IMPLICATION OF HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF DISCIPLINE TO THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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IMPLICATION OF HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF DISCIPLINE TO THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 This study is aimed at to examines the respondence opinion on the application of Henri

Fayol’s principle of discipline to the administration of Secondary Schools in Niger State, Nigeria. The study consist of five research objectives, research questions and hypotheses respectively. The study also specifically concentrate on the aspect of discipline as one of the administrative principles of Fayol’s and covered the following area as communication, decision making process, maintenance of facilities, staff development, and administration of examination, inspection and supervision. The study involves the use of questionnaire techniques to solicit responses from staffs in public and private secondary school of the study area in which timely lasted for five weeks. The study adopted descriptive survey design to assess the opinions of secondary school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol’s principle of discipline from the population of 585 principals and 6595 teachers in Niger State. A sample of 50 principals and 660 teachers from 50 public and private secondary schools of the study area were randomly drawn. The instrument used for the collection of data was tagged “application of Fayol’s discipline principles Questionnaire AFDPQ)”. However research question were five sections in which range at ten (10) for each. Instrument was developed using five points scale questionnaire (strongly agreed, agreed, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree). The instrument were validated by three qualified PHD’s experts in admin and planning unit of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. However, research questions were subjected to descriptive statistics involving tabular form and percentages while hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics of t-test at 0.05 level of significance. It was found that opinion of public and private secondary school staff did not differ significantly on application of Henri Fayol’s principle of discipline on communication, decision making process, maintenance of facilities and administration of examination, inspection and supervision. However, respondents’ opinions in public and private secondary schools on the application of Henri Fayol’s principle of discipline to staff development differed significantly. The researcher recommended among others that the  Federal Government of Nigeria, through Federal and State Ministry of Education, should organise seminars, workshops and conferences for teachers on the use of Henri Fayol’s principles of discipline for effective managemment and administration of schools. Principals and teachers in secondary schools should establish  effective creteria in improving communication through periodic meetings, forming press commitees and delegation of authority among other actions.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Content                                                                                                                       page

TITLE PAGE …………………..………………………………………………………i

DECLARATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii

CERTIFICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………. v

TABLE OF CONTENT …………………………………………………………………………………………………. v

LIST OF TABLE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS ………………………………………………………………… xi

ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii

CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

1.1       Background to the Study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.2       Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………………. 3

1.3       Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

1.4       Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

1.5       Hypotheses …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

1.6      Basic Assumptions ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7

1.7       Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

1.8       Scope of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0          Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10

2.1          Framework of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………. 11

2.1.1        Pre –Scientific Management Theory ………………………………………………………………. 15

2.1.2        Scientific Management School ……………………………………………………………………….. 16

2.1.3        Organizational Theory: …………………………………………………………………………………. 20

2.2          Meaning of Application ………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

2.3         Meaning of Discipline ……………………………………………………………………………………… 22

2.4       Meaning of Administration ……………………………………………………………………………….. 24

2.5      Application of Discipline on Communication in Schools ……………………………………… 26

2.6      Application of Discipline on Decision Making Process in Schools ………………………… 29

2.7       Application of Discipline on Maintenance of Facilities in Schools ……………………….. 32

2.8      Application of Discipline on Staff Development in Schools ………………………………….. 36

2.9       Application of Discipline on Administration of examination Inspection and

           Supervision in Schools ………………………………………………………………………………………. 37

2.10     Application of Discipline on Staffing in Schools ……….. Error! Bookmark not defined.

2.11     Empirical Studies ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 38

2.12      Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 42

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43

3.1       Research Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43

3.2       Population of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………….. 44

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique……………………………………………………………………….. 44

3.4       Research Instrumentation …………………………………………………………………………………. 45

3.5       Validity of the Instrument …………………………………………………………………………………. 45

3.6       Pilot Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

3.7       Reliability of the Research Instrument ………………………………………………………………. 47

3.8      Method of Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………………. 47

3.9       Method of Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………… 47

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 49

4.2      Data Presentation, Analysis and Results …………………………………………………………….. 49

4.3      Hypotheses Testing ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

4.3 Summary of Findings ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

4.4       Discussion of the Findings …………………………………………………………………………………. 76

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80

5.2       Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80

5.3       Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82

5.4       Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83

5.5      Suggestion for Further Study …………………………………………………………………………….. 84

REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 85

APPENDIX A ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

       1.1       Background to the Study

 In Nigeria, goals are set against the backdrop of other National Philosophy of Education (Federal Government of Nigeria, FGN 2004). The dynamic nature of educational system is due to the changes in contemporary world. To understand the changes, one requires constant appraisal of the different administrative strategies employed by the educational institutions with a view to attaining predetermined goals. However, an effective administration is a condition for the creation of a successful education system. This is precisely why many renowned scholars of the science of administration such as Frederick Winslow Taylor and Henri Fayol, have taken the pains to propound theories and approaches to administration, reviewing previous literature observation and experience of what worked well on the subject in order to provide suggestion on how good and useful administration ought to be run properly.

Perhaps, in democratic government, the secondary school education system

should be geared towards social and personal needs to create awareness in the recipients, such awareness that promotes national thinking (Federal Government of Nigeria 2008). Thus, the philosophy of secondary education should be aimed at promoting habits of discipline, industry and truthfulness as means of improving standard of living in any school environment. However, discipline is described as obey essential for the smooth running of a business or firm and without it standards consistency of action could prosper. Fayol‟s (1916) described discipline in an essence. “As obedience, application, energy, behavior and out cared marks of respect is observed in accordance with standing agreements between firms and its employees”. Fayol‟s was a key figure in the turn of the century school of management theory; he saw a management job as planning, organizing. Commanding, co-ordinating activities, contrarily performances; however,

Fayol‟s further noticed that most of the activities are very task oriented rather than people oriented, ideas have influenced organizational work or activities.

Fayol‟s described and classified administrative management roles and process. Writing and exploring administration and work about the same time as Frederick (1911) Fayol in (1916). Even though both theorists have task forces their approaches are quite different. Fayol‟s was particularly interested in authority and its implementation while Taylor concentrated on work organization (e.g efficiency). Fayol advocated a consistent set of principles that all organizations would need to run efficiently and effectively for a goal or a target to be achieved.

Accordingly Fayols laid down the following fourteen principles of organization, also known as principles of management they are: Division of work, Authority and responsibility, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interest to common interest, remunerations, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure personnel, expirit de corps, and initiative respectively.

Emphasize out of the fourteen principles of management “discipline” on the administration of an organization as a concept is the interrelationship between management and the personnel. The concepts of discipline are broadly based on identifying aspect of administration such as communication, decision making process, staffs development, maintenance of facilities, and administration of examinations, inspection and supervision. It is against this background that the researcher examines

Henri Fayol‟s principles regarding discipline as an aspect of administration.

Discipline as one of the aspects of administrative practices in many Nigeria secondary schools have frequently been based on a variety of factors borne either out of professional and informed perceptions of the goals set for the different levels of education or out of uninformed and unprofessional outlook or approaches. In spite of the many challenges facing the administration of schools in Nigeria, many heads of the educational institutions have had to grope in the lark for appropriate disciplinary guidelines in order to carry out their duties in line with the National philosophy of education (FGN, 2008) the guidelines necessary for the efficient administration of schools should contain, appropriate and relevant theoretical framework for directing the institutions affairs; unfortunately, such relevant theoretical framework would probably remain a far cry for untrained administrators.

 

       1.2       Statement of the Problem

At the time of this study it was observed that many school principals like GGSS, GDSS, Decs College and Hill Crest College lacked adequate training on discipline as prerequisite to administrative task. Such problems can be identified as follows:

  1. Certain aspects of administration like discipline, decision making, placement of teachers, communication as well as delegation of authority are not being properly handled by principals. Conversely the effectiveness and efficiency of the school system in achieving educational goals is affected. Adeyemi (2008)
  2. In Nigeria today, stakeholders of schools invest a lot of money on the material aspects of the school such as machines and buildings with the hope of maximizing profit without given consideration to staff welfare. In the pursuits for profit, they tend

to forget that their workers should be happy at work and must have other right attitude, values and zeal to work. Aglenta J.A. 1984

