ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL LITERACY SERVICES OF FACULTY MEMBERS FOR TEACHING IN LIBRARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES OF NORTH-EASTERN STATES, NIGERIA

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ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL LITERACY SERVICES OF FACULTY MEMBERS FOR TEACHING IN LIBRARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES OF NORTH-EASTERN STATES, NIGERIA

Abstract

This research investigated the digital literacy skills of Faculty Members in the Department of Library and Information Science in the north-eastern states of Nigeria. Six research questions and one hypothesis were answered and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), among the research questions there are; what is the ability of library and information science faculty member in the north-eastern states of Nigeria to locate Digital information? How do library and information Faculty Members in the north-eastern states of Nigeria critically judge and evaluate credible digital information. Quantitative research method was applied in the study using random sampling technique to draw the sample. Forty-four copies of the questionnaires were administered while thirty-seven copies were completed, returned and was used in the study which represents 84% of the response rate. The finding of the study revealed thatFaculty Members in the Department of Library and Information Science in the Federal University of North-eastern states of Nigeria were very confidents in the use of scanning/skimming techniques to quickly access the key relevant information on a web page, in assessing whether an online resources or persons credibility and trustworthiness. The study recommends some steps to turn around the situations; faculty members  must  be  empowered  with  all  necessary  digital  literacy  skills, embark  on  rigorous  training  and  retraining  programs, workshops, conferences and seminars, there should also be a coherent training policy for the faculty members on a sustainable basis to increase their requisite digital literacy skill, emphasis should be given to digital technology components by the institutions so as to equip the faculty members with the requisite expertise, there is urgent need for the increase in the budgetary allocation to the institutions by the government in order to raise their Information and

Communication                 Technology                 facilities                 affordability                 status.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………………….i

Declaration ………………………………………………………………………………….ii

Certification …………………………………………………………………………….…..iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………….….iv

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………….v

Table of Content………………………………………………………………….…………vi

List of Tables……………………………………………………………………………….viii

List of Figures………………………………………………………………………………viii

List of Appendix ……………………………………………………………………………..viii

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………….…… ix

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study…………………………………………………………………1

1.2 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………….6

1.3 Research Questions………………………………………………………………………8

1.4 Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………………..8

1.5 Objectives of the Study…………………………………………………………………..9

1.6 Significance of the Study…………………………………………………………………9

1.7 Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………..10 1.8 Operational Definition ofTerms …………………………………………………………11

References ……………………………………………………………………………………12

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE

2.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………14

2.2 Concepts of Digital Literacy Skills……………………………………………………….14

2.3 Components of Digital Literacy………………. …………………………………………16

2.4 Big6 skills for information literacy……….. ……………………………………………………18

2.5 Ability to locate digital information by faculty members……….…………………………..21

2.6 Critically judge and evaluate credible digital information………………………………. 24

2.7 Ability to create digital content by faculty members……….…………………………………….26

2.8 Communicate using digital technology by the faculty members    ………………………28

2.9 Ability to integrate digital content in teaching, learning and research……………………31

2.10 Challenges encountered in using digital technology…………………………………….33

2.11 Review of empirical studies of digital literacy skills……………………………………..35

2.11 Summary of the review………………………………………………………………….37

References……………………………………………………………………………………39

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1Introduction………………………………………………………………………………45

3.2 Research Method Adopted for the study………………………………………………..45

3.3 Population of the study……………………………………………………………………46

3.4Sample size and sampling techniques……………………………………………………..47

3.5 Data Collection Instruments…………………………………………..………………….47

3.6 Validationof the Instruments………………………………………………………..…..48

3.7 Reliability of the Instrument ……………………………………………………………..48

3.8Procedures for data collection………………………………………………….…….……49

3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis……………………………………………………………….49

References.……………………………………………………………………………………50

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANAYSIS

4.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….51

4.2 Response Rate of Faculty Members……………..…………………………………….….51 4.3Data Analysis and Discussion……………………………………………………………..55

