APPLICATION OF INTERNET FOR DATA SERVICE DISTRIBUTION IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN KADUNA CITY
The study investigated the Application of Internet for service delivery in some selected special libraries in Kaduna state. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the kind of Internet services used in the special libraries; to ascertain the library services where internet is applied; to find out the extent of internet application in library services; to ascertain the level of satisfaction of the staff with the application of the Internet and to determine the factors that hinder the effective application of Internet in the libraries. Five (5) research questions were raised viz: what kind of Internet services are used in the libraries? what library services are internet applied for? What is the extent of application of Internet to library services? How satisfied are librarians with the application of internet in the library service? and what are the factors militating against the effective application of Internet in the special libraries in Kaduna metropolis. Survey method of research was adopted. The population of the study was made up of 53 library staff from the six (6) selected special libraries. Purposive sampling was used. Structured questionnaire and semi-structured questionnaire and observation were the instruments used to collect data for the study. Descriptive statistical tools such as simple percentages and tables were used to analyze the data. The study found out that internet services is applied in most of the library services of the selected libraries. The findings also revealed that internet is applied to a large extent in most of the library services for effective service delivery. The study also found out that the librarians derive satisfaction in the application of Internet in their library services because it helps for effective services delivery, though some factors were discovered to be a hindrance for effective application of the Internet in the special libraries which include: low bandwidth; poor funding; erratic power supply and lack of maintenance culture. The study recommends that there should be adequate planning and survey by the libraries before the introduction of Internet in order to cope with the frequent change in information technologies; that management should ensure librarians participation in ICT training programmes to beef up their Internet learning skills; that the selected libraries should acquire state of the art power generating set to augment the services of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria; that budgetary allocation to the libraries should be increased etc. The study concludes that special libraries in Kaduna metropolis are still on the verge of meeting up with the global perspective of ICT compliance. This notwithstanding, the Internet services are available in such a way that libraries can apply them to library service to enhance the quality of their service delivery.
Table of Contents
Table of contents viii-x
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1-5
1.2 Statement of Problem 5-6
1.3 Research Question 6
1.4 Research Objectives 7
1.5 Significant of the Study 7-8
1.6 Scope and Delimitation of the Study 8-9
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELALTED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 The Concept of Internet 13-14
2.3 Internet Services and Resources used for Services Delivery 14-21
2.4 Application of Internet in Library Services 21-23
2.5 Satisfaction Derived in the Application of Internet to Libraries 23-25
2.6 Problems of Application of Internet Services in Nigeria 25-27
2.7 Summary of the Review 27
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Research Method Adopted for the Study 34 3.3 Population of the Study 35
3.4 Sampling size and Sampling Technique 36
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 36-37
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 37 3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 37
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 38
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction 40
4.2 Response Rate 40-41
4.3 Data Analysis 41-50
4.4 Analysis of Open-ended Question 50-51
4.5 Analysis of Observation 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 54
5.2 Summary of the study 54-55
5.3 Summary of Findings 55-56
5.4 Conclusion 56
5.5 Recommendations 57
Appendix 1 63
Appendix 2 64-69 List of Tables
|Table 3.1:||Sample size and percentage of the population|
|Table 4.1:||Response Rate of Respondents by Libraries|
|Table 4.2:||Use of Internet services in Special Libraries in Kaduna|
|Table 4.3:||Library services the Internet is applied in special Libraries in Kaduna|
|Table 4.4:||Extent of the Application of Internet in the Libraries Studied|
|Table 4.5:||Extent of Satisfaction in the Application of Internet Services for Service Delivery|
|Table 4.6:||Factors affecting the Application of Internet Services for service delivery in the Special libraries|
|Categories of Suggestions|
1.1 Background to the study
Computer and communication technologies have revolutionized the whole world of information and have penetrated in areas beyond libraries transforming nearly every facet within society. Application of Internet and other network resources is changing the traditional library functions. In a special library Internet is applied to provide easy access to current information and convenient information exchange. Internet is an abbreviation for International Network. It is not a single Network but a collection of computers worldwide through a system of connection that use the standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. According to Adesanya (2002), Internet is a collection of computer networks that connects million of computers around the world. It is known as the “Information Super Highway”. It is increasingly becoming the solution to many information problems, information exchange, gathering and marketing.
The Internet is a massive world wide network of computers by which information is stored on network servers. Each file has a unique location, address or file name which can be searched and accessed by Internet users in any part of the world where Internet facilities are available (Oyinloye, 1998). The Internet is a mechanism for information dissemination and a medium for collaborative interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographical limitation of space (Singh, 2002). According to Gbaje (2002), the Internet is the network of networks linking millions of computer together. It has the ability and capability to provide adequate, current, and timely services to information seekers wherever they are. The Internet allows the user a range of positive practical applications such as ability to conduct research, perform business transactions, access international libraries etc (Levey, 1997).
