STUDY OF STUDENTS OPINION ON MORAL BELIEFS IN ISLAMIC STUDIES SYLLABUS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The study analysed the perception on moral values Among Senior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study had four objectives. The study was conducted with the objectives to examine the perception of the Islamic studies curriculum implementation for the acquisition of faithfulness among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State; examine the perception of Islamic studies curriculum on sincerity among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State; ascertain the perception of Islamic studies curriculum on modesty among students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State; and examine the perception of Islamic studies curriculum on hard work among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were postulated in line with the stated objectives. Relevant literatures were reviewed on the key variables of the study. The study adopted descriptive type of survey research design. The target population of the study comprised of 18,995 from Giwa, Kudan, Sabon Gari, Soba and Zaria Local Government respectively. The sample sizes of 378 students were used in the study. Data was collected using Implementation of Islamic Studies Curriculum on the Acquisition of Moral Values Among Students questionnaire (ISSCAMQ), the instrument was validated by the researcher‟s supervisors before it was subjected to a pilot study which provides a reliability estimate of 0.81. The data gathered were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. All the hypotheses were tested using chi-square at 0.05% level of significance. The study concluded that there was existence of significant difference on the perception of Islamic Studies curriculum on faithfulness among Senior Secondary School students in Kaduna State; there was significant influence of Islamic Studies curriculum implementation on sincerity among Senior Secondary School students in Kaduna State; there was existence of significant difference on the perception of Islamic Studies curriculum on modesty among Senior Secondary School students in Kaduna State; and there is significant difference on the perception of Islamic Studies curriculum on hard work among Senior Secondary School students in Kaduna State. Based on the findings from this study, recommendations were made among others that Islamic Studies teachers should be encouraged to teach their students how to keep company with good peers as this will help to provide faithfulness among them and students should be encouraged to be to kind to others as this will help promote sincerity among them.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS vii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OD TERMS xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Basic Assumptions 7
1.7 Significance of the Study 8
1.8 Scope of the Study 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Theoretical Framework 12
2.3 Conceptual Framework 14
2.3.1 Concept of Moral Values 22
2.3.2 Concept of Islamic Studies 25
2.3.3 Concept of Curriculum 26
2.3.4 Concept of Faithfulness 28
|2.3.5 Concept of Sincerity||30|
|2.3.6 Concept of Modesty||31|
|2.3.7 Concept of Hard Work||35|
|2.4 Role of Islamic Studies on Curriculum Implementation||37|
|2.5 Curriculum and Curriculum Implementation||37|
|2.5.1 Curriculum Implementation Models||39|
|2.5.2 Participants in Curriculum Implementation||43|
|2.5.3 Characteristics of Good Curriculum Implementation||47|
|2.5.4 Curriculum Implementation and Review Strategies||49|
|2.5.5 Obstacles in the Implementation of Senior Secondary
School Islamic Studies Curriculum
|2.5.6 Evaluation of Learning and Curriculum Implementation||55|
|2.6 Review of WASSCE Islamic Studies Chief Examiners’ Reports From 2009 to 2013||56|
|2.7 Teacher‟s Quality and the Implementation of Islamic Studies Curriculum||58|
|2.8 Significance of Teaching Methods in the Implementation of Islamic Studies Curriculum||61|
|2.9 Relevance of Islamic Studies Curriculum in Inculcating Moral Values||61|
|2.10 Factors influencing Moral Values of students||67|
|2.11 Role of Islamic Studies Teachers in Inculcating Moral Values||73|
|2.12 Empirical Studies||81|
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
|3.2 Research Design||99|
|3.3 Population of the Study||99|
|3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques||100|
3.5 Instrumentation 101
3.5.1 Validity of the instrument 101
3.5.2 Pilot study 101
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 102
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 102
3.7 Procedure for Data Analysis 102
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.0 Introduction 103
4.1 Description of Study Variables 103
4.2 Answer to Research Question 103
4.3 Response to Research Questions 103
4.3.1 Research Question 1 103
4.3.2 Research Question 2 103
4.3.3 Research Question 3 103
4.3.4 Research Question 4 103
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 108
4.4.1 Hypothesis 1 108
4.4.2 Hypothesis 2 109