References……………………………………………………………………………………73

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………..74

5.2 Summary of the Study …………………………………………………………………..74

5.3 Summary of Major Findings………………………….….…………………………….. 75

5.4 Contribution to Knowledge.….…………………………………………………………..76

5.5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….76

5.6 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………77

5.7 Limitation of the Study…………………………………………………………………..78 5.6 Suggestions for Further Study ……………..……………………………………………78 Bibliography …………………………………………………………………………………79

Appendix A …………………………………………………………………………………..86

Appendix B……………………………………………………………………………………91

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the study

Teaching is the process of improving knowledge, planning, implementation,  revision and evaluates new knowledge relevant for their core professional practice and to regularly update their knowledge base to improve their  practice and to meet new teaching demands (Blomeke& Delaney, 2012). Teaching is usually obtained in academic environment such as primary, secondary and tertiary institutions like Universities. For effective academic activities in Universities teaching activity is observed in various departments that made up by faculties one of these departments is Department of Library and Information Science. In the University where Department of Library and Information Science Lecturers teach student different course in order to impact the knowledge of organizing, acquiring, processing, disseminating, and use via them some of the courses require are organization of Information, Introduction to Information Technology, Information Sources and Services, Information System in Library and Information Centers etc(Voss, Kunter&Baumert, 2011).

For effective teaching to be achieved recent development in Information and Communications

Technology (ICT) have transformed how individuals access and use information for teaching and learning. ICT has acquired an important role in the learning process, both in the educational system and at home (Meyers, Erickson & Small 2013). The Internet, in particular, has made available a virtually boundless number of sources of information. As a resultof teaching and learning process extensively requires the ability to access, locate, extract, evaluate, organize and present digital information.

Digital technologies with their interactive and increasingly individualized digital services change people‟s habits and behavior, building new value models and vital clues. They are becoming an irreplaceable source of education and the development of new literacy. Digital technology enable immense amount of information to be compressed on small storage devices that can be easily preserved and transported. Digitization also quickens data transmission speeds. Digital technology has transformed how people communicate, learn, and work in the digital world. (Erstad, 2010).

„Digital‟ is the term used most often to describe the inclusion of new information and communication media in very many aspects of education, work, entertainment and social aspects of life. Previous terms used to describe this were „online‟, „networked‟, or „computer-based‟. Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and the non-positive by the number 0. Having understood the word digital it is also important to understand the word literacy (DaCoasta, 2010).

Literacy is the most frequently used term in the contemporary discussions of the digital in education. It is used to bring together knowledge, attitudes and skills, and so encompass the basic abilities to use digital devices and applications as well as allowing for the development of a level of critical, reflective and strategic capability in various areas of application and practice. The definition of „literacy‟ thus has expanded and this can be demonstrated (for example) in the official definition proffered by the National Council of Teachers of English in the US in 2015 as “The ability to read, write, speak, listen, and use numeracy and technology, at a level that enables people to express and understand ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, to achieve their goals, and to participate fully in their community and in wider society.

Achieving literacy is a lifelong learning process”. This literacy cannot be achieved without the skills (Bernard, 2012).

Skill is the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills) and people (interpersonal skills) (Bernard, 2012). It is also important to understand the term „digital literacy‟.

Digital literacy is the “ability to understand and use information in multiple formats from

a wide range of sources when they are presented via computers” (Gilster, 1997). Gilster identified that the growths in digital technologies required different set of skills, attitudes and competencies than the tools and operations focus on ICT in the previous two decades. He understood that the abilities to access, understand and critically analyze digital contents and applications were increasingly important in an information and technology abundant

environment with that regard it is also important to understand digital literacy skills.

The concepts of digital literacy skills continue to evolve as new aspects of digital technologies gain distinction. The UK Futurelab„s Handbook (2015) provides a definition based on creating and sharing: “To be digitally literate is to have access to a broad range of practices and cultural resources that are able to apply to digital tools. It is the ability to make and share meaning in different modes and formats: to create, collaborate and communicate effectively and to understand how and when digital technologies can best be used to support these

processes.”Digital literacy skills is “the ability to make, represent and share meaning in different modes and formats; to create, collaborate and communicate effectively and to understand how and when digital technologies can best be used to support these processes” (Hagel, 2012)

Digital Literacy skill is the ability to use information and communication technologies to find, evaluate, create, and communicate information; requiring both cognitive and technical skills (ALA, 2013). Digital literacy skill is a broad term that encompasses understanding, evaluating and integrating digital information; creating digital content; and taking action to share knowledge and solve problems. In a 2010 paper from the Aspen Institute, it was the array of messages they received, created, and shared one made informed decisions about everyday issues they faced.

During the 1980s and for much of the 1990s „ICT skills‟ or „computer skills‟ were the terms most frequently used and would have been understood to mean those skills and abilities necessary to operate the new computer-based technologies which might have included hardware  and software. As described above, the modern concept of „digital literacy skills‟ has evolved from this rather basic conception towards a set of more complex multi-literacy that is considered necessary to thrive in a digital world. The current concept now include knowledge and attitudes/dispositions – in addition to skills and “the awareness, attitude and ability of individuals to appropriately use digital tools and facilities to identify, access, manage, integrate, evaluate, analyze and synthesize digital resources, construct new knowledge, create media expressions and communicate with others in the context of specific life situations in order to enable constructive social action and to reflect upon this process” (Martin and Grudziecki 2010).

Library and Information Science Education in Nigeria today cannot be relevant without effective preparation of new generation of librarians to effectively use the new information and communication technology in their professional practices. The education and training of LIS professionals has to be such that it empowers them to unleash their potential as they endeavor to offer relevant and efficient services within the current levels of technological sophistication

(Minishi, 2007).

Hagel (2012) observed that Library and Information Science (LIS) academic department have witness not only this increasing globalization of higher education but also that of the LIS work place including the consequent extension of competition beyond traditional, institutional, national and regional boundaries.

The practice of librarianship as studied by Gbaje (2007). But the question is how fastand how well is the change? Changes include the following:

  • Moving from the traditional inward – looking orientation towards books to anoutward looking emphasis on information handling;
  • The emphasis on collecting, processing, compiling and disseminatinginformation in support of students and researchers both inside and outsidethe institution;
  • Transformation of traditional library into a new information service unit;
  • New outlook, structure, skills and attitudes which some library staff cannotonly adapt to;
  • Removal of the line between the library and teaching, learning and researchprocess;
  • Integration of technology into every aspect of library function / provisions.

Further changes include:

  • Educational institution gaining access to networked resources as a journaland databases, thanks to MTN and other agencies;
  • New techniques of assessment are being introduced. Online tests aregradually becoming widespread and provide more information thantraditional multiple choice tests; and
  • Information literacy is now an indispensible aspect of course programmes in many

institutions.

Library and Information Science as a profession is concerned with knowledge and skills by which record of human communication is collected, organized and utilized. Devine, (2015) suggests that many library educations have been enticed by the lure of modern communication technology and to concentrate in the technology and to dismiss areas of traditional teaching modules that do not fit with this technological boundaries. The “lure of modern communication technology” has taken a large role in LIS education. This assertion has been confirmed in the statement of Minishi (2007) looking at the Sub-Saharan, that the LIS schools that curriculum development has shown considerable strides in infusing digital skills as most LIS schools have developed relevant digital modules and or merged ICT relevant knowledge in traditional module.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

In the digital era faculty members are expected to be digital literates, which imply that they have the ability to use digital technology and know when and how to use it for their teaching and research work. Digital literacy is a key to teaching and the more digitally literate faculty members are the more they are able to employ and impact these skills on their students as well as prepare them for the future work place.

Faculty members interpret and implement the curriculum in academic programmes.  Over the past few years library schools have reviewed the Library and Information Science Curriculum to reflect the developments and adoption of information technology in library and information services.Studies however have revealed that Library and Information Science curriculum for many library schools has components of digital information system and

Information and Communication. Muhammad, (2000) stated that for Nigeria to meet in the Digital age Library and Information Science schools whose principles are to produce the right caliber of professionals mustbe revisited. Masters, (2012) also indicated that; for the Nigerian Library Schools to face the challenge of the 21st century, the information studies programmes in the various Nigerian Library Schools should emphasize information technology both in the theory and practice. The new breed information worker needs to be well informed about the tools for practicing his or her profession. Bala, (2014) also stated that digital literacy skills are the factor to relevance in the scheme of things in the 21st century. This implies that faculty members of library school must be digital literate to effectively interpret and implement the curriculum.

