AN EVALUATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF STUDENTS’ WELFARE FACILITIES IN UNIVERSITIES IN THREE GEOPOLITICAL ZONES IN NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

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AN EVALUATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF STUDENTS’ WELFARE FACILITIES IN UNIVERSITIES IN THREE GEOPOLITICAL ZONES IN NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study focused on “An assessment of the management of students’ Welfare services in universities in three Geo-Political Zones in Northern part of Nigeria” The study was specifically interested in finding out the types of welfare services available in the system and the impact they have on the students’ behaviour.  The inadequate provision of the students, welfare facilities and their management were assumed by the stakeholders and members of the public as factors militating against students’ peaceful behavour in the University system.  The objectives of the study therefore were to identify the types of students’ welfare services and to assess the availability as well as to examine the impact of each welfare service on the students’ social and academic behaviour.  The critical areas examined were social, academic, medical and environmental services.  Twenty (20) hypotheses were postulated to find out the significant differences in the opinions of the three groups of respondents.  The researcher reviewed relevant literature to establish the theoretical base for the study.  The descriptive and survey methods were adopted for investigations, identification and collection of data.  The total population of subjects was two hundred and twenty six thousand nine hundred and forty six (226,946), made up of 206,948 students, 19,448 service staff and 450 top management staff, in the sixteen Universities in the three GeoPolitical Zones in Northern part of Nigeria. Through random sampling Technique, five Universities; Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Bayero University Kano, University of Maiduguri, University of Jos and Usmanu Dan Fodiyo University were selected, being one third of the  sixteen Universities, in the three Geo Political Zones in Northern part of Nigeria.  Out of the total of one hundred and thirteen  thousand two hundred and eight (113208) subjects consisting of 109,774 students 3389 service staff and 45 top management staff in the  five sampled Universities, 770 respondents  were used. Out of the 770 copies of the questionnaire designed and administered by the researcher, 463 copies were returned. The questionnaire as the basic instrument was vetted by the experts in Educational Administration and Planning and Educational Statistics Sections and subjected to pilot study in Federal College of Education Zaria.  The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe’s statistical test were used to test the Null hypotheses. Eight out of twenty hypotheses were retained, while twelve were rejected.  The twelve were subjected to Scheffe’s test to determine the extent of significant difference in the respondents’ opinion.   The major finding of the research indicated that the social, academic, medical and environmental students’ services were available but not adequate in the Universities. It was also discovered that some services had positive impact on students’ behaviour and academic performance.  Recommendations such as the need for improved fund allocation to the Universities by the Government were offered for better provision, management and improvement of students’ welfare services for peaceful social and academic performance by students in the Universities.  A model for effective and efficient management of the students’ welfare services was also developed by the researcher.  Finally suggestions were also made for further research into the area of students’ welfare services in the University system in Nigeria in general.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

Title Page……………………………………………………….………….            i

Declaration ……………………………………………………………………          ii

Certification ………………………………………………………………..           iii

Dedication………………………………………………………………….            iv

Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………..            v

Abstract ………….……………………………………………………………           vii

Table of Contents …………………….……………………………………           ix

List of Tables ……..………………………………………………………..          xx

List of Figures ………………………………………………………………          xxvi

List of Appendices…………………………………………………………               xxvii

Abbreviations, Acronyms and Initials …………………………………….            xxviii

Definition of Terms .……………………………………………………….                xxix

CHAPTER ONE

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY ………………………………………..            1

1.1       Introduction ……………………………………………………………….              1

1.2      Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………             5

1.3      Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………             7

1.4      Research Questions………………………………………………………              8

1.5      Hypotheses……………………………………………………….. ………..            9

1.6      Basic Assumptions…………………………………………………………             12

1.7      Significance of the Study………………………………………………….             13

1.8      Scope and delimitation of the Study……………………………………..             13

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………………….             15

2.1      Introduction………………………………………………………………..               15

2.2      The concept and theories of Management………………………..……              16

2.3      The concept and types of student welfare services…………………..              19

2.3.1 Social Services……………………………………………………………                25

2.3.1.1            Student feeding……………………………………………………              25

2.3.1.2            Students’ Accommodation……………………………………….              35

2.3.1.3            Guidance and Counselling………………………………………               48

2.3.1.4            Sports and Recreation …………………………..………………               53

 

