APPLICATION OF CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION SYSTEMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAIDUGURI AND JERE EDUCATION AREAS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

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APPLICATION OF CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION SYSTEMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAIDUGURI AND JERE EDUCATION AREAS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study is on Application of classroom management techniques in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno State, Nigeria. The study examined the application of group participation as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, evaluated the application of rewards as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, assessed the application of punishment as classroom management technique on teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, among others. Five corresponding research questions were raised which include how do teachers apply group participation technique on teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones; How do teacher apply reward as a classroom management technique on teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones among others and five null hypotheses were tested for this study in line with the objectives. Relevant literatures were reviewed in order to establish base for the study. Survey research design was used in the study. The population of the study was 1063 teachers. A sample size of 319 teachers was used in the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection in the study. The validated instrument was pilot tested and a reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained which indicated high level of reliability for the instrument. The information from the questionnaire was collected and analysed using frequency counts and simple percentage, while chi-square

(2) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings among others revealed that there was difference in the opinions of teachers on the application of group participation during teaching based on the technique used by teachers such as dividing students into various groups and given them task to carry out certain activities. There was difference in the opinions of teachers on the application of different types of management techniques in the class. Recommendations were made which include that teachers should encourage students‟ involvement in group participation having in mind their individual differences. This will help the teacher carry his students along and ensure effective learning in both small and large class. Teachers in secondary schools should apply forms of punishment like kneeling in front of the classroom, scolding and warning of students.

However, when applying punishment technique, teacher should consider the student‟s health. The study concluded that managing a class properly depends on the effective used of various management techniques. Finally, suggestions were made for further research on the application of classroom management techniques in primary schools.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                  i

Title Page                                                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                                                 iii

Certification                                                                                                                iv

Dedication                                                                                                                   v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    vi

Abstract                                                                                                                       vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                       viii

List of Tables                                                                                                              xi

List of Appendices                                                                                                      xii

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                xiii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               5

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                   6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        7

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                      8

1.6       Basic Assumptions                                                                                         8

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                9

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                          10

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                     11

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                   11

2.2.1 Class Size                                                                                                          11

2.3       Effects of class size on Management Techniques in Secondary Schools      16

2.4       Management techniques                                                                                 18

 

2.5       Significant of Classroom Management                                                          21

2.6       Management Approaches by Teachers                                                           24

2.7       Role of Teachers in Classroom Management                                                 26

2.8       Group Participation as a Classroom Management Technique                        28

2.9       Rewards as a Classroom Management Technique                                         32

2.10     Punishment as a Classroom Management Technique                                    34

2.11     Students‟ Motivation as a Classroom Management Technique                     38

2.12     Time Management as a Classroom Management Technique                         46

2.13     Secondary Schools in Nigeria                                                                         49

2.14     Empirical Studies                                                                                            51

2.10     Summary                                                                                                        54

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                     56

3.2       Research Design                                                                                             56

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                  57

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique                                                                   61

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               62

3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument                                                                                 62

3.5.2 Pilot Study                                                                                                         63

3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                             63

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        63

3.7       Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                           64

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                     65

4.2       Analysis of Demographic Information                                                           65

4.3       Answering of Research Questions                                                                  68

4.4       Hypotheses Testing                                                                                        75

4.5       Summary of Major Findings                                                                          79

4.6       Discussions of Findings                                                                                 80

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary                                                                                                        83

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      84

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          85

5.4       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                      86

REFERENCES                                                                                               87

APPENDICES                                                                                                91

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  LIST OF TABLES  
Table   Page
1: Population of public secondary schools in Maiduguri metropolis 58
2: Sample Distribution 62
3: Gender of Respondents 65
4: Age of Respondents 66
5: Respondents Qualification 66
6: Respondents years of teaching experience 67
7: Application of group participation technique in teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone  

68

8: Application of rewards in teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone  

70

9: Application of punishment technique in teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone  

72

10: Application of motivation technique on students in teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone  

73

11: Application of time management used by teachers in teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone  

74

12: Summary of Chi-square test on application of group participation during teaching  

75

13: Summary of Chi-square test on application of rewards during teaching 76
14: Summary of Chi-square test on application of punishment technique during teaching  

77

15: Summary of Chi-square test on application of motivation in teaching 77
16: Summary of Chi-square test on application of time management in teaching and learning

 

 

78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendixes I               Letter of Introduction                                                             90

Appendixes II             Teachers‟ Perspective Questionnaire (TPQ)                          91 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following are the conceptual definitions of the key words used in this research. Class size: Refers to the number of student per teacher in a class and it is also a tool for measuring the performance of the students in the educational system.