Despite the importance of digital literacy skills in teaching and research, preliminary study conducted by the researcher observed that majority of faculty members in Department Library and Information Science in Federal Universities of North-Eastern States of Nigeria are not using digital technologies in their teachings; and student without the skills to use digital tools risk an inferior process at best and they are being behind in pursue of a job. Sandholtz& Reilly (2010) observed that lecturers‟ technology skills are strong determinant of digital integration, but they are not being used in the classroom; and that lead to the graduate student to find it very difficult to get job as 90% of jobs requiring some level of information technology competency. Devine (2015), also observed that among the factors that influence successful integration of digital technologies into teachings are lecturers‟ attitudes and beliefs towards technologies; and is the responsibility of the faculty members to develop student into individuals who could thrive in an era of digital information and technology because those who are digitally literate are more likely to be economically in higher education given that graduate white collar jobs are almost performed on computers and portable devices.Could it be as a result of lack of digital literacy skills? Hence this study accessedthe level of digital literacy skills of faculty members for teaching in Library Schools in Federal Universities of North-eastern states, Nigeria.

 

1.3        Research Questions

This research answered the following research questions:

  1. What is the ability of Library and Information Science faculty members in North-Eastern

States Nigeria to locate Digital Information?

  1. How do Library and Information Science faculty members in North-Eastern States

Nigeria critically judge and evaluate credible digital Information sources?

  1. What are the levels of digital literacy skills of Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-Eastern States Nigeria to create digital contents?
  2. How do Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-Eastern States

Nigeria communicate using digital technology in teaching?

  1. How do Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-Eastern States

Nigeria integrate digital content in their teaching?

  1. What is the challenges Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-

Eastern States of Nigeria encounter in using digital technology when teaching?

1.4        Hypothesis

The following hypothesis was used;

Ho. There is no significant difference between Digital Literacy Skills and teaching of Library and Information Science in Federal Universities of North-Eastern States of Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

1.5        Objectives of the Study

The study aimed at achieving the following objectives:

  1. To find out the ability of Library and Information Science faculty members in North-

Eastern States Nigeria to locate Digital Information.

  1. To examine how Library and Information Science faculty members in North-Eastern

States Nigeria critically judge and evaluate credible Digital Information sources.

  1. To ascertain the levels of Digital Literacy Skills of Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-Eastern states Nigeria to create Digital Contents.
  2. To find out how Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-Eastern states Nigeria communicate using Digital Technology in teaching.
  3. To investigate how Library and Information Science faculty members in the North-

Eastern States to integrate digital content in their teaching.

  1. To ascertain the challenges Library and Information faculty members in the North-

Eastern states Nigeria encounter in using Digital Technology when teaching.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The study is useful to the faculty members in the Department of Library and information Science in the North-Eastern states in the sense that it wouldreveal the levels of digital literacy skills among the faculty members and how they could be improved. The results of this study could also be used by relevant stakeholders to produce Library and Information Science graduates who will work effectively in the digital work environments.

The outcome of this study serves as an outline for faculty members to teach the accurate route of achievement for the applying of digital literacy skills in furthering education.

                1.7       Scopeof the Study

The scope of this study covers basically Assessment of Digital Literacy Skills for teachingand target subject will be the Library and information faculty members that are working in the Federal Universities of North-Eastern states. Which comprise AbubakarTafawaBalewa

University Bauchi, MadibboAdama University of Technology, Yola and University of Maiduguri.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

The concepts below are defined within the context of their application in the study as follows: Assessment: Is the act of judging the amount, value, quality or importance of something such as digital literacy skills of faculty members in library schools of North-Eastern State, Nigeria.

