendage during one or two lessons (Krutka, & Carano, 2016). Yet, articles continually appear that merely list a wealth of Internet sites with little guidance on how the busy teacher can incorporate these resources into a lesson or project.

However, the political conditions in Nigeria for the past thirty years leave no room for continuity. Over the years, political power in Nigeria has been used to entrench mediocrity, corruption in high places, misplace priority, and consumer culture. The direct effect of these is a battered economy and an educational system that is decaying by the day. In 1988, in an attempt to keep pace with development in computer education, Nigeria enacted a Policy on Computer Education (Nwangwu, Obi & Ogwu, 2014). Thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities in most secondary schools in Nigeria. If a country such as Uganda which has less than a-fifth of Nigeria‟s resources, is now using information and communication technology to help secondary schools students to become better information users, why is Nigeria lagging behind? The answer is simply mismanagement of the huge resources of the country and inability of political leaders to prioritize Nigeria‟s developmental needs. There is no doubt that in the current harsh economic competition, the private sector in Nigeria has embraced ICT to stay afloat. The banking sector, insurance, manufacturing industries and multinational companies in the oil sector have embraced multimedia technology to bring innovative solutions to their current challenges (Nwangwu, Obi & Ogwu, 2014).

If Nigerian wants to be a major player in the global market place of ideas and prepare her citizens for the new environment of today and the future, the country should embrace ICT for the following reasons: ICT as aids to teaching and learning; ICT as a tool for management; ICT as instrument for economic development; ICT as instrument of high technological development, and ICT as a course of study. The push for the inclusion of technology and the efforts made in creating standards for technology in the Social Studies might set in motion the proliferation of various forms of technology use across the curriculum

(Nwangwu, Obi & Ogwu, 2014). An evaluation of the state of ICT application in the Nigerian junior secondary schools revealed the existence of enormous challenges against actualizing the goals of instructional delivery (Dhand & Lyons, 2007). This can be attributed to a number of factors which has motivated the researcher to assess the application of ICT in teaching and learning of Social Studies in junior secondary schools.

1.2 Statements of the Problem

The policy on ICT has been developed which aims at empowering the youth with ICT skills and preparing them for global competitiveness and also encouraging capacity building of ICT in the country‟s secondary schools. The application and use of ICT has also been made mandatory at all levels of educational institutions through adequate financial provision for tools and resources. In spite of the effort of the Federal Government of Nigeria and Niger State Governments in promoting ICT integration into teaching and learning in junior secondary Schools.

However, the attainment of objectives of ICT at junior secondary school level seems to suffer some defects as observed from poor performance in ICT utilization among teachers and students. This problem could also be as a result of poor accessibility of ICT resources by the teachers and students in junior secondary schools. If ICT tools are adequately accessed, they will be utilized for both academic and non-academic activities. This will bring about high degree of infusion into social studies teaching and learning in junior secondary Schools.

Hence, the problem of this study hinged on the application of ICT for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies among male and female teachers and students in both rural and urban junior secondary schools in Bosso and Minna local government areas of Niger state,

Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The major objective of this study was to assess the application of ICT for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were to:

  1. find out the opinions of JSS students by levels of study on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger state, Nigeria.
  2. assess the opinion of JSS teachers by gender on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria. find out the opinions of JSS students by gender on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.  iv. assess the opinions of JSS students by location on the application of ICT  for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.
  3. find out the opinions of JSS teachers by location on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.

1.4  Research Questions

The following questions guided the study:

  1. What is the opinion of JSS II and JSS III students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger state, Nigeria?
  2. In what ways do the opinions of JSS male and female teachers differ on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria?
  • What is the opinion of JSS male and female students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria?
  1. In what ways do JSS urban and rural students differ in their opinions on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria?
  2. What is the opinions of JSS urban and rural teachers on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria?

1.5  Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at p≤ 0.05 level of significance:

HO1. There is no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS II and JSS III students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger state, Nigeria.

HO2. There is no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS male and female teachers differ on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.

HO3. There is no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS male and female students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.

HO4.  There is no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS urban and rural students on the application of ICT for effective learning of Social Studies in Niger State, Nigeria.

 HO5.   There is no significant difference between the mean opinion score of JSS urban and

rural teachers on the application of ICT for effective teaching of Social Studies in

Niger State, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will be significant in the following ways:-

 

The findings will help policy makers realize that the world is becoming a global village with varieties of information and communication technology facilities that can enhance teaching and learning. The finding will reveal to government, educational planners and teachers that Information and Communication Technology has the potential to contribute in different faces of educational development and effective teaching and learning of Social Studies.

The findings of the study will help Social Studies teachers in choosing appropriate ICTs devices capable of relieving students‟ tension towards the subject, thus improving students‟ academic performance in Social Studies. It  will  motivate  Social Studies teachers  to  develop positive towards utilizing  suitable  ICTs devices  that  will  be  a  possible  means for minimizing problems in the teaching and learning of  Social Studies at Junior Secondary School level. Findings of this study will help clarify among the teachers, the need for continuous and regular use of ICTs devices for teaching and learning of Social Studies.

Moreover, the results of this study will be of great significance to the Social Studies curriculum planners. The curriculum developers will find the work useful in reviewing the Social Studies curriculum by laying more emphasis on application of ICT devices so as to meet up with emerging needs of the society in the 21st century. This study will be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of Social Studies by forming a basis for further studies on the application of ICTs and teachers‟ quality in learning of Social Studies as a subject.

The study  will  also  equip  our  educational  administrators  in  both  federal and state Ministries of Education, educational test and measurement experts on the need to provide  ICTs devices for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies in our secondary schools particularly in junior secondary schools Niger State as a whole.

The  research  findings  will  be  useful  to  education  policy  makers  and curriculum developers of JSS Social Studies curriculum as it will make them appreciate the need to make necessary adjustments especially on incorporation of full and comprehensive application of information and communication technology such as computer, internet, multimedia resources and other devices in teaching and learning of Social Studies.

The study findings will suggest to policy makers the need to provide necessary information and communication technology facilities to Social Studies teachers, this will enable them achieve National Educational goals as spelt out in National Policy of Education on integration of information and communication technology  in teaching and  learning  in Nigeria. The outcome of this study finding will also suggest ways for effective application of information and communication technology facilities to enhance teaching and learning in Junior Secondary Schools. The study finding will add to existing literatures on application of information and communication technology in Social studies education.

1.7  Scope of the Study

This study was on the application of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for effective teaching and learning of Social Studies in junior secondary schools in Niger state, Niger. However, this study was delimited to Bosso and Chanchaga Local Government Areas of Niger state. Add to this, it focused on JSS II and JSS III students and teachers in

Public  junior  Secondary  Schools.

 

USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF SOCIAL STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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