2.3.1.5            Security Matters…………………………………………………..               56

2.3.1.6            Transportation services………………………………………….               57

2.3.1.7            Religious services…………………………………………………              59

2.3.1.8            Banking and other services……………………………………….              59

2.3.2               Academic Services……………………………………………….               60

2.3.2.1            Library service ………………………………………….…………              60

2.3.2.2           Classroom (lecture halls) laboratories and technological

workshops…………………………………………………………               63

 

2.3.2.3            Information and Communication Technology Services

(ICTS)………………………………………………………………               64

 

2.3.3  Medical Services ………………………..…………………………………                66

2.3.4 Environmental Services………………………………………………….                 70

2.3.4.1      Conducive Institutional Climate……………………………………..              71

2.3.4.2      Cordial Student-Lecturer, Advisor-Advisee

Relationship……………………………………………………………              73

 

2.3.4.3     An atmosphere of safety, confidence, adaptability

and belongingness……………………………………………………              75

 

 

2.3.4.4     A clean, spacious, beautiful and hazard free

Environment……………………………………………………………              75

 

2.4      The Management strategies for Students Welfare Services…………..            76

2.4.1 The role of the Government and University Management……………                76

2.4.1.1            Funding…………………………………………………………….              76

2.4.2 The role of Students’ Affairs Division in Shaping students’

welfare services……………………………………………………………              82

 

2.4.2.1      The role of Committee System as a tool/strategy for

effective Students’ Welfare Services ……………………..…………            83

 

2.4.2.2      University Students’ Welfare

Management Board…………………………………………………….            84

 

2.4.2.3      Sports and Recreation Committee…………………………………..             84

2.4.2.4      The Central Accommodation Allocation Committee……………….             85

2.4.2.5      The Catering Service Committee…………………………………….             85

2.4.2.6     Hall Management and Central Coordination Committee

of Hall Management……………………………………………. …….             86

 

2.4.2.7      The Universities Market Management Committee

(UMMC)…………………………………………………………………             86

 

 

2.4.3 The role of Students’ Union Government in the management  of effective students’ welfare services………………………………….     87

 

2.5      Summary……………………………………………………………………             89

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH DESIGN, METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE

3.1      Introduction…………………………………………………………………..             90

3.2      Research Design………………………………………………………….              90

3.3      The Population…………………………………………………………….              90

3.4      Sample and Sampling Procedure………………………………………..             91

3.5      Instrumentation……………………………………………………………                 100

3.6      Validation and reliability of Instrument………………………………….                 101

3.7      Pilot Study………………………………………………………………….                 102

3.8      Administration of Instrument……………………………………………..                 103

3.9 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………    103 3.10. Rate of Return of Questionnaire…………………………………………   103

CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA

4.1      Introduction………………………………………………………………..             107

4.2      Types of students’ welfare services in  the Universities in the  three geopolitical zones in the Northern  part of Nigeria ……………………  110

 

4.2.1 Responses of respondents on the availability and degree of  adequacy of Social Welfare services provided by the

Universities to students……………………………………………………           110

4.2.2 Responses on the availability and degree of provision of

Academic Welfare Services to students in Universities   …………                 117

 

4.2.3 Responses on the availability and degree of provision of Medical

and Health services to students in the Universities under study……             122

 

4.2.4 Responses on the availability and degree of provision of  Environmental services to students in  Universities in

three geopolitical zones in  Northern part of Nigeria …….……………           127

 

4.3      Impact of services on students’ welfare in Universities in   three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………..…………           130

 

4.3.1 Impact of social services on students’ welfare services in the

Universities ………………………………………………………..………            130

 

4.3.1.1 Impact of feeding on students’ welfare………………………………….          131

4.3.1.2 The impact of Hostel Accommodation on students’ welfare

in Universities in  three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………………….……        135

 

4.3.1.3 The impact of Guidance and Counselling………………………………          139

4.3.1.4 The impact of Sports and Recreation on students’ welfare in

Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ………….……………………………………………………         143

