ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ACCOMPLISHMENT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES USING DIVERSE TEACHING SYSTEMS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO CITY, KANO STATE, NIGERIA
The study on the “Analysis of Students’ Achievement in Islamic Studies using Different Teaching Methods in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria” adopted pretest, post-test quasi experimental design. The students were assessed using two experimental groups and one control group. The studentsin experimentalgroups were taught certain Islamic studies concepts through guided inquiry method and guided lecture method. The control groups were not treated. The population of the study consisted of all SS III students in selected schools in Kano metropolis. The researcher usedpurposive sampling techniques to draw samples of SS III studentsof Islamic studies in the sampled schools. The data collected were analyzed and the hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics. Hypotheses one and two were tested using independent t-test. While Analysis of covariance was used in testing Hypothesis three, Man-Whitney was used to test hypothesis four. The findings revealed among other things that students taught using guided inquiry and lecture method performed better in Islamic studies.Gender has significant effects on students’ performance in Islamic studies. It is recommended that teachers of Islamic studies should adopt inquiry teaching methods and guided lecture method to replace traditional method toenhance students’ performance in Islamic studies.
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Hypotheses 5
1.6 Basic Assumptions 6
1.7 Significance of the Study 7
1.10 Scope of the Study 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Theoretical Framework of the Study 8
2.3 Methods and Techniques of Teaching 12
2.4 Concept of Inquiry and Inquiry-based Learning Methods 18
2.5 Types of Inquiry and Inquiry Based Learning 19
2.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Inquiry Method of Teaching/Learning 22
2.7 Concept of Lecture Method 23
2.8 Characteristics’ for Effective Lectures 24
2.9 Types of Lecture 26
2.10 Benefits, Disadvantages and Characteristics of Good Lecture 28
2.11 Empirical Studies 31 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 36
3.2 Research Design 36
3.3 Population 37
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 38
3.5 Instrumentation 38
3.5.1 Validation of Research Instrument 39
3.5.2 Pilot Study 39
3.5.3 Reliability 39
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 40
3.7 Treatment of the Experimental Groups 41
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR: ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AD DISCUSSION OF DATA
4.1 Introduction 42
4.2 Presentation of Bio-Data Variables 42
4.3 Differences in the Performance of Students in JSS taught using 44
Inquiry and Lecture Methods
4.4 Differences in the Performance of Students using Experimental 44 Group and Control
4.5 Differences in the Academic Performance of Male and Female 45
Students in Islamic Studies taught using Inquiry and Lecture
Methods in School for Arabic Studies and Government Girls
Secondary Schools Shekara Kano
4.6 Impact of Inquiry and Lecture Methods on Students’ Performance 46 in Islamic Studies in School of Arabic Studies and Government Girls Secondary School in Kano
4.7 Differences in Students’ Performance in Islamic Studies 48
using Inquiry, Lecture and Traditional Methods
4.8 Hypotheses Testing 50
4.9 Summary of Major Findings 53
4.10 Discussion of the Findings 53 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 57
5.2 Summary 57
5.3 Conclusions 58
5.4 Recommendations 58
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 59
5.6 Scope of the Study 59
|Table 2.1: Essential Features of Classroom Inquiry and their variation||21|
|Table 3.1: Pre-test and Post-test Design||36|
|Table 3.2: Population of Public Secondary Schools and Students in Kano Metropolis
|Table 4.1: Distribution of Respondents According to Groups||43|
|Table 4.2: Distribution of Respondents According to Gender||43|
|Table 4.3: Differences in the Performance of Students in Islamic
Studies taught using Inquiry and Lecture Methods in
School for Arabic Studies and Government Girls
Secondary Schools Kano
|Table 4.4: Differences in the Academic Performance of Students in
Islamic Studies taught using Experimental Group (using Inquiry and Lecture Methods and Control Group) in School for Arabic Studies and Government Girls
Secondary Schools Kano
|Table 4.5: Differences in the Academic Performance of Male and Female Students in Islamic Studies using Inquiry and Lecture Methods in School for Arabic Studies and Government Girls Secondary Schools Shekara Kano
|Table 4.6:Impact of Inquiry and Lecture Methods on Students’ Performance in Islamic Studies in SAS and GGSS Shekara Kano
|Table 4.7:Differences in Students’ Performance in Islamic Studies using Inquiry, Lecture and Traditional Methods
|Table 4.8: Summary of t-test on the significant Difference on students’
Performance in Islamic Studies taught using Inquiry and Lecture Methods in SAS and GGSS Shekara
|Table 4.9: Summary of t-test on the Significant Difference in Students’ Performance in Islamic Studies using Experimental and Control Group
|Table 4.10: Summary of Covariance Tests on the Performance of Male and Female Students in Islamic Studies using Inquiry and Lecture Methods||52|
The following terms usedin the study are defined:
|Inquiry Method:||It is a processof finding out information about something.|
|Guided Inquiry:||It is a strategy which enables learners to make investigation from the questions asked by the teacher.|
|Lecture Method:||It is a formal means of making presentation of content by subject matter expert in a learning situation.|
|Guided Lecture:||It is a lecture method where students are given a list of objectives|
of contents to be covered and are expected to recall information from the contents.
