ASSESMENT OF THE OUTCOME OF POSITIVE SUPPORT ON MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN EDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESMENT OF THE OUTCOME OF POSITIVE SUPPORT ON MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN EDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effect of Positive Reinforcement on Mathematics Anxiety among Primary School Pupils in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State. Two Counselling Techniques of Token Economy and Praise were used to address the problem of Mathematics Anxiety among Primary School Pupils in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State The study employed quasi-experiment involving pre-test and posttest research design. Six research questions with corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study stood at 3,446 primary school pupils. Purposive sampling technique was used to draw 40 pupils from two primary schools. An instrument tagged Primary School Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (PSMARS) developed by Richard was adapted and used for the study. The study lasted for twelve (12) weeks in which 10 moderate mathematics anxiety subjects and 10 high mathematics anxiety subjects were treated using token economy and 10 moderate mathematics anxiety subjects and 10 high mathematics anxiety subjects were treated using praise technique. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions; t-test was used for testing hypotheses. Findings showed that positive reinforcement (token economy) had significant effect on both moderate and high mathematics anxiety at the p value of 0.000. Findings also revealed that positive reinforcement (praise technique) had significant effect on both moderate and high mathematics anxiety among primary school pupils at the p value of 0.000. Another finding indicated that there is differential effect of positive reinforcement techniques of token economy and praise across the two levels of moderate and high mathematics anxiety among primary school pupils at the p value of 0.005. Token economy was found to be more effective than praise techniques in the reduction of mathematics anxiety level. Recommendations made include: counselors, Psychologists and Teachers should use positive reinforcement such as token economy and praise to readdress the problem of anxiety for mathematics among primary school pupils.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                                 i

Title Page                                                                                                                                  ii

Declaration                                                                                                                 iii

Certification                                                                                                                             iv

Dedication                                                                                                                                 v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                 vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                    ix

Table of Contents                                                                                                                     x

List of Tables                                                                                                              xiii

List of Figures                                                                                                             xv

List of Appendices                                                                                                      xvi

Abbreviations                                                                                                             xvii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                                                  

1.1 Background to the Study                                                                                                    1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                                                   6

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                                                      8

1.4 Research Questions                                                                                                            8

1.5Hypotheses                                                                                                                          9

1.6 Basic Assumptions                                                                                                10

1.7 Significance of the Study                                                                                      11

1.8 Scope and Delimitation                                                                                         12

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms                                                                          13

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                  
2.1 Introduction       14
2.2 Conceptual Framework       14
2.2.1 Concept of Anxiety       15
2.2.2 Level of Anxiety       15
2.2.3 Concept of Anxiety for Mathematics       17
2.2.4 Causes of Mathematics Anxiety       19
2.2.5 Effect of Anxiety on Learning and Behaviour       26
2.2.6 Concept of Reinforcement       27
2.2.7 Types of Reinforcement       29
2.2.8 Reinforcement Techniques       31
2.2.9 Effect of Positive Reinforcement Techniques       40
2.2.10 Effect of token Economy in the Classroom       45
2.2.11 Uses of Token Economy       46
2.2.12 Uses of Praise       48
2.2.13 Effect of Praise       49
2.2.14 Suggested Solution to Mathematics Anxiety in other Literatures   49
2.3Theoretical Framework   52
2.3.1 Operant Conditioning Theory   52
2.3.2 Psychoanalytic Theory   54
2.4 Empirical Studies   58
2.5Summary   67

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction                                                                                                           69

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                   69

3.3 Population of the Study                                                                                        70

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                         71

3.5 Control of Intervening Variables                                                                          72

3.6 Instrumentation                                                                                                     74

3.7 Procedure for Data Collection                                                                              76

3.8 Procedure for Intervention                                                                                    77

3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                 79

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction                                                                                                           80

4.2 Data Presentation                                                                                                  80

4.3 Answering Research Questions                                                                            81

4.4 Test of Hypotheses                                                                                               94

4.5 Summary of Findings                                                                                           99

4.6 Discussion of Findings                                                                                         100

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction                                                                                                           104

5.2 Summary                                                                                                               104

5.3 Conclusion                                                                                                            105

5.4 Recommendations                                                                                                 105

5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                            106

5.6 Implication for Guidance and Counselling                                                           106

5.7 Limitations of the Study                                                                          107      References                                                                                            108

Appendices                                                                                                     119

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.3.1   Table of Population for the Study                                          70
Table 3.4.1   Detailed Distribution of the Participant to Groups                 72
Table 4.1   Distribution of Subjects into Treatments Group                    80
Table 4.2   Distribution of Subjects into Two Levels of Anxiety            81
Table 4.3   Pretest, and Posttest moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean scores of