Internet services are the various services that are available in the Internet. In order to connect to the Internet, you need to use an Internet service. Internet services provide a way for data to be transferred from Internet servers to your computer. Muzakkari (2002) stated that Internet services are the resources available in the net. These electronic resources include: email, chat groups, file Transfer Protocol, gopher, telnet, chat and instant messaging, discussion group, and World Wide Web. Internet services are a major source by which library and information centres can effectively provide information services to its increasing population of users in this rapidly growing environment of information explosion and availability. The Internet is an invaluable and inestimable resource for enhancing learning and research. It is a useful tool in library services. In the developed countries, and even some developing countries like Nigeria, Internet services are being used extensively for services delivery, including special libraries.
A Special library is one of the types of libraries that require the application of ICTs. A special library is a library maintained by corporation, association, government agency or any other group. It can also be defined as a specialized or departmental collection within a library for the organization and dissemination of information and primarily offering services to a specialized clientele through the use of varied media and methods (Madu and Adeniran, 2005). Imeremba (2004) opined that a special library exists to serve a specialized body of users within a definite subject field. Special libraries do not exist for their own sake. Rather, it is established as part of a larger organization in order to obtain and exploit specialized information for the private use of the organization that provides its financial support.
According to Ken (1988) a special library is
A physical collection of information, knowledge and opinion limited to a single subject or group of related formats organized under the aegis of an institution which provides funds for its continuances, administered by a librarian or a specialist in the subject (s) covered and carry out the mission of acquiring, organizing and providing access to information and knowledge in furtherance of the goals of the parent institutions.
Based on this definition, one can say that the aim of establishing a special library in an organization or establishment is to provide information that will assist in the realization and furtherance of the goals and objectives of the host organization.
Special libraries are of many types. They include: media libraries which can be found at the Broadcasting corporations, such as Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) and African Independent Television (AIT); Commercial institution libraries such as banks, insurance companies libraries etc; technical or research institution libraries for example, Federal Institute of Industrial Research (FIIRO) Oshodi and National Water Resource Institute libraries, Mando; Law libraries such as Federal High Court and Court of Appeal libraries; medical libraries, for example, Federal Medical Center and National Ear Care Centre libraries.
The purpose of these libraries is to build material collection on subject related to their objectives, mission and related fields. A typical special library resources/collections will include periodicals, book/monographs, reference materials, abstracts/indexes, pamphlets, chippings, patents, reports, maps, trade literature, audio visual, multi-media resources and other ICT components. Their services will include Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI), current literature search, indexing and abstracting, publishing, translating, bibliographic services, document supply, exchange of information etc. (Dirisu, 2002)
Special libraries exist mainly to cater for the information needs of specialized clientele, and for effective rendering of services by any special library application of Internet resources is central. To ensure that library services are given within the framework of users needs and in keeping with the aims and objective of that library, the application of Internet in special library operations and services is important.
Kaduna state occupies part of the central position of the Northern part of Nigeria (with Kaduna as its capital). It shares common borders with Zamfara, Katsina, Niger, Kano, Bauchi and Plateau states. To the South-West, the state shares a border the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The state occupies an area of approximately 48,473.2 square kilometers and has a population of more than 6 million (2006 census). The entire land structure consists of an undulating plateau with major rivers in the state including river Kaduna, River Wonderful in Kafanchan, River Kagon, River Gurara and Galma. The state has 23 Local Government Areas. Kaduna is one of the centres of education in Nigeria. A number of notable educational institutions in the country are located in the state. They are Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria,
Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna, School of Health Technology, the Federal Fishery Training
Institute, Kaduna, National Water Resources Institute, Mando, National Teachers Institute, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Surami Road, Police College, Kaduna, Nigerian Defence Academy, National Board for Technical Education, Kaduna; National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria etc.
The application of Internet in special libraries has tremendously changed the management of resources or housekeeping operations as well as the way services are delivered. The Internet holds great potentials in libraries; its services are largely used in housekeeping operations, like acquisition, cataloguing, circulation control, serials management etc. The Internet can be used to deliver the information needs of the users in special libraries. Oketunji (2001) stated that Internet gives access to a vast wealth of knowledge much of which may not be possible to access without the Internet services. The Internet provides access to a tremendous variety of information, allows access to remote libraries and creates an environment where users can have innovative, cooperative learning experience.
This study investigated the application of Internet for service delivery in special libraries which includes: Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Surami Road, National Water Resources Institute, Mando, Court of Appeal, Kawo, Federal High Court, Kawo., National Board for Technical Education, Bida Road, and Federal College of Forestry Research and Mechanization, Afaka, mando, all in Kaduna State. The type of Internet resources available and services rendered to the users and the problems of application of Internet in the libraries will be studied with a view to providing solution
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The application of Internet in library services increases efficiency and effectiveness and also ensures the delivery of timely, accurate, precise and relevant information to patrons. It also places librarians in a position to face the 21st century challenges of global information society.
