ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF FEDERATION OF INTERNATIONAL FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION (FIFA) ORGANIZED COMPETITIONS ON THE ATTAINMENT OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT AIMS IN NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF FEDERATION OF INTERNATIONAL FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION (FIFA) ORGANIZED COMPETITIONS ON THE ATTAINMENT OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT AIMS IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to appraise the influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on the attainment of Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, a total of 285 respondents were used for the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used.In this technique; the six (6) geo-political zones in Nigeria were used. Experts in the field of Physical and Health Education vetted the questionnaire in order to determine its face and content validity. The final draft of the questionnaire was administered on the respondents. The data collected were statistically analyzed using Descriptive statistics of frequency, means and standard deviation to determine the average responses of the respondents, The Chi-square statistical technique  was used to test the influence of the FIFA organized competitions, one sample t-test was used to determine whether the rated influence is considered statistically significant or not and One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used for differences among the perception of the respondents on the  influence of  FIFA Organized Competitions on the attainment of Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria. The findings indicate that FIFA organized competitions have no significant influence on the eradication of poverty and hunger in Nigeria, FIFA organized competitions have no significant influence on achieving the objectives of Universal Primary Education of the Millennium Development Goals. It was therefore concluded that the activities of FIFA organized competitions have not helped in the promotion of gender equality and women empowerment in Nigeria.Combating HIV/AIDS in Nigeria within the Millennium Development Goals have no significant impact of the various activities involved in FIFA organized competitions. The Federal Government could exploit FIFA organized competition for promoting peace among ethnic and religious groupings thereby promoting the games in Nigeria.It was recommended that there is a need to develop more infrastructural facilities for FIFA organized competitions in Nigeria as this would pave ways for hosting the games.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                               i

Title Page                                                                                                                                ii

Declaration                                                                                                                              iii

Certification                                                                                                                            iv

Dedication                                                                                                                               v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                 vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                   vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                    viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                          xiii

List of Figures                                                                                                                         xiv

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                              xvi

Operational Definition of Terms xvii

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study                                                                                           1

1.2        Statement of the Problem                                                                                           4

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                   5

1.4        Research Questions                                                                                                    6

1.5        Basic Assumptions                                                                                                     7

1.6       Hypothesis                                                                                                                  8

1.6.1     Sub-hypotheses                                                                                                           8

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                           9

1.8        Delimitation                                                                                                                10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                                11

2.1 History and Development of FIFA                                                                                   11

2.1.1 Post-War Expansion of FIFA                                                                                        14

2.2       The History of FIFA since Inception                                                                          15

2.2.1 FIFAStructure                                                                                                    17

2.2.2 Recognitions and Awards                                                                                              19

 

2.2.3    Governance and Game Development                                                                         19

2.2.4 Discipline of National Associations                                                                              19

2.2.5 FIFA Anthem                                                                                                                 20

2.2.6 2011 FIFA Presidential Election                                                                                   21

2.2.7    Response to Allegations                                                                                             22

2.3       Vision and Mission of FIFA                                                                                       23

2.3.1    Vision of FIFA                                                                                                           23

2.3.2    Mission of FIFA                                                                                                         24

2.3.2.1 Developing Football Everywhere and for All                                                            24

2.3.2.2 Organizing Inspiring Tournaments of FIFA                                                               24

2.3.2.3 Caring about Society and the Environment                                                                25

2.4        Strategic Planning and Objectives                                                                             25

2.5        Types of FIFA Tournaments                                                                                      28

2.5.1    Eight FIFA Men‘s Tournaments                                                                                28

2.5.2      FIFA Women‘s Tournaments                                                                                   28

2.5.3    Common FIFA Tournaments (for both genders)                                                        28

2.6       FIFA Organized Competition for Promoting Global Peace                                       30

2.7        FIFA Organized Competition in Promoting UBE in Nigeria                                    42

2.8        FIFA Organized Competition forPromoting Sport and Physical Education in

Achieving Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria                                             51