Subjects Exposed to Token Economy                                    82

Table 4.4   Pretest and Posttest High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of

Subjects Exposed to Token Economy.                                   84

Table 4.5   Pretest and Posttest Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores

of Subjects Exposed to Praise Technique.                              86

Table 4.6   Pretest and Posttest High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of

Subjects Exposed to Praise Technique.                                  88

Table 4.7   Posttests on Differential Effect of Token Economy and Praise

Techniques on Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean scores of

Subjects.                                                                                  90

Table 4.8   Posttests on Differential Effect of Token Economy and Praise

Techniques on High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of Subjects.

92

Table 4.9   T-test Analyses on Difference in Effect between the Pretest and

Posttest Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Score of the Subjects

Exposed to Token Economy                                                   94

Table 4.10   T-test Analyses on Difference in Effect between the Pretest and

Posttest High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Subjects Exposed to

Token Economy                                                                     95

Table 4.11 T-test Analyses on Difference in Effect between the Pretest and

Posttest Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Subjects Exposed to

Praise                                                                                      96

Table 4.12 T-test Analyses on Difference in Effect between the Pretest and Posttest

High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Subjects Exposed to Praise

Technique                                                                               97

Table 4.13 T-test Analyses on Differential Effect between Posttest Moderate

Mathematics Anxiety Subjects Exposed to Token Economy and

those Exposed to Praise Technique.                                       98

Table 4.14

 

T-test Analyses on Differential Effect between Posttest High

Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the Subjects Exposed to

Token Economy and those Exposed to Praise Technique.     99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Line Graph Showing Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the Subjects Exposed to Token Economy  at week1, week4,

week8 and Week 12                                                                83

Figure 2  Line Graph Showing High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the

Subjects Exposed to Token Economy  at Week1, Week4, Week8 and

Week 12                                                                                  85

Figure 3 Line Graph Showing Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the Subjects Exposed to Praise Technique at Week1, Week4,

Week8 and Week 12                                                               87

Figure 4 Line Graph Showing High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the  Subjects Exposed To Praise Technique at Week1, Week4, Week8

and Week 12                                                                           89

Figure 5 Line Graph Showing Differential Effect of Token Economy and

Praise on Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the

Subjects at Week1, Week4, Week8 and Week 12                 91

Figure 6 Line Graph Showing Differential Effect of Token Economy and

Praise On High Mathematics Anxiety Mean Scores of the Subjects at

Week1, Week4, Week8 and Week 12                                    93

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF APPENDICES

  1. Treatment Sessions                                                                                     119
  2. Appendix 1 Treatment Package for Token Economy                                     131
  3. Appendix 2 Treatment Package for Praise                                                 133
  4. Appendix 3 Research Instrument                                                                        135
  5. Appendix 4 Scores of Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Subjects Exposed to Token

Economy                                                                                                               137

  1. Appendix 5 Scores of High Mathematics Anxiety Subjects Exposed to Token Economy

138

  1. Appendix 6 Scores of Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Subjects Exposed to Praise

139

  1. Appendix 7 Scores of High Mathematics Anxiety Subjects Exposed to Praise 140
  2. Appendix 8 Number of Token Earned by Moderate Mathematics Anxiety Subjects

141

  1. Appendix 9 Number of Token Earned by High Mathematics Anxiety Subjects 142
  2. Appendix 10 T-Test Analysis for Hypotheses                                                 143 ABBREVIATIONS

VLMA: Very Low Mathematics Anxiety LWMA:  Low Mathematics Anxiety

MDMA: Moderate Mathematics Anxiety

HGMA: Very High Mathematics Anxiety

VHMA: Very high Mathematics Anxiety

PMARS: Primary School Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

People generally are believed to exhibit some level of anxiety when they are faced with situations that could challenge or put them in reactions. The level of anxiety among the learners may be healthy at their early years in the school until they begin to realize that they are getting close to task which may pose and rise their anxiety level. At such times, learners could work harder yet, make little or no impact on their academic performance. It has been observed by Bamikole (2006) that anxiety is acommon phenomenon in schools that hinders learners‟ academic performance

Anxiety is a condition of metal uneasiness arising from fear, solitude and apprehension. Any situation which threatens the well-being of an organism is referred to as anxiety.Anxiety is a feeling that someone might have on a situation where performance really counts. Anxiety is not always negative but could be a normal reaction to certain situation through which one could gain motivation. When there is no anxiety, Collins (2007) says life could be boring and inefficient.