Internet has increased not only the quality of traditional library services but also has made it possible for libraries to pioneer in new services in a constantly changing environment. It plays a significant role in area of effective and efficient services delivery in modern library. However, various studies and observation indicates poor state of Internet application in special libraries. Emorjorho and Nwalo (2009) found in their study that only very few libraries in the Niger – Delta of Nigeria uses ICT in library operations where University Libraries have more ICT facilities than the special libraries. . (see also Oni, 2005; Abubakar, 2006).
Based on the preliminary investigation, the following issues have been identified. The situation of Internet availability and application in special Libraries in Kaduna State is no exception. The application of Internet to special library services in Kaduna seems inadequate due to a variety of factors, including fear, and the state of infrastructural development of the state. Most of the library practitioners prefer the manual library operations and services. Those who are aware of its benefits are afraid of being eliminated from their jobs; though knowing that its application to library services such as acquisition, cataloguing and classification, circulation, reference, selective dissemination of information, interlibrary loan and bibliographic services would help for effective and efficient service delivery. In view of these, it is imperative to carry out this investigation. The study is to find out the Internet services that are applied to special library services in Kaduna metropolis to ensure effective service delivery as well as assess its impacts on the library services, and the problems encountered in its application by librarians and information seekers.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are formulated to guide the study.
- What kind of Internet services are used for service delivery in the special libraries in
- What library services is the Internet applied for in special libraries in Kaduna metropolis?
- What is the extent of application of Internet to library services in special libraries in Kaduna?
- How satisfied are librarians with the use of Internet for services delivery in special libraries in Kaduna metropolis?
- What are the factors militating against the effective application of Internet services in library services of special libraries in Kaduna metropolis?
1.4 Objective of the Study
Specifically the objectives of the study are to:
- To ascertain the type of Internet services that are used for service delivery in special libraries in Kaduna metropolis.
- To find out the library service that Internet is applied for in special libraries in Kaduna metropolis.
- To ascertain the extent of the application of Internet to library services in special libraries in Kaduna metropolis
- To determine the extent of satisfaction with the Internet services used for service delivery in the special libraries in Kaduna metropolis.
- To ascertain the factors that militates against the effective application of Internet services with respect to library services to patrons.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The research focuses on the application of Internet in service delivery in some selected special libraries in Kaduna metropolis. The study is significant because it will sensitize the various management of the special libraries in Kaduna State to join the current technological trend of advancement by providing Internet to the Library services and operations in order to enhance efficiency and effectiveness in information management, service delivery and also satisfy the information needs of their clientele. On the basis of the study, policies can be formulated on the acquisition of Internet facilities, staff recruitment and user education.
The findings of this study can also serve as advice to special libraries in Nigeria to exploit the Internet to improve library services. The study can create greater awareness of Internet as a valuable scholarly tool. This will prompt libraries, and researchers to work together to exploit its resources for effective research work as stated by Badu and Markwei (2005) in their study on Internet awareness and user in the University. The result of this study may also be useful for the libraries in the country in evaluating and reorienting their services, collections and facilities.
The study will benefit the following: special libraries in Kaduna, librarians and management of library, special libraries in the wider world, as well as scholars and students in library and information science.
It will also contribute knowledge and literature in the subject area of Internet application in library services.
1.7 Scope/ Delimitation of the study
The study focused on the application of Internet for service delivery in some selected special libraries in Kaduna metropolis such as:
Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) Library, Sunami Road
National Water Resources Institute (NWRI) Library, Mando
National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) Library, Bida Road
Court of Appeal Library, Kawo
Federal High Court Library, Kawo
Federal College of Forestry Research and Mechanization Library, Afaka, all in Kaduna metropolis.
The target subjects for the study are the library staff. The study covered the kinds of Internet services used for service delivery in the special libraries in Kaduna, library services where Internet services are applied, the extent of the application of Internet to library services, level of satisfaction on the use of Internet services for service delivery, and factors that affect the effective application of Internet services in the special libraries in Kaduna metropolis.
The research was limited to the study, Application of Internet Services for service Delivery in Selected Special Libraries in Kaduna Metropolis due to some constraints which include the distance of the special libraries; shortage of funds required to tour the study areas; time within which to complete the project; delay caused by respondents and so on.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms in this work are defined here for clarity thus:
An application: Is software that causes a computer to perform particular tasks
Electronic Mail: Messages sent electronically over a computer network.
Internet: Wired or wireless mode of communication through which one can receive, transmit information that can be used for single or multiple operations.
Internet Services: Services available on the Internet that provide a way for data to be transferred from Internet servers to your computer.
Library Patron: People that make use of the resources in the library.
Library Services: Activities, assistance and support provided to customers within and outside the library building.
Service Delivery: Provision of services as effectively and quickly as possible to the library patrons.
Special Library: Library or information centre established by an individual, corporation, association, government agency or any other group to promote, encourage and support research and furtherance of the goals and objectives of the parent organization.
WWW: World Wide Web is an Internet hypertext system for information dissemination and retrieval. It links documents, FTP sites, gophers and telnet and integrate files into text, graphics, sound and other formats.
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APPLICATION OF INTERNET FOR DATA SERVICE DISTRIBUTION IN SELECTED SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN KADUNA CITY