2.9      Theoretical Framework                                                                                                61

  1. 10 History of Millennium Development Goals                                                  62

2.10.1 Monterrey Consensus                                                                                                  62

2.10.2 MDGs at the World Summit                                                                                        62

  • Millennium Development Goals                                                                         64
  • The United Nations Eight (8) Millennium Development Goals                         66
    • Eradication of Poverty and Hunger                                                             66
    • Achieve the Universal Primary Education                                                             66
    • Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women                                                 66
    • Reduce Child Mortality                                                                                     66
    • Improve Material Health                                                                                     66
    • Combat HIV and AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases                                              67
    • Ensure Environmental Sustainability                                                                       67
  • Contribution of FIFA to the Millennium Development Goals                         67
    • Eradication of Poverty and Hunger                                                             67
    • Achieve the Universal Primary Education                                                             67
    • Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women                                                 68
    • Reduce Child Mortality                                                                                     68
    • Combat HIV and AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases                                     68
    • Ensure Environmental Sustainability                                                             69
    • Develop a Global Partnership for Development                                                 69
  • Chapter Summary                                                                                                 72
    • History and Development of FIFA                                                                         72
    • Types of FIFA Tournament                                                                         72
    • Vision and Mission of FIFA                                                                                    73
    • Meaning of Millennium Development Goals                                                          73
    • FIFA and Millennium Development Goals                                                 73

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                                75

3.1        Research Design                                                                                                         75

3.2        Population                                                                                                                   75

3.3        Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                               76

3.4       Instrumentation                                                                                                           77

3.5       Validation of the Instrument                                                                                       78

3.6       Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                       78

3.7       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                    79

3.8        Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                      79

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                                80

4.2        Descriptive Analysis of the Socio-demographic Characteristics                               80

4.4       Test of Hypotheses                                                                                                     99

4.5        Summary of Findings                                                                                                 107

 

4.6        Discussion                                                                                                                  108

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary                                                                                                                        113

5.1.1    Summary of Major Findings                                                                                      114

5.2        Conclusions                                                                                                                115

5.3       Implication of the Study and Contribution to Knowledge                                         115

5.4       Limitations of the Study                                                                                             115

5.5        Recommendations                                                                                                      116

5.6.      Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                                  117

References                                                                                                                             118 Appendices                                                                                                                                     121

             

 

  LIST OF TABLE

 

 
Table 2.1: List of Presidents of FIFA 15
Table 2.2:

 

List of General Secretaries of FIFA 15
Table 2.3:

 

Strategic Planning and Objectivesof FIFA 27
Table 2.4: List of Final Matches, their Venues and Locations, the Finalist and  
  Final Scores   70
Table 2.5: Map of Winning Countries   71
Table 2.6: World Cup Previous Winners   71
Table 3.1: Sample Respondents for the Study   76
Table 3.2: Sample States from the Six (6) Geo Political Zone for the Study   77
Table 4.1: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents   81
Table 4.2: Mean Scores of Responses on the Influence ofFIFA Organized    
  Competitionson the Eradication of Poverty in Nigeria

 

  84
Table 4.3: Mean Scores of Responses on the Influence ofFIFA Organized    
  Competitionson the Attainment of UPE in Nigeria

 

86  
Table 4.4: Mean Scores of Responses on the Influence ofFIFA Organized  Competitionson Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women    
  in Nigeria   88
       
Table 4.5: Mean Scores of Responses on FIFA Organized Competitions    
  on Combating HIV/AIDS, and other Diseases in Nigeria   90
Table 4.6: Mean Scores by groups of the Responses on the Influence ofFIFA

Organized Competitions on Reduction of Child Mortality Attainment

 
  in Nigeria 92
Table 4.7: Mean Scores of Responses on the Influence of FIFA Organized  Competitions on Improvement of Maternal Health Attainment in  
  Nigeria                                                                                                94  
     
Table 4.8: Mean Scores of Responses on FIFA Organized Competitions  
  on Environmental Sustainability  in Nigeria 96
     
Table 4.9: Mean Scores of Responses on FIFA Organized Competitions  

 

  on Global Partnership for Development in Nigeria 98
Table 4.10: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on

Eradication of Poverty, Hunger, Achievement of Universal Primary

Education, Gender Equality, and Reduction in Child Mortality,

Improvement in Maternal Health, Combating HIV/AIDS in

 
  Attainment of MDGs in Nigeria

 

100
Table 4.11: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on

Eradication of Poverty and Hunger in the Attainment of MDGs in

Nigeria                                                                                                101

 
Table 4.12: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on  
  Achievement of Universal Primary Education in MDGs in Nigeria 102
Table 4.13: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on

Gender Equality and Empowerment of Women in the Attainment of

 
  the MDGs in Nigeria

 

103
Table 4.14: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on  
  Combating HIV/AIDS in the Attainment of MDGs in Nigeria 103
Table 4.15: One Way Analysis on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on  
  theReduction of Child Mortality by the Groups

 

104
Table 4.16:

 

One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on

Improvement of Maternal Health in the Attainment of MDGs in

Nigeria                                                                                                105

 
Table 4.17: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions  on Ensuring Environmental Sustainability in the Attainment of  
 

 

the MDGsin Nigeria 106
Table 4.18: One Sample t-test on Influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on  Improvement of Maternal Health in the Attainment of MDGs in  
  Nigeria 107

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig. 12.1:         A Diagrammatic Representation of Definition of Peace Using the

Dual Concept of Violence and Peace                                                             35

 

Fig. 12.2:         Diagram on Interacting Goals of Peace                                                         36

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 

 

 

AFC: Asian Football Confederation
AFDB: African Development Bank
AIDs: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AVF: Arewa Youth Movement
CAF: Confederation of African Football

CONCACAF: Confederation of North Central American and Caribbean Association Football

FA: Football Association
FAO: Food Agriculture Organization
FIFA: Federation of International Football Association
G8: Group of 8 Countries Coming together
HIPC: Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
IFAB: International Football Association Boards
IMF: International Monetary Fund
IOC: International Olympic Committee
ISO: International Standardization Organization
LOC: Local Organizing Committee
MASSOB: Movement for the Actualization of Sovereign State of Biafra
MDG: Millennium Development Goals
NCE: Nigeria Certificate Education
NDVF: Niger Delta Volunteer Force
NECO: National Examination Council
NFF: Nigerian Football Federation
NGO: Non-Governmental Organization
OFC: Oceania Football Confederation
OPC: Oodua People‘s Congress
UBE: Universal Basic Education
UEFA: Union of European Football Associations
UN: United Nations
UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture
WASSCE: West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

 MillenniumDevelopmentGoals:the eight international development goals established by the

United Nations following the millennium summit in 2000.

 Nigeria Football Federation: the governing body of football in Nigeria.

 State Football Association:the governing body of football in Nigerian states.

APPRAISAL: a judgment or opinion of something or somebody, especially one that assesses

effectiveness or usefulness. An evaluation, to establish the strength and weakness of the effectiveness of something.

COMPETITION: a process of trying to beat others: the process of trying to win or do better

than others.

It is also a contest or an activity in which people try to win something or do better than others.

It is an opposition in a competitive situation, or the level of opposition

 

ATTAINMENT: an accomplishment of something: the achievement of the goals that somebody

has set

 

Federation of International Football Association: the world governing body of football game.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

                    1.1        Background to the Study

FIFA (Federation International de Football) has been the governing body of world Football since 1904. It has grown from a small European-based organization into a body with a membership of almost 200 nations. The growth and the place of FIFA within the world order of trans-national organizations and worldwide cultural politics have been brought under scrutiny by scholars (Owen, 2001). Drawing from previous facts and observations of the politics of FIFA and its related football confederations, and the unique structure and personalities that run the world‘s most popular game, the aims and importance of organized competitions as  expressed by most national Federations and multinational organizations are a matter of concern. Fredline and Fawkner (2002). For instance, state that in many respects, until the Second World War, there was considerable ambiguity over precisely who rules the World of Football. When FIFA came into being in 1904, its seven (7) founding members were France, Sweden, Belgium, Denmark, Switzerland, Spain and the Netherlands.

The first official match between representatives of two nations was between England and Scotland in 1872 at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, finishing in a 0–0 draw. The following year at The Oval, England enjoyed a 4–2 victory over the travelling Scots. This was followed by the creation of the world’s second national football association, the Scottish FootballAssociation in 1873. Previously, the Football Association of England had been the world‘s only governing body, though codified football was being played only in the United Kingdom. With the number of inter-national matches increasing as football spread, the need for a global governing body emerged. Initially, it was intended to reflect the formative role of the Britain in football’s history, but the football associations of the Home Nations unanimously rejected such a body. Thus the nations of continental Europe decided to do it alone and ‘FIFA’ was born in Paris, uniting the Football governing bodies of France, Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland.

The initial status of FIFA states that:

  1. only the represented National Associations would be recognized,
  2. clubs and players could only play for two National Associations at a time,
  3. all Associations would recognize the suspension of a player in any Association,
  4. matches were to be played according to the “Laws of the Game of the Football

Association Ltd”,

  1. each National Association was to pay an annual fee of 50 French Francs, and
  2. only FIFA could organize International Matches (IFAB, 1882).

These statutes came into effect on 1 September, by which time Germany had also joined by Telegram. The first FIFA Congress was held on 23 May 1904 – Robert Guérin was elected President, Victor E. Schneider of Switzerland and Carl Anton Wilhelm Hirschmann of the Netherlands were elected Vice Presidents, and Louis Muhlinghaus of Belgium was appointed Secretary and Treasurer with the help of  Ludvig Sylow of Denmark. Early attempts at the organization of a tournament began, but without the English speaking countries. England, however, joined on 14 April 1905, thanks to great efforts by Baron

Edouard de Laveleye who was made the first honorary member of FIFA. In 1906, Daniel

Burley Woolfall took over as president, making strides to unify the globe’s laws. (FIFA,) (Antonakis, 2006)

FIFA continued to expand in federations and influence, being able to monopolize

international matches. However, its organizational skills were still not refined, and it was theFootball Associations which organized the football tournaments at the 1908 and 1912 Olympic Games, both won by Great Britain. In 1909 South Africa (the first non-European member) joined, and Argentina and Chile followed in 1912. The USA and Canada entered just before World War I in 1913.

The sole aim of FIFA organized sports competitions has metamorphosed into FIFA developmental project whose direction as a globally powerful organization sprang up during the period of Dr. Joao Havelange from 1974 to 1998. This development saw FIFA organized competitions throughout the world as a social transformer and its economic impact made it a phenomenal force (Farah, 1996). According to Blatter (1996) who states that about 200 million persons were actively involved in football and with an estimated 1.2 billion people directly or indirectly present, an annual turnover of 200 billion dollars far higher than some cooperate organizations such as Mitsubishi or General Motors, (Blatter,1996). It is however important to compare the economic situation of FIFA with that of the institutions. For instance, the goal of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is to combat world hunger and provide advice to government on food production, while United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has the broad aim of forging global educational and cultural links for the purpose of advancing the objectives of international Peace and the common welfare of mankind. From the above mentioned aims, there seems to be some striking similarities between some of these United Nations (UN) and FIFA organized competitions.

However, these developments and similarities among institutions and organs of government made the United Nations, on September 2000 at the millennium summit to establish the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS). The aim of the establishment of the MDGS was to, eradicate or reduce poverty, hunger, child mortality and disease and to promote education, maternal health, gender equality, environmental sustainability and global partnership. The target date for achieving the MDGs was 2015.

Therefore, having known the interdependence of various institutions and organizations and a brief development in football and the similarities in the goal and political agenda of these institutions, It is not very clear whether  FIFA organized  competitions had any influence in the attainment of Millennium Development Goals. This study appraises the influence of FIFA

Organized competitions in the Attainment of the millennium Development Goals and if United Nations achieved its Millennium Development Goals in Africa and in Nigeria in particular through FIFA organized competitions as a strategic means.

                    1.2       Statement of the Problem

Countries and cities spend so much money to participate, host and organize FIFA competitions (Antonakis, 2006).The pride, glory and the opportunity to showcase to the world the host countries culture and cities, there are the perceptions and belief that such events create an economic windfall (Matheson & Baade, 2004), This may be the case for developed nations, the prize for hosting FIFA organized competitions in developing nations is far from being sustainable (Rojek & Dunning 1992; Anotonakis, 2006; Levermore & Baacom, 2008). They futher opine that host countries have to shoulder the constructions of modern stadia, hotels, built roads networks and other forms of infrastructure necessary to host global competition.  These facilities are not maintained after the sports competitions (Venkateswarlu, 2006). According to Matheson and Baade (2004), the constructions of these state of the art stadia are not sustainable, as ticket revenues alone are not able to make up for the cost of yearly maintenance during or after competition. Some of the problems encountered during the implementation of the program include lack of political will from the government, mismanagement of funds, low women participation in the program, lack of transferable skills from the coaches, participants and volunteers and inability to bring about the much desired peace as entrenched in the development goals.( Venkateswarlu, 2006, Matheson and Baade, 2004).

It is not very clear whether such benefit exists in Africa and Nigeria in particular. Although much has been reported about the challenges faced by developing countries in organizing football competition, the case of South Africa and the world cup in 2010 was faced with so many bribery and corruption allegations coming up after the 2010 world cup  (Levermore and Beacom, Ogi, 2002; Searle, 2008; Venkateswarlu; 2008). Preuss (2008) listed a number of objectives South Africa had in mind; putting the country on the map, showcasing the region, promoting the political system, creating new trading partners, attracting investment, urban renewal including housing and infrastructure and building a legacy of sport infrastructure. Building a legacy was successful since South Africa won the hosting right of Africa Cup of Nations in 2013.

In view of the fact that FIFA aligned with the achievement of the eight Millennium Development Goals by the year 2015, the researcher was motivated to appraise the Influence of FIFA organized sports competitions on the attainment of Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria.

                    1.3       Purpose of the Study

Based on the important role football plays in the society and the involvement of FIFA on achieving the Millennium Development Goal; this study was conducted to;

  1. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on the eradication of poverty in Nigeria,
  2. appraise the level of involvement of FIFA organized competitions in meeting the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria in areas of universal primary education,
  3. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on promoting gender equality and women empowerment,
  4. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on combating HIV/AIDS in Nigeria,
  5. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on reduction of child mortality rate among children less than five years of age in Nigeria,
  6. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on promoting maternal health in Nigeria,
  7. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on ensuring environmental sustainability in Nigeria,
  8. appraise the influence of FIFA organized competitions on the development of global partnership in Nigeria, and
  9. appraise the influence on the strengths and the weaknesses in the implementation of the MDGs programmes in Nigeria.

 

                    1.4       Research Questions

On the basis of the statement of the problem, the following research questions have been formulated:

  1. Had FIFA‘S organized competitions any significant influence on the eradication of poverty in Nigeria
  2. Had FIFA‘S organized competitions any significant influence on the achievement of

Universal Primary Education and attainment of MDGs in Nigeria?

  1. Had FIFA‘S organized competitions significantly influence gender equality and empowerment of women in achieving MDGs in Nigeria?
  2. Had FIFA‘S organized competitions any significant influence in combating

HIV/AIDS, and other diseases on MDGs in Nigeria?

