ASSESSEMENT OF PRINCIPALS’ CHARACTER PERFORMANCES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSEMENT OF PRINCIPALS’ CHARACTER PERFORMANCES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study is entitled Assessment of principals‟ role performances in the management of secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Seven objectives were formulated among which are to determine the principals‟ decision making process in secondary schools and to ascertain the pricipals communication role performance in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. Seven research questions were asked in line with the objectives and seven null hypotheses were postulated and tested at P≤ 0.05 level of significance some of which states that there is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondents on staff development, maintenance of discipline and community relationship in secondary schools in kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State. The study adopted the survey research design; the population of the study covered all the principals, teachers, non-teaching staff and Supervisors in the metropolis from which 21 principals, 253 teachers, 63 non-academic staff and 10 supervisors were randomly selected as sample for the study. The instrument used was an adopted questionnaire which was validated and has a reliability value of 0.86. The research questions were answered by means of the descriptive statistics (simple percentages, mean and standard deviation scores) while the hypotheses were analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at P≤ 0.05 level of significance. From the analysis, two hypotheses were retained while five hypotheses were rejected. The findings of the study revealed that there is a significant difference in the opinions of respondents on interpersonal relationship role performance of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis and also, a significant difference exists in the opinions of respondents on the principals‟ decision making process in Kaduna metropolis. However, among the retained hypotheses, one is on the principals communication role performance in the management of secondary schools in which there is no significant difference in the respondents‟ opinions.  The study demonstrates that the work of principals entails the application of conceptual, technical and human relations skills. It shows how these skills are interwoven in both school administration and leadership. In view of these findings, recommendations were made some of which are that principals should always ensure strong interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, there should be more teachers‟ participation in decision making process in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis and also principals should improve in their communication strategies with both teachers and students in an attempt to have effective management of secondary schools in Kaduna State.

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

None Teaching Staff:  This simply refers to the bursar, the Secretary and the store keeper.
Role:                   This can be seen as the duties assigned to principals
Assessment :   This refers to the gathering or collection of information about what the principals know, understand and can do in their duties.
Performance:    This refers to the act of carrying out or execution of the principals‟ duties

 

Decision Making:    Decision making is the central task or cognitive process resulting in selection of a belief or course of action among several alternatives by the principal in getting teachers, students and other workers to perform the school organizational duties effectively.

 

Academic performance:  This can be seen as any scope or performance above the class mean score, taking into consideration the difficult level of the test.

Interpersonal Relationship: This is an association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.

Facilities: School facilities are materials resources that enhance teaching and learning thereby making the process meaningful and purposeful
Role Performance: This refers to how the principal of school carry out functions and behave or conduct the position.
Staff Development: Staff development is the process of increasing teachers‟ performances and quality of teaching and learning in the classrooms. For example, teachers in-service training, challenging conventional practices and expanding their teaching         repertoire.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration

ii

Certification

iii

Dedication

iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Contents

vii

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

List of Appendices                                                                                                      xi

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                  xii

Abstract

xii

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1

1.2       Statement of the Problem

5

1.3       Objectives of the Study

6

1.4       Research Questions

7

1.5       Research Hypotheses

8

1.6       Basic Assumptions

9

1.7       Significance of the Study

10

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                          11