Anxiety according to Oladele (2014) is an unpleasant, complex and variable pattern of behaviour which an individual show when reacting to internal (thoughts and feelings) or external (environment situations) stimuli. This is why anxiety is perceived as a realistic response to danger in an environment (Machima,as cited in Liman, 2016). Thus, anxiety could be seen as a state of fear and worry about the future uncertainty characterized by physical and psychological disturbance such as increase in heartbeats, headache and shock. According to Bryant as cited in Ahmad (2002) anxiety is a condition of mental uneasiness arising from fear, solitude and apprehension. Any situation that threatening the well-being of an organism is referred to as “anxiety”. Anxiety is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders which affect up to 20% of the learners population (Egbule & Egbule, 2011).

Anxiety as an emotional feature that is evident in most of the behaviors exhibited by man.

Anxiety is a general state of apprehension, or psychological fear.  (Wade & Tavris, 2012). (Hilgard, Atkinson and Atkinson as cited in Al-Khasawneh, 2016) defined anxiety as a state of apprehension and fear, resulting from predicting a threatening situation or event.  A low level of anxiety is normal, does motivate and adds zest to life. On the other hand, however, severe academic anxiety can be a serious problem and become more detrimental over time (Dobson, 2012). Learners experiencing academic anxiety feel apprehensive over academic tasks. In general, high anxiety level can block learning or lead to low academic achievement (Pakistan, Akhtar, Saira & Syeda, 2012).

A low level of anxiety is normal and necessary among the students in order to maintain focus and to galvanize them into action preparing, plotting and perfecting strategies that will guarantee optimum success in examinations. It is needed to motivate and help the learners to stay mentally and physically alert (Birijandi & Alemi, 2010). However, moderate level of anxiety may develop into a full blown anxiety while high level of anxiety is dangerous and can result in emotional or physical distress, concentration difficulties and emotional worries in classroom situation, most especially in Mathematics classes. Mathematics is one of the most feared and disheartening school subjects even among secondary school students however, the skills in enhancing learning has been a major concern of many scholars particularly guidance counsellors who use diverse ways of enhancing learners‟ level of performance particularly in  core subjects like Mathematics(Dossey & Usiskin, 2000). Students, according to Dahir and Stone (2003), do not learn automatically, particularly in Mathematics and that they need guidance and direction before real interest is developed in the subject, eventually leading to effective learning.

Wells (2000) showed that Mathematics anxiety often manifests itself as a lack of understanding often leading to avoidance of the subject, thus creating negative attitude towards Mathematics. There are different types of counselling techniques, theories and interventions that can be used in addressing the problem of Mathematics anxiety; one of such techniques is positive reinforcement, which is the presentation of rewards for behaviour such as token and praise reinforcement with the intention of increasing the chance of that behaviour being repeated in the future.

Positive reinforcement is a behaviour modification technique aimed at giving something to somebody to make such behaviour happen again. Positive reinforcement occurs when behaviour is followed by presentation of stimulus such as praise rewards and token gifts and as a result, occurs more often in future (Flora, 2004).

According to Shira (2014), positive reinforcement is one of the types of reinforcement, which is concerned with offering desirable effects or consequence for a behaviour with the intention of increasing the chance of that behaviour being repeated in the future, where it uses the technique of reward system, like encouragement, praising and rewarding with a token of gifts.It is on the basis of the above expression that, the researcher   carried out study on the effect of positive reinforcement on  anxiety levels among primary school pupils using token economy and praise counselling techniques.

Token economy remains one of the main treatment options that have been scientifically approved to be effective in addressing behaviour problems presently; it provides opportunity for individuals to receive immediate feedback. This needs to be a visible and attractive material to the person receiving it so as to initiate the achievement of desired objective. When the token is attractive, it stimulates strong response from the recipient and hastens effective and active response to the desired behavior which can be considered as the appropriate behavior pattern. It is necessary to induce children to adapt a behavior model that is acceptable to the norms and values of the society early enough so that as they grow, it forms a permanent pattern of their behavior model. This to a large extent, reveals the need for the modification of negative behaviours that occur early in the life of a child.

Token economy has been described as a form of behavior modification designed to increased desirable behavior with the use of tokens. Tokens are offered to individuals as soon as they display desirably behavior. The tokens are collected and later exchanged for a meaningful object or privilege. The main objective of token economy is to elicit desirable and decreased undesirable behavior. In essence, the larger goal of token economies is to teach appropriate behavior and social skills that can be used in one‟s natural environment (Mohammed 2011).