  1. Had FIFA‘s organized competitions any significant influence between NFF staff, State FA‘s and MDGs staff in their perceptions of the influence of FIFA organized competitions on reduction of child mortality and attainment of MDGs in Nigeria?
  2. Had FIFA‘s organized competitions any influence on the improvement of maternal health and attainment of MDGs in Nigeria?
  3. Had FIFA‘s organized competitions any significant influence on environmental sustainability and attainment of MDGs in Nigeria?
  4. Had FIFA‘s organized competitions any significant influence on global partnership for development and attainment of MDGs in Nigeria?

                    1.5       Basic Assumptions

On the basis of the research questions, the following basic assumptions are made.

  1. FIFA programmes help to reduce stigma and increase social and economic integration of people living with HIV and AIDS.
  2. FIFA-based social mobilization initiatives enhance participation in community action to improve local environment.
  3. FIFA organized competitions help improve female physical and mental health and offer them opportunities for social interaction and friendship.
  4. School sport programmes help improve children academic achievement

(UBE).

  1. FIFA organized programmes for development and peace efforts catalyze global partnership and increase networking among governments, donors,

NGOs and sport organizations worldwide.

  1. FIFA organized competitions had no economic benefits to Nigeria.
  2. FIFA organized competitions contributed to the increase in the enrollment of young people in universal primary education.
  3. Through FIFA organized competitions, non-governmental organizations helped in providing high-impact health and nutrition interventions.

                    1.6       Hypothesis

On the basis of the research questions and basic assumptions, the following hypotheses were formulated:

Major hypothesis

There is no significant influence of FIFA Organized Competitions on the Eradication of poverty, hunger, achievement of universal primary education, gender equality, and reduction in child mortality, improvement in maternal health and combating

HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.

                    1.6.1    Sub-hypotheses

  1. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on

eradication of poverty in Nigeria.

  1. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on the achievement of universal primary education in Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on gender equality and empowerment of women in Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on combating HIV/AIDS in Nigeria.
  4. There are no significant influence between NFF staff; State FA‘s and MDG‘s staff on their perceptions of the influence of FIFA organized competitions on the reduction of child mortality in Nigeria.
  5. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on the improvement of maternal health in Nigeria.
  6. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on ensuring environmental sustainability in Nigeria.
  7. There is no significant influence of FIFA organized competitions on global partnership for development in Nigeria.

                    1.7       Significance of the Study

This study is justified on the following basis:

  1. The participants in FIFA organized sport competition could increase their employability, thereby eradicating poverty and hunger.
  2. Sport-based community education programmes provide alternative for children who cannot attend school.
  3. FIFA organized competitions could be used to educate and deliver health information to young mothers, thereby improving their maternal health.
  4. FIFA organized competitions could assist lower the likelihood of infant mortality by promoting greater acceptance of children with disabilities.
  5. Programmes providing HIV/AIDS and other diseases prevention education and empowerment could combat and reduce the infection rates.
  6. FIFA-based social mobilization initiatives could enhance participation in community action to improve the local environment.
  7. FIFA organized programmes for development and peace efforts could be used as catalyst for global partnership and increase networking among governments, donors, NGOs and sport organizations worldwide.
  8. This study may help in other areas of research on FIFA organized competitions and other disciplines on sports development in Nigeria.
  9. The study would help to reveal the lapses in the implementation of MDGs, so as to enhance implementation of the SDGs.

                    1.8        Delimitation

This research study was delimited to:

  1. FIFA organized competitions and the millennium development goals in Nigeria as stated by United Nations {UN.}
  2. It was delimited to the staff members of Nigeria Football Federation.
  3. It also covered staff members of State Sports Councils in the Thirty – Six (36) states and Federal Capital Territory.
  4. It was also delimited to the staff members of the Millennium Development Offices in the thirty-six states and Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria.

 

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF FEDERATION OF INTERNATIONAL FOOTBALL ASSOCIATION (FIFA) ORGANIZED COMPETITIONS ON THE ATTAINMENT OF THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT AIMS IN NIGERIA

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