4.4.3 Hypothesis 3 110
4.4.4 Hypothesis 4 110
4.5 Discussion of Findings 111
4.6 Summary of Major Findings 113
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 114
5.2 Conclusion 114
5.3 Recommendations 115
5.5 Suggestions for further Research 115
5.6 Contribution to knowledge 116
|LIST OF TABLES|
|Table 1||Population for the Study||99|
|Table 2||Sample of the Study||99|
|Table 4.1||Frequency and percentage of respondents based on Gender||102|
|Table 4.2||Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation distribution on|
|Table 4.3||Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation distribution on|
|Table 4.4||Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation distribution on|
|Table 4.5||Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation distribution on|
|student hard work||106|
|Table 4.6||Chi-square test on student faithfulness||107|
|Table 4.7||Chi-square analysis test on student sincerity||108|
|Table 4.8||Chi-square analysis on modesty among its student||109|
|Chi-square analysis on hard work among senior secondary students
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
|ABU:||Ahmadu Bello University|
|GDSSS:||Government Day Senior Secondary School|
|GSSS:||Government Senior Secondary School|
|WAEC||West African Examination Council|
|NABTEB||National Business and Technical Examination Board|
|NECO||National Examination Council|
|N.P.E||National Policy on Education|
|P.T.A||Parent‟s Teachers Association|
|NERDC||Nigeria Education Research and Development Council|
|P.B.U.H||Peace and blessing be upon him|
|U.P.E||Universal Primary Education|
|N.T.I||National Teachers Institute|
|SBMC||School Based Management Committee|
|JAMB||Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board|
|NECO||National Examination Council|
|MDGS||Millennium Development Goals|
|NEEDS||National Economic and Empowerment Strategies|
|United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization|
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Curriculum: all the desirable learning experiences: cognitive, psychomotor and
affective, planned for the learners under the direction of the school
Curriculum Implementation: is the interpreting and delivering the ingredients and actualization
of the curriculum document
|is to believed and follow the laws of Allah regardless of what it costs;|
|Hardworking:||a person taking his work seriously and doing it well and rapidly.|
|Islamic Studies:||a process of learning how one will worship his Lord in accordance with the provision of the Glorious Qur‟an and traditions of the prophet (Peace Be Upon Him)|
|Modesty:||a quality that prevents one from behaving badly towards others or encouraging others to behave badly towards you|
|Moral Values:||relative to principles of right and wrong in behavour especially for teaching right behavour.|
|Sincerity:||is that what a person says and his/her deeds and actions should be|
for the sake of Allah (SWT) and not to show to the people or to be proud of himself or herself with them
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background to the Study
Islam plays a significant role in satisfying our physical as well as spiritual needs. Islam studies teach us, a code of behavior, and conservation of social values and give us a meaning for our existence. It helps in toleration and developing adaptive capacities for stressful events of live. It gives us a sense of self-respect and teaches one about the virtues of family life and a cohesive society with a sense of brotherhood. According to Yusuf (2012), it was generally believed that, Islamic studies is aim at provide a total and balanced development of every student in every sphere of learning – spiritual, moral, imaginative, intellectual, cultural, aesthetic, emotional and physical – directing all these aspects towards the attainment of a conscious relationship with God, the ultimate purpose of man‟s life on earth.
Islamic education is concerned not only with the instruction and training of the mind and the transmission of knowledge (ta ‘lim) but also with the education of the whole being of men and women (tarbiyah that is (moral training) (Mujaheed, 2007). The Islamic educational system never divorced the training of the mind from that of the soul. The more overarching concept of tarbiyah refers to moral education. Hence, acquiring knowledge, ethics and a moral world view is a foundation for achieving what the Qur’an requires of every human being – to enjoin what is good, and prevent what is evil (Shaikh,
2010). Truthfulness and moral value are good qualities desirable in all human beings. These qualities make one‟s life worth living and worthy of emulation for peaceful coexistence. In recognition of this position, the National Policy on Education, Section I paragraph a (k) provides for teaching and learning of religion as part of general education. The policy says thus, opportunity shall continue to be made for religious instruction; no child will be forced to accept any religious instruction which is contrary to the wishes of his or her parents (N.P.E., 2009).