Reward systems in school sometimes constitute problems of application for teachers during classroom procedures. which means that stakeholders find it difficult most time to reward all pupils in the classroom that display good behavior pattern during class work. It is a form of stimulus that helps to elicit desired behavior. Obviously, in the application of token system, there is always an opportunity for participants to gain rewards as a result of their new behavior. The reward system is a facilitating process which helps to enhance the achievement of the desired objectives, which is achieving an appropriate behavior.

Praise is a condition where a learner is motivated by the teacher to exhibit desirable behavior and to discard unwanted behavior. The whole issue of teachers‟ praise merits fuller comment. According to Westwood (1999), teachers‟ use of praise has been well researched, but its overall effects are still somewhat uncertain. But Good and Brophy (1994) have reviewed studies in this area and concluded that praise  seem important for low ability anxious and dependent students, provided that it is genuine and deserved and praise worthy aspects of the performance are specified. They stressed that a child should know precisely why he or she is being praised, if appropriate connections are to be made in the child‟s mind between effort and outcome.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Learners generally are believed to experience some level of anxiety but not necessarily find themselves at risk. The level of anxiety among the learners may be healthy at their early years in the school until they begin to realize that they are getting close to task which may pose and rise their anxiety level. At times, learners could work harder yet, make little or no impact on their academic performance. It has been observed that anxiety is acommon phenomenon in schools that hinders learners academic performance most especially in core subject areas like Mathematics. Anxiety for Mathematics among school children is a problem facing the educational system. There are many observable symptoms of anxiety among school children including unwillingness to attempt  class work, classroom avoidance and being unusually, nervous when in Mathematics class.

It is a known fact that,primary school education serves as background to all other levels of education and forms the basis as well as foundation upon which other subsequent levels are built. It stands as a key to success and failure of the entire system. One of the basic goals of primary school education is to prepare and expose every child to basic Mathematics and manipulative skills to enable him or her function effectively in society. Mathematics is one of the core subjects at the primary education level. The researcher‟s fifteen years teaching experience at both primary and secondary school levels revealed that many primary school pupils do have anxiety and fear forMathematics. Some teachers at the primary school instill fears into the pupils mind that Mathematics is a difficult subject. Many pupils grow with this mentality and develop fear and anxiety for Mathematics coupled with the fact that most teachers that teach this subject do not motivate their pupils through appropriate reinforcement in the class room.

This study was therefore prompted by the researcher‟s deep concern over the plight of primary school pupils in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State that exhibit anxiety for Mathematics. Statistics has shown that more than 75% of the Mathematicsfailure among primary school pupils in Edu Local Government Area, specifically Shonga District Areais attributed to anxiety leaners develop for Mathematics. It was also noticed that approximately 65% of upper primary school pupils in the District exhibit anxiety forwhich is observed to have its root in learners mainly from primary school. This problem has been adversely affecting pupils‟ performance in the subject. Anxiety for Mathematicsvaries among the learners. Some pupils have very high, while othershave high, moderate, low and even very low anxiety for Mathematics. The problem is attributed to a number of factors, one of which is inappropriate use of positive reinforcement during Mathematicsinstruction.

The researcher has seen that some teachers at primary school level fail to apply reinforcement techniques during Mathematics classes which may be responsible for pupils‟ exhibition of Mathematics anxiety behaviour and negative attitude and perception towards Mathematics as a difficult and almost impossible subject and if we must have to produce competent learners in various fields of specialization, the need to address the problem at the foundation level of education is necessary so that highly qualified individuals would be produced in the world of work    The present study therefore, investigate the effect of positive reinforcement on anxiety levels among primary school pupils in Edu local

Government Area, Kwara State.

 

 

 

 

 

1.3 Objectives

The objectives of this research were to:

  1. Assess the effect of token economy on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  2. Assess the effect of token economy on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  3. Assess the effect of praise on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  4. Assess the effect of praise on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  5. Assessthe difference between the effects of token economy and praise on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  6. Assessthe difference between effects of token economy and praise on Primary School

Pupils with high anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State..

1.4Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study

  1. What is the effect of token economy on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematic in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?
  2. What is the effect of token economy on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety inMathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?
  3. What is effect of praise on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?
  4. What is the effect of praise on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety inMathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?
  5. Would there be any difference in the effect of token economy and praise onPrimary School Pupils with moderate anxiety inMathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?
  6. Would there be any difference in the effect of token economy and praise on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety inMathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State?

1.5 Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were tested in the study at 0.05 significance level:

  1. There is no significant effect of token economy reinforcement on Primary School

Pupils with moderate anxiety for Mathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.

  1. There is no significant effect of token economy reinforcement on Primary School

Pupils with high anxiety for Mathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.