Digital Literacy skills: Is the ability of the faculty members of Dept of Library and Information Science to use information and communication technology to create, retrieve, and evaluate information required both cognitive and technical skills in Federal Universities of North-Eastern State of Nigeria.

Digital Contents:Is Information available for download or distribution on electronic media such as an eBooks or iTunes song.

Digital Tools:Is machines that are used to store Information it could be inform of video, images

etc.

Faculty Members: Are lecturers that are teaching in the universities.

Library Schools:Is a place where they are teaching Library and Information Science as a profession.

Teaching:Something that is taught by professionals to learners.

 

             

 

References

Association of College and Research Libraries, American Library Association. (2011).

Information literacy defined. Available at http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs

         /acrl/standards/informationliteracycompetency.cfm

 

Bala, Y. (2014). Internet as a Catalyst to Learning and Research: Its Usage by Library and  Information Science Students of ATBU, Bauchi. ATBU Journal of Science Technology And Education. (JOSTE) 3 (2) 97-108.

 

Bernard, J. (2012). Perfecting your Research Work. London: Unique Press Information Services.

Bybee, R.W., &Starkweather, K.N. (2012). The twenty-first Century Workforce: A

Contemporary Challenge For Technology Education. The Technology Teacher (May/June          2005) 27-32.

 

Blomeke, S. & Delaney, S. (2012). Assessment of Teacher Knowledge Across Countries, A           Review of the State of Research ZMD Mathematics Education, 44, 133-180.

 

Devine, J. (2015) Strategic and Leadership Perspectives on Digital Capacity in Irish Higher Education, Commissioned by the National Forum for the Enhancement of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, Dublin 2015.

 

Erstad, O. (2010). Educating the digital Generation. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 1, 56-

70.

DaCosta, J. W. (2010). Is there an Information Literacy Skills Gap to be Bridged? An  Examinationof  Faculty Perceptions and Activities Relating to Information Literacy in the  United States and  England. College & Research Libraries, 71(3), 203-222.

 

Gilster, P (1997).Digital literacy, John Wiley, New York.

 

Gbaje, E.S. (2007). Provision of Online Information Services in Nigerian Academic Libraries

Nigerian libraries: Journal of the Nigerian Library Association. Vol 40.p.1

 

Hagel, P. (2012). „Towards an Understanding of „DigtialLiteracy(ies)‟, Unpublished Report,  Deakin University Library, Victoria.

 

Martin, A, Grudziecki J. [2010] „DigEuLit: Concepts and Tools for Digital Literacy Development‟ [HEA Academy Journals ] , available:http://journals.heacademy.ac.uk/doi/pdf/10.11120/ital.2006.05040249

 

Masters,E.( 2012). The Effects of Online Teacher Professional Development on Fourth Grade             StudentsKnowledge and Practices in English Language Arts.‟ Journal of Technology and  Teacher Education,Jan.

 

Meyers, E., Erickson, I., Small, R. (2013). Digital Literacy and Lnformal Learning

15 Environments: an Introduction. Learning, Media and Technology 38(4),355-367.

 

 

MinishiMajanja, M.K.(2007). Integration of ICTs in Library and Information Science Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Library and Information Congress: 73rd IFLA General Conference and Council. 19 ¨23 August, 2007: Durban, South Africa.           Available: http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla73/index.htm

 

Muhammad. Z. (2000). Information Technical Education in Nigerian Library and Information  Science Schools and the Challenges of the Digital Age. In: InformationTechnology in  Library and Information Science Education in Nigeria: 42-49.

 

Sandholtz, J. H., & Reilly, B. (2004). Teachers, not Technicians: Rethinking Technical  Expectations for Teachers. Teachers College Record, 106(3), 487–512.

 

Voss,T., Kunter, M. &Baumert, J. (2011). Assessment of Teacher Candidates General              Pedagogical/Psychological Knowledge: Test Construction and Validation. Journal of              Education Psychology, 103 (4), 922-969.

 

ANALYSIS OF DIGITAL LITERACY SERVICES OF FACULTY MEMBERS FOR TEACHING IN LIBRARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL UNIVERSITIES OF NORTH-EASTERN STATES, NIGERIA

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