This position gives Islamic education relevance in the educational system. National curricula for religious education do not just spring from nowhere. They evolve over time as a reflection of the needs, perception and “historical development for the societies concerned. However, religious education or studies, to some people is still perceived as irrelevant subject to man’s daily needs (Abdul-rauf, 2008). The spiritual development which enhances character training is treated with levity. This has been the major concern of religious conscious people in our society, to different people Islamic religion means many things, but for the purpose of clarity some scholarly definitions on meaning of Islam will be reviewed. Islam goes beyond religious spheres (Balogun, 2008). It takes care of all human endeavours, Islam discusses the spiritual and mundane activities of man; hence it is regarded as „a complete way of life‟. The social, economic, political, cultural and educational values of Islam cannot be overemphasized. Islam lays down distinctive standard for the life of man. It regulates the life of man to conform to the needs of this world and the hereafter (Adeniran, 2008). Hard work is what you do on top of all that. It‟s what you do after one have put in good hours, after one have cleaned apartment, after one have kept all appointments and followed through on all one promises. Hard work is above and beyond and it‟s the only thing that will push one above and beyond. In Nigeria today, there is rapid moral decadence cutting across adults, youths and kids in all sectors of the society. Delinquent behaviors have de-generated the psyche of people in the society to the extent that people have lost faith in the capacity of the government to uphold morals and justice People are no longer committed as self employees, civil servants, laborers in private institutions, even as teacher, or students. Moreover, outside schools and government institutions, there are increases in instances such as robbery, trick, begging touting and all sorts of misfit behaviors in our societies. Some findings have shown that majority of men and women found in these acts are mostly school dropouts, youngsters from broken homes and unemployed graduates of various institutions at diverse levels, therefore, these calls for appropriate implementation of religious and ethical education in our schools. If curricular on religions, social and ethical education are well planned and developed and at the same time. If correctly implemented, most of the above stated moral decadence would, if not completely
eradicated or reduced to the minimal (Doi, 2004 in Makinde, 2008).
Survival and welfare of a nation depends largely on the way of life her citizens have, their mental and moral orientation, their cohesion as a society. This fact has been recognized in Islam, which therefore addresses itself to the whole way of life of individual and society so as to achieve a balanced result. Thus Islamic studies curriculum has been prepared to reflect this broad concern, so as to inculcate true and balanced values in the young Nigerian at any age, when his mental and moral development at a formative stage.
Islamic studies at the senior secondary in Kaduna State has achieved this goal among the students has remained a question unanswered if we take a look at the increase in moral decadence and behavioural problems among the students. It is against this backdrop that this study intends to assess the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum on the acquisition of moral values among senior secondary schools students in Kaduna State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Moral decadence in Nigeria has generated a lot of problems in our society resulting in the slow pace of development in the country, the moral decadence ranges from examination malpractices, stealing, bribery and corruption, sexual promiscuity, drug addiction leading to social maladjustment, insubordination, disrespect to the constituted authority and to the rules of law. All these immoral behaviours possibly contributed to declining economic and educational standard, resulting in importation of strange social behaviours into our society. This in turn has actually gone deep into the life style of men and women in the society thereby generating fear, unpatriotic, feelings, disunity, lack of faith in the development and progress of the country distrust towards leaders and unguided behaviour in the mind of the youths with a clear conscience who would love to uphold high moral standards.