  1. There is no significant effect of praise reinforcement on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety for Mathematicsin Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  2. There is no significant effect of praise reinforcement on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety for Mathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  3. There is no significant difference between the effects of token economy and praise reinforcements on Primary School Pupils with moderate anxiety for Mathematics in

Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.

  1. There is no significant difference between the effects of token economy and praise reinforcements on Primary School Pupils with high anxiety for Mathematics in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.

1.6 Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions were outlined:

  1. That token economy technique may have effect on Primary School Pupils with moderate Mathematicsanxiety in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  2. That token economy technique may have effect on Primary School Pupils with high Mathematics anxiety in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  3. That praise technique may have effect on Primary School Pupils with moderate Mathematics anxiety in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  4. That praise technique may have effect onPrimary School Pupils with high Mathematicsanxiety in Edu Local Government Area, Kwara State.
  5. That token economy and praise techniques may have difference in effect on Primary School Pupils with moderate Mathematics anxiety in Edu Local Government area, Kwara State.
  6. That token economy and praise techniques may have difference in effect on Primary

School Pupils with high Mathematics anxiety in Edu Local Government area, Kwara

State.

 

 

 

 

1.7 Significance of Study

Mathematics anxiety is a global phenomenon that is attracting the attention of several psychologists and professionals. The study of Mathematics anxiety and its effect on the education of children remains vital if their life and future educational objective can be achieved. It is expected that the results of the study would benefit counsellors and psychologists since it will expose them to the needs in their profession and then broaden their scope of scientific investigation. It will also provide them with relevant information on effective ways of managing anxiety as well as revealing more contemporary means of treating the disorder effectively in contemporary environment.

Educational managers in the classroom enrolment would enjoy the outcome of the study since it would help them to understand the critical circumstances the children with Mathematics anxiety pass through during learning process. Hence, they will be able to treat them with love and affection as well as help them to fulfill their educational aspirations. Teachers would benefit from the outcome of the study because it would help to broaden their understanding of what Mathematics anxiety is, how it affects children in the class room and how they can be assisted to achieve their educational objectives.

Parents and families would also benefit from the study due to the fact that it would create awareness on the effect of the anxiety on the children it affected, as well as inform them on how to manage them, help and relate with them properly at home.The findings of the study would be of immense benefit to educational administrators, planners, curriculum developers, education policy development expert as well as other stakeholders in educational industry and the society at large. The outcome of the result would help to direct, channel or focus their attention towards current and contemporary needs in education and the importance of adequate implementation of policies that would address these needs.

The results from the study would assist the educational planners and administrators in curriculum planning. The result from the research is of benefit to parents and guardians in that, it will enlighten them on the cause of and suggested solutions to Mathematics anxiety. If they are aware of these, they will be able to solve the problems in good time and would be able to make adequate provisions for their children‟s welfare academically. It would also be of great benefit to teachers and counsellors who are directly involved with the learners to be familiar with the causes of Mathematics anxiety and solutions recommended for use.

1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

 

The scope of this study centered on the effect of positive reinforcement on Mathematics anxiety levels among Primary School Pupils in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara

State. The study was carried out on primary schools within Edu Educational Zone in Kwara State. The choice of primary school pupils for the study was due to the fact that the key component of the work in Mathematics anxiety is basically a childhood behavioural problem. It focused on Mathematics anxiety levels which include moderate and high using positive reinforcement of token economy and praise counselling techniques

The study was delimited to primary five (5) pupils in Primary schools Shonga LGEA. The study targets Primary School Pupils because of fact that the problem at hand starts to develop among pupils in primary school. Hence, it would be necessary to take the study at the base in order to nip it from the bud.

 

 

 

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this research, the following terms are defined operationally

Positive reinforcement: is a behaviour modification technique aimed at giving token, praise or gifts to learner /individual in order to increase the frequency of desire behaviour and decrease the chance of unwanted behaviour being repeated in the future.

Token economy: is system of behaviour modification in which the learner can earn some types of token that can be exchanged later for a specific reinforce.

Praise: is a behaviour management technique in which the leaner is motivated to exhibit desirable behaviour and discard undesirable behaviour through the use of positive statement such as good job, clap for him/her, that is nice of you etc

Anxiety: is the fear a leaner has about the ability to understand and perform some functions such as how to work with numeracy or write an examination or test.

Moderate anxiety:it is an adequate level of anxiety with the tendency to get shoot up if not properly maintained

High anxiety:this is severe anxiety level with symptoms such pounding, sense of dread, scattered thought and erratic behaviour.

 

ASSESMENT OF THE OUTCOME OF POSITIVE SUPPORT ON MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN EDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

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