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction

12

2.2       Conceptual framework

13

2.2.1 Concept of Interpersonal relationship

15

2.2.2 Concept of Decision-making

16

2.2.3 Concept of Communication

17

2.2.4 Concept of Staff Development

18

2.2.5 Concept of Discipline

19

2.2.6 Concept of School-community relationship

20

2.2.7    Concept of School facilities

22

2.2.8    Concept of Management

23

2.2.9 Concept of Role Performance

24

2.2.10  Concept of School Principal

27

2.3       Theoretical Frame work

29

2.4       Interpersonal Relationship Role Performances of Principals in Secondary

Schools

33

2.5       Principals Decision Making Role Performances in Secondary Schools

35

2.6       Principals Communication Role Performances in Secondary Schools

45

2.7   Staff Development Role Performances of Principals in Secondary Schools

50

2.8     Role Performances of Principals in the Maintenance of Discipline in     Secondary Schools

56

2.9       Principals‟ School-Community Relationship Role Performances in

Secondary Schools

63

2.10     Role Performances of Principals in the Maintenance of Facilities in

Secondary Schools

68

2.11     Management in Secondary schools

78

2.12     Empirical studies

82

2.13     Summary

88

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction

90

3.2       Research Design

90

3.3       Population of the study

91

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

91

3.5       Research Instrument

92

3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument

92

3.5.2 Pilot Study

93

3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument

93

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

93

3.7       Procedure for Data Analysis

94

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                    95

4.2       Bio-data of the Rsespondents

95

4.3       Hypotheses Testing                                                                                        119

4.4       Summary of Hypotheses Testing                                                                    125

4.5       Summary of Major Findings                                                              126

4.6       Discussions of the Findings

127

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

132

5.2       Conclusions

134

5.3       Recommendations

135

5.4       Suggestions for Further Study

136

References

137

Appendices

146

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

      1.1       Background to the Study

Education is a major tool for individual empowerment and National development. A National educational system is vital because it produces the personnel that are required to function in various facets of national life and development process. Gray, (2001) notes that the goals of wealth creation, employment, generation, poverty reduction and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system.

Education has been accorded a high rating in Nigeria, and the demand for education is popular because of the desire of members of the society to give their children a better chance in life. The demand for education has become explosive and one which no government can afford to ignore. Quality education at all levels, primary, secondary and tertiary, is desired of all Nigerians.

The study focused on secondary schools because of the its central role in career development of individuals. At the secondary school level, quality education is absolutely necessary because it serves as the foundation for tertiary education and for people to provide self-employment if they cannot continue to the tertiary level. If that basic foundation is weak, it will lead to national catastrophe as progress in the society becomes very difficult. According to Ekundayo (2010), it must be stressed that education cannot be an instrument per excellence for achieving national development where secondary school education is not effectively managed to accomplish its aim and objectives. Hence the need for this study.

 

Another reason for this study is societal complaints and poor performance of students in public examinations due to inefficiency of role performances of principals.

The principal of a school is the main administrator of that organisation (Arikewuyo, 2009; Okonkwo, 2011). The success or failure of the school depends on the effectiveness of his/her administration (Olibe, 2010). This calls for thorough empirical studies through related literatures to ascertain the principal‟s role performances with regard to interpersonal relationship, decision making, ensuring proper communication, staff development, maintenance of discipline, school and host community relationship and maintenance of school facilities.

One of the major reason for this study is the chronological stage of the students. At this level, all students are teenagers and at puberty age which is characterize by juvenile delinquency. Hence there is need for high discipline, attention and consideration. The final reasons for this study is achieving the aim and objectives of the national Policy on Education (NPE, 2013).

Some people may ask what comprises quality education at the secondary level and how effective are the principals to that effect. It is education capable of achieving the general secondary objectives listed in the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2013).

The broad goals of secondary education shall be to prepare the individual for:

  1. useful living within the society; and ii. higher education.

In specific term, secondary education shall:-

  1. Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level irrespective of sex, social status, religions or ethnic background.
  2. Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles;
  • Provide trained manpower in the applied science technology and commerce at sub-professional grades; iv. Develop and promote Nigeria languages, art and culture in the context of world‟s cultural heritage;
  1. Inspire students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence; vi. Foster national unity with emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity; vii. Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the view and feelings of others respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live as good citizens; viii. Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development.

With a clear understanding of whom the principal is, the importance of that office, and the qualities expected of any occupant of the office, as well as the objectives of secondary education in Nigeria, it should be a lot easy to understand the role of the principal in bringing about high quality education in the secondary school. It may be helpful to start by stating what roles the principal is expected to play;

  1. Definition of goals and purposes; ii. Organization of the school; iii. Staff development; iv. Curriculum development and instruction;
  2. Discipline; vi. School community relations; vii. Provision and maintenance of facilities and equipment; viii. Guidance and counselling; ix.        Financial matters; and
  3. Evaluation (Ameh, 2012, p. 3).

What role is then envisaged of the principal that will help to bring about quality education in the secondary school? The role proposed is that of administrator-leader. This proposal implies that the principal should be both an administrator and a leader two in one. This view may be readily acceptable to Nwachukwu (2009) who summarized the role of the principal as managerial leadership and instructional leadership. According to

Ozigi (1997:3) an administrator “can be described as an individual who directs the affairs of an organization in such a way as to achieve its primary goals and objectives, and who can get things done quickly and efficiently”. The principal fits well into this description. Hence, he is an administrator. However, the principals‟ responsibilities are more than those of administrators. They include those of a leader, a good administrator may not necessarily poses the qualities of a leader; however, a principal needs those qualities in order to perform optimally.

Like the term „administrator‟, the term „leader‟ can be defined in various ways. However, no attempt will be made to explore the numerous definitions of the term available in literature. Rather only one of the definitions considered simple and good enough for our purpose is given here. Ngu (2010) sees a leader as the member of a group who exerts more positive influence over others than they exert over him. The principal is expected to be a leader; thus he should pose the qualities of a leader including the following, a high level of intelligence, dominance, aggressive, adjustment, emotional stability, activity and non-conformity (Katuka, 2013). The named allies will be invaluable to the principal not only in administering but leading the school to tremendous heights.

Thus, the role of principal in bringing about high quality education in the secondary school is that of an administrator-leader. In playing this role, the principal directs tremendous energy towards the achievement of the school goals and objectives; and in order to achieve the school goals and objectives; he discharges the above specific duties.

      1.2       Statement of the Problem

Successive governments in Nigeria have made efforts towards the effective management of human resources in educational institutions. However, certain challenges still persist with staff training and development, teachers‟ workload, performance evaluation, supervision of instruction, conditions of service, staff turnover and motivation, disciplinary problems among students and teachers, promotion policies and so on.

It is sad to note that for five consecutive years, candidates who sat for the Senior

Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) with the National Examinations Council (NECO) recorded mass failiure. Apperenetly, the scenario is becoming warrisome to education stakeholders as nobody knows at whose door steps to place the blame whether students, teachers, school heads (principals) or NECO. Further, the Chief Examiners Report presented by the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and NECO shows that students have been performing poorly in most secondary school based subjects especially in English Language and Mathematics which are core subjects and pre-requisities for tertiary admission (WAEC, 2015; NECO, 2015).

We need to ask ourselves: is there effective teaching and learning in our schools? Are there adequate facilities available for effective teaching and learning/ are there enough qualified teachers? Are the principlas really carrying out their responsibilities? Principals‟ efforts towards achieving their goals meet with various constraints and challenges such as poor school funding, poor facilities (both physical and material) low level of manpower to define the goals and purpose of education, poor school organization, disciplinary problems, poor school-community relationship, inadequate staff development, curriculum development and instruction, lack of proper guidance and counseling services, poor evaluation of school programmes and activities, poor communication, and irrational decision from principal without due consultation with staff. Likewise, the issue of self-ego determines the success or otherwise of principal‟s administrative tasks in schools.

Therefore, this study is necessary so as to identify ways of principal, meeting the defined national educational goals, curriculum development supervision and instruction, staff development, provision of guidance and counseling and financing school activities through prudent utilization of available fund (management) as well as identify how to improve ways of administration of secondary schools by principals in Kaduna metropolis in Kaduna state, Nigeria.

      1.3       Objectives of the Study

The following objectives were formulated:

  1. examine the principals‟ role performances on interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  2. ascertain the principals‟role performances in decision making process in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  3. determine the principals‟ role performances in communication in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  4. assess the principals‟ role performances on staff development in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  5. determine the principals‟ role performances on maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  6. determine the principals‟ role performances on school-community relationship in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
  7. examine the principals‟ role performances in the maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.