There is need for appropriate orientation to be given to the young ones, this will eradicate the moral decadence in our society, thereby creating room for development, this can only be completed by our educational sectors by means of the school which at the grassroots, matters most in the instance of development, there is no doubt that moral degeneration and moral values laxity especially among the secondary school students have become the bane of the contemporary Nigerian society, these problems have eaten deep into the fabric of all aspects of our national life, social, political, cultural or economic, the antisocial behaviours which are the manifestation of this moral and moral values decay have been worrisome to successive governments in power as to elicit incessant calls on religious groups to intensify efforts in their missionary activities to combat this menace, this is also asserted by researchers such as (Mujaheed, 2008). Hard work is what you do on top of all that. It‟s what you do after one have put in good hours, after one have cleaned apartment, after one have kept all appointments and followed through on all one promises. Hard work is above and beyond and it‟s the only thing that will push one above and beyond. All these burning issues are the basic problems which this research work intends to address. But to be more precise, the study will assess the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum on the acquisition of moral values such as; faithfulness, sincerity, modesty and hard work among senior secondary schools students in Kaduna
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Objectives of the study are as followed:
- examine the perception of male and female students on faithfulness in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State;
- examine the perception of male and female respondents on sincerity in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State;
- ascertain the perception of male and female respondents on modesty in Islamic studies curriculum among students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State; and
- examine the perception of male and female respondents on hard-work in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions generate for the study are as follows:
- to what extent does Islamic studies curriculum influenced faithfulness among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State?
- to what extend does Islamic studies curriculum influence sincerity among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State?
- to what extent does Islamic studies curriculum influence modesty among students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State?
- how does the Islamic studies curriculum influence hard work among senior secondary schools students in Kaduna State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be tested in the study:
|Ho1:||There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents on the perception of faithfulness in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna state;|
|Ho2:||There is no significant difference between the opinions of male and female respondents on the perception of sincerity in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna state;|
|Ho3:||There is no significant difference between the views of male and female respondents on the perception of modesty in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna state; and|
|Ho4:||There is no significant difference between the opinion of male and female|
respondents on the perception of hard-work in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in Kaduna state.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The following basic assumptions are developed for the study:
- it is assume that Islamic studies curriculum does not inculcate faithfulness among senior secondary school in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
- it is assume that Islamic studies curriculum does not inculcate sincerity among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- it is assume that Islamic studies curriculum does not inculcate modesty among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
- it is assume that Islamic studies curriculum does not inculcate hard work among senior secondary school student in Kaduna state, Nigeria.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study will help students as well as teachers develop more awareness on the importance of the Islamic studies as subject and its role in moral values development. The result of the study will help teachers provide encouragement to think of ideas that will give proper guidance to the students. This may also increase their competency in providing moral support to students.
The result of the study will help the parents with strategies of inculcating moral values in their wards at home and the community at large. It is expects that, this study would widen the horizon of the society on the vital role Islamic studies plays in the life of their students. This will properly develop confidence in members of the society that, Islamic studies not just branch of learning which supplement the school curriculum courses but a healing subject. Add to this, the study will help to fast-track the school administrator plan in students‟ behavioural problems by providing them with effective strategies that works.
Moreover, this study serves as resource material and compass for curriculum planners in Islamic studies programme at senior secondary level when need for curriculum review arises, because, it is expected to provide directions to the professionals on what to be included in order to make the curriculum more richer to stand the test of time with references to moral values inculcation in the mind of Islamic studies students.
This study will stand to serve as, a reference material in the educational system in as far as it will establish the role Islamic studies curriculum plays in inculcating moral values in senior secondary school students. In addition, the study will contributes to existing literature through its findings, which will succeed in confirming the fact that, the Islamic studies curriculum at senior secondary level is not just a blue print developed to make the curriculum comprehensive in its outlook but rather, a subject that, put into practice the themes and topics there in, to achieve its central goals as building of a balanced personality.