 

4.3.1.5 The impact of Security and Communication services on students’

Welfare……………………………………………………………………..            148

4.3.1.6 The effects of Transportation services on students’ welfare in

Universities in three geopolitical zones in  Northern

part of Nigeria …………….…………………………………………………         151

 

4.3.1.7 The impact of Religious Services on students’ welfare in

Universities in  three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………………………          154

 

4.3.1.8 The impact of Banking and Telecommunication services on students’  welfare services in the three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria. 154

 

4.3.2 Impact of Academic services on students’ welfare services in

Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ………………………………………………………………..        162

 

4.3.2.1 The impact of Library services on students’ welfare…………………..          162

4.3.2.2 Impact of classrooms, laboratories, field trips and workshops on

students’ welfare……………………………………………………………          165

 

4.3.2.3 The impact and influence of information Technology services on

students’ welfare………………………………………………………….            168

 

4.3.3 The impact and influence of Medical or Health services on students’

welfare in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria …………………………………………………..           171

 

4.3.4 The impact and influence of Environmental services on students’

welfare in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………………….            175

 

4.4      Strategies for effective Management of students’ welfare in  Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria ……………….……………………………………………………         178

 

4.5      Hypotheses Testing……………………………………………………….           184

4.5.1 Null Hypothesis 1………………………………………………………….              185

4.5.2 Null Hypothesis 2………………………………………………………….              187

4.5.3 Null Hypothesis 3………………………………………………………….              188

4.5.4 Null Hypothesis 4………………………………………………………….              190

4.5.5 Null Hypothesis 5………………………………………………………….              192

4.5.6 Null Hypothesis 6………………………………………………………….              194

4.5.7 Null Hypothesis 7………………………………………………………….              196

4.5.8 Null Hypothesis 8………………………………………………………….              199

4.5.9  Null Hypothesis 9………………………………………………………….             201

4.5.10 Null Hypotheses 10……………………………………………………….            202

4.5.11 Null Hypothesis 11………………………………………………………..            204

4.5.12  Null Hypothesis 12………………………………………………………..           206

4.5.13  Null Hypothesis 13……………………………………………………….            208

4.5.14  Null Hypothesis 14……………………………………………………….            210

4.5.15 Null Hypothesis 15………………………………………………………..            212

4.5.16 Null Hypothesis 16………………………………………………………..            214

4.5.17 Null Hypothesis 17………………………………………………………..            216

4.5.18 Null Hypothesis 18………………………………………………………..              218

4.5.19 Null Hypothesis 19………………………………………………………..            219

4.5.20 Null Hypothesis 20………………………………………………………..            221

4.6      Discussions of the Findings………………………………………………            233

4.6.1 Opinions of respondents on the types and adequacy of students’  welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………….                    233

 

4.6.2 Opinions of respondents on the availability and adequacy of social  welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria …………………….…………………………..         234

 

4.6.3 Opinions of respondents on the availability and adequacy of academic  welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria …………….……………………………………        235

 

4.6.4 Opinions of respondents on the availability and adequacy of medical  and health services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………….………………………….       235

 

4.6.5 Opinions of respondent on the availability and adequacy of  environmental services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria. ……..………….………………………        236

 

4.6.6 Opinions of respondents on the impact of all services (social,  academic, medical /health and environmental) on students’ welfare  in Universities in three geopolitical zones in  Northern part

of Nigeria ………………………………………………………………………      237

 

4.6.7 Opinions of respondents on the impact of feeding on students’  welfare in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ………………………….…………………………..      237

 

4.6.8 Opinions of respondents on the impact of hostel accommodation on  students’ welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………….            238

 

4.6.9 Opinions of respondents on the impact of Guidance and counselling  on students’ welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………………………..……………           239

 

4.6.10 Opinions of respondents on the impact of sports and   recreation

services on students’ welfare services in Universities in three  geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………………….……     239

 

4.6.11 Opinions of respondents on the impact of security and  communication services on students’ welfare services in   Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria ……………………………………………………………………….     240

 

4.6.12 Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Transport Services

on Students’ Welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………..           241

 

4.6.13  Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Religious Services

on Students’ Welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………………..………………..                   241

 

4.6.14   Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Banking and

Telecommunications services on Students’ Welfare…………………           242

 

4.6.15   Opinions of Respondents on the Impact of Library Services on

Students’ Welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria …,,,,,………………………….…….           242

 

 

4.6.16  Opinions of Respondents on impact of Classrooms Lecture

Halls, Laboratories, Workshops and Field Work on Students’

Welfare Services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in the Northern part of Nigeria ………………………..………..            243

 

4.6.17 Opinions of respondents on the impact of Information Technology

on Students’ Welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………….………………………..          243

 

 

4.6.18    Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Medical and Health

Services on students’ welfare in  Universities in three Geo-

Political zones in Northern Part of Nigeria…………………………..            244

 

4.6.19   Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Environmental

Services on Students’ Welfare in Universities in  three

geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …….……………………         244

 

4.6.20 Opinions of respondents on the effects of the perceived strategies

for effective management of students’ services in Universities

in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria …………………………………………………………               245

 

4.7      Summary……………………………………………………………………            245

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Summary of Findings……………………………………………………..            247

5.1.1 The Types and Availability of Students’ Welfare Services in Respect  of Social Services in universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria…………………………………………………              248

 

5.1.2 The Types and Availability of Students’ Welfare Services in Respect of Academic Service in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………….                    248

 

5.1.3 The Types and Availability of Students’ Welfare Services in Respect  of Medical Health Services in Universities in three

geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………………..                      248

 

 

5.1.4 Types and Availability of Students’ Welfare Services in Respect of  Environmental Services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………….…………………………            249

 

5.1.5 Opinions of Respondents on impacts of Diverse Students’ Welfare  Services on Students’ welfare in Universities in three

geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria ….………………………..         249

 

5.1.5.1      Opinions of Respondents on Impact of Feeding…………………..            249

5.1.5.2     Opinions of Respondents on impact of Hostel Accommodation…            250

 

5.1.5.3     Opinions of Respondents on impact of Guidance and

Counselling…………………………………………………………….            250

 

5.1.5.4      Opinions of Respondents on impact of Sports and Recreations…           251

 

5.1.5.5     Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Security and

Communication………………………………………………………..            252

 

5.1.5.6      Opinions of Respondents on impact of Transportation Services…           252

 

5.1.5.7      Opinions of Respondents on impact of Religious Services………            253

 

5.1.5.8     Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Banking and

Telecommunication Services…………………………………………           254

 

5.1.5.9      Opinions of Respondents on impact of library services…………..            254

5.1.5.10 Opinion of Respondents on the impact of Classrooms,

Lecture Halls, Laboratories Workshops and Field Trips Services..          254

5.1.5.11 Opinion of Respondents on the impact and influence of

Information Technology Services…………………………………….          255

 

5.1.5.12 Opinions of Respondents on the impact of Medical/Health

Services………………………………………………………………..            255

 

5.1.5.13 Opinion of Respondents on the impact of Environmental

Services………………………………………………………………..            256

 

5.1.5.14    Opinions of Respondents on Perceived Strategies for        Effective Management of Students Welfare Services in the        Universities in the three geopolitical zones in the Northern

part of Nigeria ………………………………………………………….          256

 

5.2      Conclusions…………………………………………………………………          257

5.3      Recommendations…………………………………………………………           259

5.3.1 Suggested Model for Students’ Welfare Services in the Nigerian

Universities system ………………………………………………………..          260

5.4      Recommendations for further Research…………………………………          264

References…………………………………………………………………            265

 

Appendix  A –           Questionnaire……………………………………….          278

Appendix  B –           Exhibits on advertisement for sale of bedspaces by

Students………………………………………………        295

 

Appendix  C –           Krejcie And Morgan’s Table For Determining

Sample Size…………………………………………         304

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE                                                                                                                                   PAGE

2.1      The growth of hostels from 1962-1981 in Ahmadu Bello University…….          42

 

2.2      Number of Bedspaces and students accommodated by Halls and

session…………………………………………………………………………          44

 