Management techniques: This is the various methods employed by the teacher to organize, control, coordinate and supervise the teaching and learning in schools.

Teaching: Is the act of impacting knowledge or skills to learners or students.

Time Management: Refers to the ability of classroom managers or teachers to effectively use the allocated time to each subject for instruction. 

Group Participation: Refers to the ability of the students in groups to learn from one another to enhance effective communication during teaching and learning.

Punishment: Is an action taken against a student‟s as a consequence for their disruptive behaviour in the classroom.

Rewards: Refers to means teachers use to encourage their students when they behave well in the classroom. It is given immediately, the action is performed.

Motivation: Refers to various means teachers employ to stimulate the interest of students to learn or carryout a responsibility. It takes a long term quality involvement in teaching and commitment to the process of learning from the student by the teacher.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

                  1.1       Background to the Study

Classroom management is the strategy of coordinating classroom activities to facilitate learning. Classroom is a term used to describe the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly despite student‟s disruptive behaviours. And also classroom management means the prevention of such behaviours from occurring during teaching and when preforming other activity in the classroom. These may also be the most difficult aspect of teaching for many teachers, having to deal with managing the student‟s behaviour in different class-size and ensuring effective teaching take place. The term classroom for the purpose of this study is an environment where the teachers meet with the students and teach the student students on subject matters in order that learning may take place. The technique used by teachers in the classroom will have great influences on how effective the students will learn. However, some teachers believe teaching comes naturally; therefore using classroom management techniques is irrelevant to them. But the situations that occur within the classroom will require the use of management technique to maintain discipline and order in the classroom for effective teaching to take place. Classroom management has the teacher‟s ability to cooperatively manage time, space and students‟ behaviour to provide a climate that encourages learning (Alberto & Troutman, 1986).

Techniques for teaching in secondary schools has high effects on students‟ achievement and teachers‟ actions on balancing unacceptable behaviours of students‟ and teachers‟ actions on recognizing and rewarding acceptable behaviours of his students. Most teachers have a way of arranging the classroom, in terms of sitting arrangement, dividing the students into groups of 4 to 5 and indulge them in the class by giving them different tasks to carry out, it is one of the effective management technique used by the teachers during teaching and learning in the classroom. Also, Eghule (2005) outlined some effective  management techniques used by teachers as, organizing the student, co-coordinating students‟ activities, monitoring their behaviours, ensuring effective learning process, providing institution through interactive communication, getting feedback from learners, preparing and utilizing instructional materials in facilitating learning, maintaining discipline among learners, evaluating learning outcomes, relating on one on one basis with learners, being mindful of their basic needs, providing basic information to learners, providing an exemplary behaviours to learners to imitate, and generating interest among learners as well as reinforcing their performance through motivational techniques.

School teachers are faced with challenges in managing class size and implementing classroom management techniques. Some of the problems faced by the teachers in the classroom include students behaviours such as, shouting in the class, refusing to participate in group work or assignment, skipping classes, fighting in the class, undermining the teachers instructions, engaging in powerful struggles and unnecessary discussions, comment that will distract teachers‟ focus on teaching and students‟ attention away from learning, copying other peoples work in examination or homework, stealing, lying against other student to avoid punishment and so forth. All these behaviours are management problems commonly found in classrooms, and needs adequate classroom management technique to tackle them. However, it is believe when using punishment technique on students to make them suffer for wrong doing, they will probably not repeat the same behaviour again. Teachers face daily struggle with disciplinary issues in their classroom and some are confused about the appropriate technique to use only few have been able to identify and use effective management strategies in managing student‟s behaviours in the classroom.            Despite the effort of Federal Government to provide quality education in Nigeria, secondary schools continue to face challenges that could compromise the quality of education provided. Inadequate educational funding has been one of major problems faced in Nigerian school system which lead to shortage of class teachers and class-size among others are areas that need attention in secondary schools. In Nigerian secondary schools, a classroom with the capacity of 40 – 50 students, due to overpopulation has 60 and above students in a class, teachers have to manage the class and at the same time ensure effective teaching and learning takes place. It is certain that teachers, find it difficult to contend with large class size and effective learning process.  Although Nigerian government has set standard teacher – student ratio in secondary schools to be 1:40 (NPE, 2004) it has not yet been implemented. Limited or short supply of instructional materials and infrastructural facilities is one of the problems faced in secondary schools, allocation and supply of instructional materials and infrastructures such as chairs, books, desks, uniforms, pen etcetera is not enough to go round all the students. Another contributing factor affecting teaching and learning is the employment of unqualified teachers. Some of the teachers are not trained teachers, they don‟t have management techniques to control and organize the class in other to have good interaction with the students. The qualified teachers believe that punishment is the best technique to use in managing the classroom.

The term management according to Bucher (1979), is the guiding human and physical resources in to a dynamic, hard hitting organization units that attains its objective in the satisfaction of those served and with a high degree of morals and sense of attainment on the part of those serve. Fayol (1961), defined management as the process of achieving the organization‟s objectives through activities of planning, organizing, commanding and controlling that is, management supervises the activities of others in the organization. For instance in a school setting, the principals and others staff in authority supervise and control the activities of the school in order to achieve aims and objective of teaching and learning.

Management for the benefit of this study can be described as controlling, directing, planning, evaluating for the purpose of teaching and learning in the school system. That is the management of the classroom, discipline, instructing, qualitative and quantitative learning in the classroom is the responsibility of teachers. Porteus (2001), defines classroom management as a  democratic process in which rules are made with special emphasis on the importance of student‟s participation and involvement in the thinking and decision making process within the classroom.. Classroom management is the entire activity that is carried out in the class and it involves the teacher and the students. However, it is important to consider the management techniques used by the teacher because it depends on his success, the students‟ success or achievements as well as the standard of education achieved.

Florence (2014) is of the opinion that, teachers should first learn how to maintain discipline before honing on the students‟ academic goals and needs, she also suggested the importance of classroom management as follows; It engages students: students who are engage in lesson will register it better and be able to apply the knowledge; It keeps students prepared: when students are prepared to learn, lessons will be easier to be administered and will be effective. It boosts confidence: in an organized classroom teachers are able to give more attention to students and structured lesson plans. It is also important for teachers to have various techniques that will help him maintain good learning environment. However, Onwuegbu (1989) outline some classroom management techniques; among them are:

“Motivation”: These are the incentives that enable the pupils to carry out positive behaviour. It is important for the teacher to know what motivation is, when to use it, how to use it and the need to maintain motivation in the classroom.

“Discipline”: There is need for teachers to know what discipline is, the various types of discipline and how to maintain it. “Reinforcement”: Also known as “Rewards”, the teacher need to know the meaning, how they are used and their implementation in education. “Punishment”: the meaning, types, and knowing when and how to apply it for effective discipline. Teaching and learning cannot be effective and successful without effective management techniques which can be used by teachers‟, in these view Jones and Jones (2012), suggested five strategies for effective management. They are as follows: Determining a solid understanding of the student personal, psychological and learning aspirations; Establishing positive student – teacher and peer relationship that aids student‟s psychological needs; Using instructional methods that facilitate optimal learning by responding to student learning needs; Using organizational and group management methods to maximize students on task behaviours; Using counselling and behavioural methods that involves students in examining and correcting their inappropriate behaviours. With the above suggestion made on the use of effective management techniques for teaching and learning, it will be easier for a teacher to interact with his/her students in a large class size, even though it still affects the learning process.

                  1.1        Statement of the Problem

Teachers are not the only instructors in the classroom, but they are also significant figures to all students. The teacher has the responsibility of providing opportunities and instruments for checking students‟ progress and knowledge gained attitude changes and acquisition of relevant skills. Teachers are faced with the challenge of management of large class size in secondary schools, and diverse behaviours is been exhibited in classes such as shouting in the class, refusing to participate in group work or assignment,  skipping classes, fighting in the class, undermine the teachers instructions, engaging in powerful struggles and unnecessary discussions, comment that will take away teachers focus on teaching and students attention away from learning, copying other peoples work in examination or homework , stealing, lairing against other student to avoid punishment. All these behaviours are needs adequate classroom management techniques which the teacher will use during teaching and learning. Also, Robert (1998) outlined some problems associated with large class size, they are as follows: Student becomes faces instead of people; It is hard to give individuals advice and guidance to students; Organizational problems are compounded, making it difficult to schedule tutorials, fieldwork and so forth; Monitoring attendance can be difficult, thus encouraging students to cut classes and the quality of feedback will be less in large class size. This type of problem can simply be improve by developing and dedicating more time to teacher – student‟s relationship in classrooms despite the number of student‟s in the class by involving the student in discussion during learning process. Although in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education zones, these techniques are missing and making it difficult for teachers to control the student, there is therefore need for effective management to be employed and implemented.

Some of the teachers employed into the school system are unqualified and such teachers have no idea on effective classroom management techniques. Therefore, finds it difficult to manage large classes. Management techniques have characteristics such as recognizing and motivating students, punishment for their bad behaviours, among others. In view of these, the study intends to evaluate poor learning due to poor application of classroom management techniques in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Educational

Zones, Borno state.

                  1.2       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to evaluate the perceptions of teachers on application of classroom management techniques for teaching in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones. The specific objectives are to:-  

  1. Examine the extent of the application of group participation as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  2. Identify the extent of the application of rewards as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  3. Assess the extent of the application of punishment as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  4. Ascertain the extent of the application of students‟ motivation as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  5. Ascertain the extent of the application of time management as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.

                  1.3        Research Questions

The study was guided by the following research questions:

  1. To what extent do teachers apply group participation as a classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno State?
  2. To what extent do teachers apply reward as a classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state?
  3. How do teachers apply punishment as a management technique in secondary schools in

Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state?

  1. How do trained teachers apply the motivation technique on students in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state?
  2. How do teachers apply time management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state?

 

 

 

                  1.4       Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private teachers on the extent of the application of group participation as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private teachers on the extent of the application of rewards as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private teachers on the extent of the application of punishment as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of public and private teachers on the extent of the application of students‟ motivation as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zones, Borno state.
  5. There is no significant difference on the opinions of public and private teachers on the extent of the application of time management as classroom management technique in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere Education Zone, Borno state.

                  1.5       Basic Assumptions

For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions were formulated or made:

  1. That, the extent of application of group participation as classroom management technique affects students‟ academic achievements in secondary schools by interfering in the teacher – students relationships in teaching.
  2. That, the extent of various forms of reward used by teacher has positive influence on teaching and learning.
  3. That, the extent of effective use of classroom management techniques by the teacher will promote positive behaviours in student on teaching.
  4. That, the extent of students‟ motivation has great influence on teaching and learning in secondary schools.
  5. That, all the teachers in secondary schools are familiar with classroom management techniques.

                  1.6       Significance of the Study

This study is significant because it is an attempt to evaluate the management techniques used by teachers in secondary schools in Nigeria. The outcome of this research will be of benefits to all teachers in secondary schools throughout the whole country. This is because teachers in secondary schools will acquire more knowledge on how to manage class-size and they know the type of management techniques to use during teaching in classrooms. The study would also help teachers to deal with the various students‟ behaviour in the classroom by giving the teachers best management technique to maintain discipline and order in the class, and it will to some extent create a conducive atmosphere for learning and good interaction between students and teacher during learning despite the class size.

The study would also help the government and school administrators to be know the effects of class size on both the students and teachers in secondary schools in Borno state and how there will be able to help control enrolments in the schools, provide the needed facilities for effective teaching and learning. However, it will also help the inspectors in the ministry of education in employing competent and qualified teachers that can manger the classroom using various modern classroom management techniques.

The finding will also benefit the secondary school students because when the class size is adequate and good management technique is used, students‟ performance would improve and the learning will take place more effectively.

                  1.7       Scope of the Study

This study evaluated the application of classroom management techniques in secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere education zones, Borno state, Nigeria. The study explored the various management techniques used by teachers to ensure learning and also how teachers deal with various behaviours of the students in class. The research involves teachers in public and private secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere education zones, Borno state, because they are directly using the various techniques in their classrooms. The study is designed to cover seventy eight (78) schools comprising of seventeen (17) public secondary schools and sixty one (61) private secondary schools in Maiduguri and Jere education zones. The scope of this study was limited to only teachers in both public and private secondary schools and also on the application of classroom management techniques.

APPLICATION OF CLASSROOM ORGANIZATION SYSTEMS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN MAIDUGURI AND JERE EDUCATION AREAS, BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

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