The Ministry of Education officials will benefits from this /study on issues relating to allocation of funds to these schools, the need to allocate more funds for the purpose of organizing workshop for the teachers and students in these school again, the Ministry of Education officials will be equipped with reliable and factual information concerning the state of acquisition of moral value in these schools and the modalities to manage them and for planning purpose. The Ministry of Education official will benefits from the study, the findings from this study will alert them in playing a sensitive role aimed at the provision of a conducive learning environment and at same improving the standard of education.The Ministry of Education official will benefits from the study by having knowledge of the state of acquisition of moral values in these government schools, Kaduna state and the legal framework guiding its activities. The Parent Teachers Association (P.T.A) are indeed partners in managing the school will benefits from the study, the findings from the study will inform the Parent Teachers Association, the opportunity to have adequate knowledge of acquisition of the moral values in these schools and the roles they can play in supporting the school. It will enable them to work harmoniously with the school in talking to their wards/students on how to interact with one another.
Education Administrators like the principal, teachers, Parent Teachers Association (P.T.A). The educaiotn administrators like; principals who is the head of the school will have reliable and factual information concerning the state of acquisition of morals values. Again, the findings from this study will place the education administrator on alert, policies that will help check mate. It will help the teachers who is the major stakeholders in teaching and learning to initiate, and use different teaching strategies, sustain and adequately apply the moral values at his or her disposal, to achieve teaching goal and be a useful citizen in her community. It will help the teacher even in placing disciplinary measures on students so as to take care of the delinquent and unacceptable behaviours.
Non-governmental organization will have reliable and factual knowledge of the acquisition of moral values in these schools. It will give them the opportunity to play a sensitive role of providing more funds, to enable these schools have more school facilities and management policies. Again, religious bodies who are partners in educaiotn, the findings from this study will informed them the opportunity to lay more emphasis on the moral and spiritual teachings that will enable the students make proper use of these acquisition of moral values without necessarily abusing the opportunity to become useful in the society.
Curriculum Experts/planners will benefits from the study. It will give them the opportunity to have adequate knowledge of the state of acquisition of moral values in these schools. It will place a burden on them to plan and develop curricula documents that will take care of all students, as well as curriculum experts in playing a sensitive role aimed at mapping the standard of education, hence the curriculum needs to be changing along side with the needs and aspirations of the society. The study will motivate the curriculum planners to emphasize the use of mastery learning skills, reflective strategy in teaching various concepts in Islamic studies. This may help to enhance the performance in Islamic studies thereby reducing the rate of failure in the subjects.
Again, Islamic studies students will benefits from the study, students will observe practical knowledge and in the acquisition of essential skills in their learning. The students will benefits from the study by having useful information to enable them have ability to properly organize themselves for meaningful educational attainments. The findings will enhance motivation of Islamic education students towards the subjects and improve their performance since it incorporate mastery of the concepts taught. Findings for the study will open more doors for further research to be carry out in the future, researcher will have adequate knowledge of the state of acquisition of moral values in these Government schools. Knowledge of acquisition of moral values in these schools which shall be open up to the academician, shall place a burden for academician to press hard for all concern for improvement in the standard of conduct in these schools so as to enhance students‟ performance.
It will boost the morals of teachers to be able to use right teaching methodology, proper, effective efficient use of instructional aids to teach. Enable the educational
administrators and planners to appreciate the need for proper management of
students, so as to ensure productivity in their studies.
It will help student and teachers under training to enhance .their learning skills, knowledge and rudiment about how good moral values can help both teachers and
students to learn and improve their skills successfully. It will help school administrator in casting some light on the extend of benefits of good moral values as well as the opportunity to enroll in more students in these Government schools in Kaduna.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is focused on the perception of Islamic studies curriculum on moral values among senior secondary school students in Kaduna State. The study is limited to cover
Zaria Educational Zone which consists of all the senior secondary schools in Zaria Educational Zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The study will look at the perception of Islamic studies curriculum on moral values among senior secondary school students 1-3 but the researcher‟s interest will particularly be on SSS II students so as to get the opinion of the students concerning the perception on moral values in Islamic studies curriculum among senior secondary school students in kaduna state. All the schools found in Zaria Educational Zone which the researcher is interested are co-educational school, having both males and females and different ethnic and religious group.
STUDY OF STUDENTS OPINION ON MORAL BELIEFS IN ISLAMIC STUDIES SYLLABUS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA