ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF SEXUAL THREAT BEHAVIOUR AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN BAUCHI STATE

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ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF SEXUAL THREAT BEHAVIOUR AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN BAUCHI STATE

ABSTRACT

The purpose for this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State, Nigeria. An expost facto research design was used. A total of 76,279 constituted the number of respondents used for this study. A multi stage sampling procedurewhich included stratified and proportionate sampling procedures were used to draw the sample size  from the senior secondary schools within the three (3) senatorial zones of the state, which are Bauchi north, Bauchi central and Bauchi south. The instrument used was a close– ended questionnaire. Three hundred and seventy eight(378) copies of the questionnaire wereadministered using simple random sample technique to the respondent. The data collected were analyzed using simple frequency and percentages to describe the demograhphic characteristics of the respondents, descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions.One sample t-test, independent sample t-test and ANOVA were used to testthe formulated hypotheses. The finding of the study revealed that knowledge of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is significant (t = 4.120; p = 0.021), attitude towards sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is not significant (t = 1.341; p=0.81), demographic characteristics of the respondents such as age and gender do not significantly influence the knowledge and attitude towards sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school studnets in Bacuhi State.On the basis of the conclusion drawn thatsenior secondary school students in Bauchi state have significant knowledge of sexual risk behaviour and that attitude towards sexual risk behavviiours among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is negative. It was recommended among others that continuous education through organizing of seminars and workshops by the school management should be made to sustain and promote the knowledge the students have acquired. Enlightenment campaign should be embarked upon by both government and school authority for students to enable them overcome their negative attitude towards sexual risk behaviour.

             

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page                                                                                                                i

Title Page                                                                                                                  ii

Declaration                                                                                                                           iii

Certification                                                                                                                          iv

Dedication                                                                                                                              v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                             vi

Abstract                                                                                                                              viii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                ix

List of Tables                                                                                                                      xii

List of Appendices                                                                                                            xiv

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                         xv          

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                    xvii

 

Chapter One: Introduction

1.1     Background to the Study                                                                             1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                            3

1.3       Purpose of the Study                                                                                    5

1.4      Research Questions                                                                                      6

1.5       Basic Assumptions                                                                                       7

1.6      Hypotheses                                                                                                    7

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                            8

1.8       Delimitations of the Study                                                                          10

Chapter Two: Review of Related Literature

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                   12

2.2       Concept of Sexual Risk Behaviour                                                            12

2.2.1 Forms of Sexual Risk Behaviour among Senior Secondary School

Students                                                                                                         16

2.3       Concept of Sexually Transmitted Infections                                            23

2.4       Knowledge of Sexual Risk Behaviour among Students                         32

2.5       Attitude towards Sexual Risk Behaviour among Students                     43

2.6      Factors influencing the Sexual risk behaviour amongsecondary

school students                                                                                             46

2.7      Demographic Variables and Sexual risk Behaviour                                59

2.8       Empirical Studies                                                                                         64

2.9       Summary                                                                                                       69

 

Chapter Three: Methodology

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                   72

3.2       Research Design                                                                                           72

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                               72

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                             75

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                             75

3.5.1 Validity of Instrument                                                                                    75

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                    76

3.8      Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                       77

 

Chapter Four: Results and Discussion

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                   78

4.2      Results                                                                                                            79

4.3       Discussion                                                                                                     93

 

Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1       Summary                                                                                                       98

5.2       Contribution to Knowledge                                                                        99

5.3       Conclusions                                                                                                   100

5.4      Recommendations                                                                                        100

5.5       Suggestions for Future Research                                                                101

References                                                                                                     102

Appendices                                                                                                    115

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Sampled Respondents from each Sampled Senior Secondary School           per zone                                                                                                          74

Table 2: Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents                                79

Table 3: Mean Score of the Responses on knowledge of Sexual Risk   Behaviour among senior secondary school students   80

Table 4: Mean Score of the Responses on the Attitude of the respondents

towards Sexual Risk Behaviour                                                                  82

Table 5: Mean score of responses on knowledge of sexual risk behaviour

according to age                                                                                           83

Table 6:Mean score of responses on the differences between male      and female students in their knowledge of sexual risk behaviour

among senior secondary school students                                                  84

Table 7:Mean score of responses on attitude towards sexual risk

behaviour according to age                                                                         85

Table 8:Mean score of the responses on the differences between male and    female students in their attitude of sexual risk behaviour among senior       secondary school students                                                    86

Table 9: One sample t-test Analysisonknowledge of Sexual Risk

Behaviour among Senior Secondary School Students in Bauchi

State                                                                                                               87

Table 10:One sample t-test analysis of attitude towards sexual risk

behaviour among senior secondary school students                                88

Table 11:Result of ANOVA statistics on Knowledge of sexual risk   behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State

is not significant influenced by their age                                      89 Table 12:Independent sample t-test analysis on the differences between           male and female students in their knowledge of sexual risk

behaviour among senior secondary school students                                90

Table 13: Analysis of ANOVA statistics on attitude towards sexual risk       behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State

is not significantly influenced by their age                                               91

Table 14: Independent sample t-test analysis the differences between            male and female students in their attitude towards sexual risk

behaviour among senior secondary school students                                92

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix I    Questionnaire                                                                                    115

Appendix II Letter of Introduction to the Jurors to Vet the research

instrument                                                                                          118

Appendix III Letter of Introductionto the School Principalfor

Data Collection                                                                                 118

Appendix IV Enrolment figures of senior secondary school students in

Bauchi State                                                                                      119

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ART Assisted Reproductive Technology
ARV Anti Retroviral Drugs
BSS Behavioural Surveillance Survey
CDC Center for Diseases and Control
CIA Central Intelligence Agency
FGM Female Genital Mutilation
HBM Health Belief Model
HIV Human Immuno-deficiency Virus
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
NDHS Nigeria Demographic Health Survey
NGO Non Governmental Organization
NMCP National Malaria Control Program
NMSP National Malaria Strategic Plan
NPC National Population Commission
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences
SSA Sub Sahara Africa
STIs Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
UN United Nation
UNDP United Nations Development Programme

 

UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
    Organization
UNFPA United Nation Population Funds
UNICEF United Nations Children‟s Emergency Fund
VCT Voluntary Testing and Counselling
WHO World Health Organization
     

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

Knowledge: refers to understanding of information required by the students on sexual risk behaviour such as multiple sex partners, unprotected sex and early sexual initiation.

Attitude: is the positive or negative thinking or beliefs of secondary school students towards the perceived sexual risk behaviour.

Sexual risk behaviour: refers to having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, and having unprotected sexual behaviour.

Senior Secondary School Students: refers to students or respondents who are in upper or senior level of secondary school i.e. SS I, SS II and SS III.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Sexual risk is concerned with those sexual activities that expose an individual to the possibility of contracting any sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including

HIV/AIDS and unplanned pregnancies (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).Sexual risk behaviour are commonly defined as behaviour that increase one‟s risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and experiencing un-planned pregnancies (Caldwell and Orabuloye, 2009; Diala, Oluyimi, Harris and Feyisetin, 2011). These behaviour include having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs and having unprotected sexual (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010).

According to Ladebo and Tanimowo (2012), sexual behavioural change is the most effective means of preventing sexual risk behaviour. In addition, Ladebo and Tanimowo (2012) further stated that the only way to prevent sexual risk behaviour is to avoid behaviour that can put an individual at the risk of contracting STIs/HIV/AIDS. Many people infected with STIs/HIV/AIDS have no sign and symptoms, as such there is no way of knowing with certainty whether a sexual partner is infected or not infected unless he/she has repeatedly tested negative and has not engaged in any sexual risk behaviour betweenthe tests (Weiner, 2013; Adekeye, 2009). According to Caldwell and Orabuloye(2009);Diala, Oluyimi,

Harris and Feyisetin (2011), the health of secondary school students is of paramount importance, therefore, it is imperative to assess how knowledgeable they are with respect to sexual risk behaviour.

Secondary School Students at senior school level are confronted with developmental and adjustment challenges, whereby sexual issues are the most prominent challenges (Omoegun, 2008). Furthermore, majority of secondary school students overexpress their sexual desire; engage in a spectrum of sexual behaviour ranging from fantasy and self-stimulation to various forms of intercourse. Odunsaya and Bankole (2009) stated that secondary school students are often known to be adventurous and sometimes engage in lesbianism, homosexuality and sexual orgies because they want to experiment. The students who engage in sexual experimentation are at increased risk of contracting STIs/HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancies (Odunsaya and Bankole, 2009).

There are so many factors which contribute to students engagement in sexual risk behaviour which among others are the negative media images, the internet which promote lustful and irresponsible sexual behaviour, parental abuse, battering, social stigmatization, child abandonment and child abuse, sexual abuse, early sexual experimentation, drug and alcohol use and peer pressure to engage in adult-like activities (Peltzer and Promtussananon, 2011).However, these students may not be aware of the social and emotional implications of their sexual activities, since majority of them do not use safe sexual practices. According to Carey and Schroder (2009), sexual behaviour such as delaying initiation to sexual intercourse, choosing

and      respectful       partners,         increased       use      of        condoms,       and      using effectivecontraceptionsamong others are important public health issues which should be disseminated to secondary school students.

Secondary school students might be knowledgeable about ways to prevent sexual risk behaviour, however, this knowledge does not reflect in their attitude towards reducing these sexual risks (Odunsaya and Bankole, 2009). To reduce sexual risk behaviour and related health problems among students, the school can help students adopt life-long knowledge and attitude that support their health and wellbeing including behaviour that reduce their risk for HIV/AIDS, other STIs and unplanned pregnancies (CDC, 2010). Abstaining entirely from sexual activity will completely eliminate these risks.Assessing the knowledge and attitude of secondary school students in respect to sexual risk behaviour will contribute to sound policy making and decisionamking appropriate for the needs of the students. Thus, this study strive to assess the knowledge and attitude of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

 Sexual risk behaviour are global health problems that threaten human existence. These riskyhabits have destroyed quite a number of lives both young and old in Nigeria (Borawski, 2010). Unsafe sexual practices are still occurring with sufficient frequency due to lack of accurate knowledge on sexuality, so that sexually transmitted infections, unwanted pregnancies and abortion remain significant public health concerns. World Health Organization (2012) stated that unsafe sex was second among the top ten risk factors in the global burden of all diseases caused globally.

The prevalence of secondary school students sexual risk behaviour has increased drastically in recent time due to lack of information and guidance about sex and sexuality (CDC, 2010). This is demonstrated clearly in their sexual behaviour where they are found in different areas of the country, along the street and secluded places at night engaging in sexual activities without the use of any protective means. Furthermore, Adamu (2015) asserted that secondary school students sexual activity in Nigeria has been on the increase since the last decade and sexual activities among unmarried students in Africa is high and also on the increase.

Secondary school students in Bauchi State are faced with the risk of unhealthy sexual behaviour such as early sexual initiation, unprotected sex and multiple sexual partners among others which are responsible for the spread of STIs including HIV/AIDS, high rate of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. This may be due topeer pressure from friends and classmates, advertisement of irresponsible sexual behaviour by the mass media. It is quite a pity that high profile promiscuity is advertised over the mass media, thereby exposing these students to wrong information about sex. Other reasons are ignorance and unwillingness of parents and teachers to address sexual health issues which increase the tendencies of students engagement in sexual risk behaviour. Open discussion of sex is frowned upon and not encouraged. Discussing sex with students is not approved and sexual education which is supposedto help avoid sexual risk behaviouramong these adolescent is opposed by some religion and culture. This situation is made worse by many parents and adults who believe that sexual health education will expose students to undesirable sexual activities.

Nayar (2011) asserted that the teaching of sexually education to students helps in delaying sexual activities and reduce the rate of sexual risk behaviour. Furthermore, the researcherstressed that sexuality education offered at the right age and time reduce the vulnerability of students to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.Imparting proper sexual health information to students on sexual risk behaviour is important in the prevention of STIs, including HIV/AIDS because even at present, there is no known immunization or inoculation against the diseases. Proper knowledge about sex and the right attitude toward sexuality is important for healthy and happy life of students and the society at large.On the basis of these concerns this study therefore, assessed the knowledge and attitude of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

Themain purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudeof sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State. The specific purposes are to assess:

  1. theknowledge ofsexual risk behaviour such as unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiationamong senior secondary school students in

Bauchi State.

  1. theattitudetowardssexual risk behaviour such as unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiationamong senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.
  2. the influence of demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) on knowledge of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school in Bauchi State.
  3. the influence of demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) on attitude towards sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.

1.4       Research Questions

            The study answered the following research questions;

  1. What is the knowledge of sexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State?
  2. What is the attitude towards sexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State?
  3. Do demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) influence knowledge of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school student in Bauchi State?
  4. Do demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) influence attitude towards sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State?

 

1.5       Basic Assumptions

 On the basis of the available research evidence, the following basic assumptions were made;

  1. the knowledge of sexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is not good.
  2. theattitudetowardssexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation)among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is not positive.
  3. Demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) do not influence knowledge of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school in Bauchi State.
  4. Demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) do not influence attitude towards sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.

 

 

 

1.6       Hypotheses

On the basis of the research questions, one major hypothesis and four (4) sub-hypotheses were formulated and presented as follows;

 

Major Hypothesis

Theknowledge and attitude of sexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiations)among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State is not significantly positive.

 

Sub Hypotheses

Ho1: Knowledge of sexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation)among senior secondary school students in Bauchi

Stateis not significant.

Ho2: Attitude towardssexual risk behaviour (unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation)among senior secondary school students in Bauchi

Stateis not significantly positive.

Ho3: There is no significant influence of demographic characteristics of the respondents (such as age and gender) on the knowledge of sexual risk behaviour among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.
Ho4: There is no significant influence of demographic characteristics of the

respondents (such as age and gender) on the attitude towards sexual risk beahviours among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.

 

1.7       Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will go a long way to helping senior secondary school students in the following ways;

It will contribute in creating awareness among secondary school students about the risks and consequences of involving in risky sexual behaviour through the teaching of sex education in schools.

It is hoped that the results of this study will encourage the government to put to use all the formulated policies and implementation strategies to reduce or prevent widespread of sexual risk behaviour. This could be achieved through the teaching of sexuality education in all senior secondary schools in Bauchi State

The findings of this study will help the parents of students to see the relevance of sexuality education in senior secondary schools when information is passed to them during Parent Teachers Association through seminars and workshop organized by the school management. Hence, creating a positive environment for interaction with the parents, health educators and health professionals.

It will also contribute to the existing knowledge of sexuality education and enhance the development of strategies that will positively influence the attitude of senior secondary school students to take positivesdecision regarding sex related matters. Which can be used to develop and review school curriculum on sexuality education.

The finding of this study will be useful to health education curriculum planners to see the need of including sexuality education as a subject.

This study will help to sensitize and empower senior secondary school students on sexual issues and reduce the risk sexual behaviour. It will stimulate Bauchi state government to pay attention to prevention of sexual risk behaviour among students in the state through enlightenment campaigns to the students.

 

1.8       Delimitations of the Study

This study was delimitedto;

  1. the knowledge of sexual risk behaviour(unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.
  2. the attitude towards sexual risk behaviour(unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation)among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State.
  3. the knowledge of sexual risk behaviour(unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in

Bauchi State according to their demographic characteristics.

 

  1. the attitude of sexual risk behaviour(unprotected sex, multiple sex partner and early sexual initiation) among senior secondary school students in Bauchi State according to their demographic characteristics.
  2. Generally, the study is delimited to all the senior secondary school students in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

ANALYSIS OF KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE OF SEXUAL THREAT BEHAVIOUR AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN BAUCHI STATE

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