2.3      Lack of proper Guidance and Counselling…………………….……..…….          51

 

  • 1a) Random sampling of Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria …………..……………………….…………..             92

 

  • 1b) Sampled Universities…………………………………………………………..          92

 

  • Number and     proportionate            sample           of         students         in         the             sampled

Universities………………………………………………………………………………..    94

  • Number and sample size of service staff in the sampled Universities…………………….…………………………………………….. 94

 

  • Number and sample size of Top Management staff in the sampled Universities………………….……………………………………………….. 95

 

  • Total sampled subjects………………………………………………………..    96

 

  • The Faculties sampled in each University showing respondents………    97

 

  • of respondents in each service units of the universities…………….    99

 

  • of respondents in each Top Management unit of the universities…    99

 

3.10.1 Rate of return of questionnaire by group and by university……………..         104

 

4.1.1 Descriptive Summary of Data ……………………………………………..           108

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the social services for students in

Universities under study……………………………………………………           111

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the academic services for students in

Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria ………………….………………………………………………….         118

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the medical/health services for students in Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria ………………………………………………………………..………  123

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the environmental services for students

in Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria …………………………………………………………………..……  128

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of feeding (social services) on

students’ welfare………..……………………………………………………        132

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of Hostel Accommodation on

students’ welfare……………………………………………………………..        136

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of Guidance and Counselling

on students’ welfare……………………………………..……………………       140

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of sports and recreation on

students’ welfare………………………………………………………………       144

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of security and communication

services on students’ welfare………………………………………………..      149

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of transport services on students’

welfare……………..……………………………………………………………      152

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of religious services on students’

welfare………………………….…………………………………………………..      155

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of banking and telecommunication  services on students’ welfare…………………………  159

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of Library services on students’

welfare……………………………………………………………………….…      163

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of classrooms, laboratories, field trips, workshops services on students’ welfare………….…………….  166

 

 

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact and influence of Information

Technology service on students’ welfare……………………………………  169

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of Medical or Health services on

students’ welfare ……………………………………………………………….  172

 

 

  • Opinions of respondents on the impact of environmental services on

students’ welfare……………………………………………………………….      176

 

4.4.1 Opinions of respondents on strategies for effective management of  students’ welfare  services in selected Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria…………………………………..……..           179

 

  • One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the type and adequacy of students’ welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………….………………………             185

 

  • Scheffe’s Test on the opinions of students service staff and top management on the types and adequacy of students’ welfare

services in Universities……….…………………………………………..             186

 

  • One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the availability and adequacy  of social welfare services in Universities under study………………………..  187

 

  • One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the availability and adequacy

of academic services in Universities……………………………………….         189

 

  • One way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the availability and adequacy of medical/Health services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………………..          190

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the availability and adequacy of medical and Health services in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ……………..…………………………………………  191

 

  • One way Analysis of variance (ANOVA) on the availability and adequacy of environmental services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………….………………………….            192

 

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff on the availability and adequacy of environmental

services in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………………………      193

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the Impact of social academic

Medical/Health Environment) on Students’ welfare services in

Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ………………………………………………………………            194

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents with respect to the impact of          provision and management of diverse services in terms of social, academic,  medical/health and environmental services on students’ welfare services

in Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ……………………………………………………………………   195

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of feeding on students’ welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………………….             197

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of service staff and management staff with respect to the impact of feeding on students’ welfare services in  Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ……………..………………………………………………….           198

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of hostel accommodation on students’ welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………………………………………..                200

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of students’, service staff and top management on the impact of hostel accommodation on students’ welfare services

in Universities in three geopolitical zones in Northern part

of Nigeria …………………….…………………………………………………          200

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of guidance and counselling services on students’ welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………….                 202

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of sports and recreation on students’ welfare in Universities ……………………………………………..   203

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of security and communication service on students’ welfare in Universities…………..……..  204

 

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of students, service staff and management

staff on the impact of security and communication service on students

welfare services in Universities in three geopolitical zones

in Northern part of Nigeria ……………….……………………………….               205

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of transport services on

students’ welfare in Nigerian Universities………………..………………              207

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of religious services on

students’ welfare in Universities under study…..…………….………..……         208

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents on the impact of religious

services on the students’ welfare services  in Universities

in three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……..…………                209