Traditional Method: In this teachingmethods students are expected to record notes from
what the teacher mentions in the class.
Instruction: This is how information is arranged in learningenvironment to
facilitate teaching and learning, situation.
Teaching Method: This refers to a process of imparting knowledgeto the learnersin
1.1 Background to the Study
Islamic Studies is a subject taught in secondary schools at both senior and junior levels. This subject area represents complete aspects of Islam because it deals with Qur’an, Hadith and other basic Islamic system of worship. The teachings in Islamic studies are expected to mold the behaviour of students. The teachings prepare individual learners with the awareness and understanding that would transform them into citizens that ca contribute positively towards the development of the society. The nature and scope of Islamic studies in Nigerian schools make emphasis on students’ familiarity with the teachings of Qur’an and Hadith to make learners becomeaware of their duties on earth and prepare for the next world.
Islamic Studies is increasingly vital in helping to create individuals whoare actively involved in making the society morally sound. Islamic studies knowledge enables the learners to become aware of their responsibilities in the society. To enable the students acquire the knowledge effectively require appropriateinstructional strategies that will facilitate all round development of students in terms of cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. It is not out of placeto say no single method of learning can effectively be appropriate to all learning situations. Therefore, there is no best method ofteaching Islamic studies since learning depends on situations.
At any level of education, teaching is established to bring a fundamental change in the learning. Teachers are expected to apply appropriate teaching methods to facilitate process necessary for knowledge transmission towards achievementofspecific objectives of the system. According to Ganyaupfu (2013) in the traditional method, many teaching practitioners widely applied inquiry method to impact to learners the appropriate skills. However, questions about the effectiveness of teachingmethods on the students’ learning have consistently raised considerable interest in educational research, High Tower etal (2011). Studies on teaching and learning examine how different teaching methods could enhance growth in students’ learning were carried out.
It is believed by Ayeniye (2011) that teaching is a continues process that involvedbringing about desirable changes in learners through the use ofappropriate methods tobringdesirable changes in students teachers’ method of teaching need to beappropriate for the subject matter, Adumola (2011). It is opined by Bharadwaj and Pal (2011) that teaching methods work effectively mainly if they suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to question in a unique way, Chang (2010). This was captured in Zeeb (2004) when he noted that alignment of teaching method with the students’ needs and preferred learninginfluence students’ academic attainments.
Inlecturemethod, students obtain information from the teacherdevoidof building their engagement level with the subject. This method is least practical, theoretical and full of memorization. It does not encouragestudents to learn real life problems basedon the knowledge of application throughactivity based learning. In this method of teaching, the teacher controls the transmission and sharing of knowledge. The teacher makes attempt to maximize the delivery of information and also minimizes time and effort. Thus, the interest and understandingof students may be affected. Where Islamic studies teacherin secondary school focuses mainly on dispensing, definitions and procedures for students to memorize concepts, their understanding on the subject may be affected.
Inquiry method enhances active learning. The method promotes interest,analytical research and critical thinking among students. The inquiry method is considered to be more appropriate in teachingbecause it does not centralize the flow of knowledge from the teacher to the students, the method is widely adopted by teachers because it motivates goal-oriented behavior among students. Therefore, the method is an effective mean to improve students’ achievement. If this method is adopted by Islamic Studies teachers, it could enhancestudents’ performances in secondaryschools in Kano metropolis.
In lecture method, the strategies usedby the teacherare applied during teaching. Under this method, it is common to observe the subject information produces by the learners. However, under inquiry method, the strategies are understood better than the lecture method. Strategies used by the teacher to present information are understood by the learners. Under this approach, the students are encouraged to search for relevant knowledge instead of the teacher making monopoly of information transmission to the learners. This approach to teaching was successful in many places because of its effectiveness in improving academic performance, Damodharan and Rengarjan (1999). If inquiry methodcould be applied in teaching Islamic Studies in secondary schools in Kano metropolis, it is expected that students’ achievement could be enhanced.
The above arguments motivated the researcher to carry out the Kano metropolis. Thus, the study is set to analyzestudent’s achievements in Islamic Studies using different teaching methods in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis in Kano state, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Teaching is a means to assist students to learn. Good teaching is characterized by proper teaching methods. Thus, methods of teaching assist in education. The strategies usedin teaching are meant to make teachers successful in their bid to disseminate knowledge of their area of specialization. IslamicStudies is a subject that is taught in many secondary schools in Nigeria. It is taught in secondaryschools as a compulsory subject for students who are Muslims. It is taught in schools irrespective of diversify in culture, ethnicity and social economic background of student. Islamic studies is taught in secondary schools by differentteach gin methods such as lecture method discussion, method, textbook method, study tours, problem teaching methods, team teaching and enquiry methods. However, little effort is made on the factors that are necessary for selection of the appropriateteaching method. The methods used in teaching studentsin secondaryschools are not effective for their teaching and learning and this effects their academic achievement. Much as the teacher is at liberty to select the strategy according to the need of students, this approach may be a fatal effort if the teacher fails in his scheme of handling issues that relate to method he adopts. Teaching methods could be seen as patterns of teacher behavior that occur either in simultaneous or sequential order.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- Examine the performance of students in Islamic Studies taught using inquiry and lecture methods and student-centred method in secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Determine the performance of students in Islamic Studies using experimental and control groups in secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Ascertain the effects of gender on students’ performance in Islamic Studies using Inquiry and lecture methods of instruction in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Find out the influence of Inquiry and lecture methods on students’ attitudes towards Islamic Studies in secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
The study answered the following questions:
- what is the difference in students’ performance in Islamic Studies when taught
using inquiry method and lecture method in secondary schools in Kano metropolis?
- what is the performance of students in Islamic Studies when taught using experimental and control groups in secondary school in Kano metropolis?
- what are the effects of gender on students’ performances in Islamic Studies when taught using inquiry and lecture methods of instruction in selected secondary school in Kano metropolis?
- what is the influence of inquiry and lecture methods on students’ attitudes towards Islamic Studies in selected secondary school in Kano metropolis?
The following hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of
- There is no significant difference in students’ performance in Islamic Studies when taught inquiry method and lecture method in selected secondary schools in
- There is no significant difference in students’ performance in Islamic Studies when taught using experimental and control groups in Selected Secondary Schools in Kano metropolis;
- There is no significant difference in male and female students’ performance in Islamic Studies when taught using inquiryand lecture methods in selected secondary school in Kano metropolis;
- Inquiryand lecture methods have no significant influence on students’ attitudes towards Islamic Studies in selected secondary school in Kano metropolis.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the assumptions that:
- The students taught using inquiry method could perform well in Islamic Studies compared with those taught using lecture method in selected secondary schools in Kano Metropolis.
- The students’performances in Islamic Studies taught using experimental and control groups were not significantly different in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Gender was not a barrier to students’performance in Islamic Studies in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
- Inquiry and lecture methods of instruction have no influence on students’ attitudes towards Islamic Studies in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study shall reveal the teaching method that could influence good performance of students in Islamic Studies. The findings will be of interest to curriculum planners, schools principals and Heads of Departments as well as agencies responsible for curriculum developments. The finding could also facilitate the appropriate curriculum policies and programs which could pave way for affective teaching and learning of Islamic Studies. The findings will reveal the teaching method suitable for both male and female students. Islamic Studies students would benefit with the result of this study since their level of awareness and understanding issues related to inquiry method, lecture method and traditional method could be used to enable better performance ofstudents through identification of individual needs of students in the class. Lastly, the findings of the study could be very useful as a reference material and contribute to the existence literature in teaching method for Islamic Studies.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This work analyzedthe students’ achievement in Islamic Studies using inquiry, lecture and traditional methods of instructions in selected secondary schools in Kano metropolis. The study is delimited to school for Arabic selected (S.A.S) Kano and Government Girls’ Secondary School Shekara in Kano Metropolis. Participants of the study were restricted to SS III students in the two schools. Lastly, the study delimits itself to concepts of inquirymethod, lecture method and traditional method.
ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ ACCOMPLISHMENT IN ISLAMIC STUDIES USING DIVERSE TEACHING SYSTEMS IN SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO CITY, KANO STATE, NIGERIA