      1.4       Research Questions

The study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. What are the interpersonal relationship role performances of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?
  2. To what extent do principals‟ decision making process have influence on the secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?
  3. How does the principals‟ role performances of communication impact on

Kaduna metropolis schools in Kaduna State?

  1. What are the opinions of principals and teachers on the staff development role performances of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?
  2. In what way does the role performances of principals in the maintenance of discipline impact on secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?
  3. What impact does the principals school-community relationship role

performances have in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?

  1. How does the role performances of principals in the maintenance of facilities impact on secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State?

      1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated for the study:

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching Staff on the interpersonal relationship role performances of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna

state.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the principals‟ decision making process in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the principal‟s communication role performances in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
Ho4: There is no significant difference in the opinions of the Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the staff development role performances of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.
Ho5: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers,

Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the role performances of principals in the maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna

State.

Ho6: There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the school-community relationship role performances of principals in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.

Ho7 There is no significant difference in the opinions of Principals, Teachers, Supervisors and Non-Teaching on the role performances of principals in the maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State.

      1.6       Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions were put forward in this study:

  1. Proper interpersonal relationship between the principals and other staff or community will assist in the smooth running of the schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.
  2. the principals‟ decision making process influence the staff performance in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.
  3. Whenever there is effective communication between the principals and their

staff, there will be a sense of belonging among all the staff.

  1. The staff development role performances of principals have impact on the secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.
  2. the role performances of principals in the maintenance of discipline helps in shapen the behaviour of students and staff in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.
  3. the principals school-community relationship role performances have impact in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.
  4. Effective role performances of the principals in the maintenance of facilities will bring about condusive learning environment in secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state.

      1.7       Significance of the Study

The roles of the principals in the education of our children as leaders of tomorrow is unquestionable and have a far reaching consequences on the tone and general climate of the school administration. It is expected that teachers, supervisors and principals will understand the common roles of a good principal, and the need for effective application of the roles. The result of the study will be of use to the Ministry of Education in realizing the important role of the school principals in school administration. Likewise, it will help them formulate policies and make decisions regarding stakeholders and principals of secondary schools.

The study when completed will enhance the efforts of the Parent Teachers‟ Association to checkmate the excesses of principals and help their children to have greater learning for great national building. Again, the study will give parents self appraisal as to their efforts with the school authority towards proper quality education to improve learning and administration.

Expectantly, the findings of the study shall assist the school principlas to adjust positively; discovering the enormous task confronting them as parents‟ teachers, leaders, supervisors, and so forth (stakeholders). It will help to see the need for a close communication relationship as it affects the desired goals of the organizations. Of course, it will inspire teachers who may aspire to leadership positions to identify the need for professionalism and go for further studies. It is hoped that if the findings of the research are utilized they will contribute to mutual understanding between stakeholders and principals of secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state and any other part of this country and the world at large. Finally, this study will serve as reference material to those who may wish to carry out research on similar topic so as to expand coverage of other schools and make right the wrongs discovered in this work.

      1.8       Scope of the Study

This study is concerned with the assessment of principals‟ role performances in the management of secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna state, Nigeria. This is done with a view to providing good administration in public secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis to ensure progress in the school system. The population of the study is made up of 3326 respondents (comprising: 61 principals, 2532 teachers, 630 non teaching staff and 103 supervisors) from 61 schools and the Ministry of Education in Kaduna Metropolis. Consequently, 21 principals, 253 teachers, 63 non teachinf staff and 10 supervisors were randomly selected as sample for the study.

The study which could have been directed to all public secondary schools in Nigeria was restricted to secondary schools in Kaduna metropolis. Hence, the result obtained were directly applicable to the schools and respondents involved in the study. Similarly, it would be reasonable to use the result to make generalization in Kaduna metropolis because of the random distribution of the sampled respondents and the uniformity of the schools in the metropolis.

 

ASSESSEMENT OF PRINCIPALS’ CHARACTER PERFORMANCES IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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