  1. The poor remuneration of teachers and other support staff members in the school system making the teaching profession unattractive and leading to sectional brain drain. Many factors that enhance staff motivation are absent in schools. This leads to low morale amongst the teachers which ultimately affects staff productivity. Algboje C.D (2007).
  2. Conflicts among staff members arising from lack of clarity of disciplinary poor delegation and improper application of administrative functions within the school system. Ahmed T.M. (2003).
  3. The complexity of the human nature and the precarious work culture in Nigeria in which many people show laissez –faire attitude to public service and the ministry of education and other educational agencies concerned with the recruitment and placement of teachers having no reference to the principals of receiving schools. Adeyemi (2008)

In view of the need to develop appropriate management theories and techniques which are relevant to the Nigeria situation and capable of addressing the problems outlined above and even other problems that can be further identified in the educational system: this research was set to assess the application of Henri Fayol‟s principles of discipline in the administration of Nigerian secondary schools system.

       1.3       Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study are to:

  1. To examine the difference in the opinions of public and private secondary schools principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on communication.

  1. to determine the difference in the opinions of public and private secondary schools principal and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on decision making process.

  1. to find out the difference in the opinions of public and private secondary schools principal and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline

on maintenance of facilities.

  1. to examine the difference in the responses of public and private secondary schools principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline  on  staff development.

  1. to ascertain the difference in responses of the of public and private secondary schools principal and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on administration of examinations, inspection and supervisions.

       1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions guide the study:

  1. What is the difference between the opinions of public and private secondary school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on communication?

  1. What is the difference between the opinions of public and private secondary school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on decision making process?
  2. How does the opinions of public and private secondary school principals and teachers perception on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on

maintenance of facilities?

  1. What is the difference in the responses of public and private secondary school principals and teachers differs on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on staff development?

  1. Is there difference in the response of public and private secondary school principals and teachers differs on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on the administration of examinations, inspection and supervision?

       1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated and verified at 0.05 level of

significance:   

H01: There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private secondary school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on communication.
H02: There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private secondary

school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of

discipline on decision making process.

Ho3:    There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private secondary school principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on maintenance of facilities.

H04: There is no significant difference in the responses of principals and teachers in public and private secondary schools on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on staff development.

H05: There is no significant difference in the responses of public and private secondary school‟s principals and teachers on the application of Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline on administration of examinations, inspection and supervisions.

       1.6       Basic Assumptions

In carrying out this study, it is assumed basically that: 

  1. Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline is relevant to our present day system of school administration.
  2. All the principals and teachers who form the subjects have been exposed to the management theirs; including Fayol‟s principle of discipline during their training as educators.
  3. Trained administrators perform effectively than the untrained administrators.
  4. Majority of Nigerian secondary schools are governed by non-specialist

educational administrators.

  1. Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline is the basic rudiment guiding administrative task of secondary school principals and teachers.

       1.7       Significance of the Study

It is hoped that school administrators who have access to the research work will apply it to their work to enhance effective administration of the schools. These may be useful in the area of effective communication and decision making process. This will consequently improve the standard of education in the country. The research will hopefully assist the policy makers in education in formulating appropriate and relevant administrative policies that will facilitate effective running of schools in the area of  staffs development and maintenance of school facilities. Thereby accelerates the attainment of the national goals of education.

It should also provide machinery for effective discipline criteria in the area of administration of examination, inception and school supervision. The addition, the study should popularize Fayol‟s widely used principle of discipline for effective running of schools. Conversely the study wills hopeful draw a good criterion for imposing discipline in facilities and funds maintenance.

The study will further extent the frontiers of knowledge in the area of discipline in management of school and more also the study will hopefully benefit curriculum planner and textbook publishers in designing appropriate programs in cooperating discipline among school administrators and teachers as whole.

       1.8       Scope of the Study

This study examined Henri Fayol‟s principle of discipline in administration of secondary schools in Nigeria. The study covered all senior secondary school‟s principals and teachers who are believed to be school administrators in Niger State Nigeria. The study specifically concentrated on the aspect of discipline as one of the administrative principles of Fayol‟s and  covered the following areas as:

  • Communication
  • Decision making process
  • Staffs development
  • Maintenance of facilities
  • Administration of examination, inspection and supervision.

The study involved the use of questionnaire technique to solicit responses from all principals and teachers in both public and private secondary schools of the study area.

The time extant for the study lasted for five weeks.          

 

IMPLICATION OF HENRI FAYOL’S PRINCIPLE OF DISCIPLINE TO THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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