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of banking and           telecommunication services on student welfare in Universities  in three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …….…………           210

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents on the impact of banking and telecommunication service on students welfare services in   Universities in  three geopolitical zones in Northern

part of Nigeria ………………………………………………………………..            211

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of library services on student welfare in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria ……………………………………………………….     212

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents on the impact of library service on students’ welfare services in Universities in three

geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria ………………..…………              213

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of classroom, laboratory, workshop, field trip facilities on student welfare in Universities

in three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria……………….…..          214

 

  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents on the impact of classrooms, laboratory, workshops and field trips etc on the students welfare

in Universities …………………………………………………………………           215

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of influences of information technology services on students’ welfare in Universities under study ….          216
  • Scheffe’s test on the opinions of respondents on the impact of information technology services on students’ welfare in Universities

in three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………….…….           210

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of medical/health services on students’ welfare in Universities in three geopolitical zones in

Northern part of Nigeria …………………….……………………………….            212

 

 

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the impact of environmental services on          students’ welfare in Universities in three geopolitical

zones in Northern part of Nigeria ……………..…………………………….          213

 

  • Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on the perceived strategies for effective management of students’ welfare services in Universities

in three geopolitical zones in Northern part of Nigeria …………….……..           215

 

  • Summary of Hypotheses Testing…………………………………………..     230

LIST OF FIGURES

PAGES

5.5      Model for the management of students’ welfare  services in the University system ………………………………….…..     260

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

                                                                                                                PAGE

Appendix A –           Questionnaire………………………………………………..         265

Appendix B –           Exhibits on advertisement for sale of bedspaces by

Students……………………………………………………….        281

 

Appendix C-            Krejcie and Morgan’s Table for determining sample size

From a given population ……………………………………        290

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS, ACRONYMS AND INITIALS

MIS                             –          Management Information Service

ABU                            –          Ahmadu Bello University

NCAST                      –          Nigerian College of Arts, Science and Technology

NPE                            –          National Policy on Education

POSDCORB                         –           Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing,  Coordinating, Reporting, Budgeting.

 

LASU                         –          Lagos State University

UI                                –          University of Ibadan

Rtd                              –          Retired

NUC                           –          National Universities Commission

ABUTH                      –          Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital

FASU                         –          Federation of African University Sports

FISU                           –          Federation of International University Sports

WAUG                        –          West African University Games

STDs                          –          Sexually Transmitted Diseases

HIV/AIDS                   –          Human Immune/Deficiency Virus/Acquired Immune

Deficiency Syndrome

 

SARS                         –          Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

ASUU                         –          Academic Staff Union of Universities

NUGA                        –          National University Games Association

HMC                           –          Hall Management Committee

SRA                            –          Student Representative Assembly

MSS                           –          Muslim Students Society

FCS                            –          Fellowship of Christian Students

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Accommodation: This refers to the bed spaces and other living facilities

provided to students in the purposefully designated hostels with the view to settling them down and taking care of their needs

conveniently so that they face their academic activities smoothly.

Communication Network:  This refer to channels designed and provided by the University to enable students and staff get well informed about what happens around them both inside and outside the walls of the university.          Such   network             equipment     include           newspapers, magazines, electronics, telephone booths, computers, website, humans and notice boards.

Students’ welfare:  This refers to the basic facilities or amenities like feeding

accommodation, classrooms, libraries, medicine etc. provided by the universities to students to enhance and ensure their comfortable survival and conducive atmosphere for learning.

Management:  This refers to the ability of the university management to

effectively procure, control, monitor and maintain the available welfare resources allocated for the students’ upkeep in the university system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Background to the Study

1.1    Introduction

The success of any organization whether private or public depends largely on the ability for it to acquire and maintain the human and physical resources for its existence. In the University system anywhere, the strongest element or ingredient that initiates, sustains and promotes its existence and productivity is the student body. Based on this reasoning the University must come to grips with the proper acquisition and proper management of all affairs related to students. That is to say, giving the students the necessary love, care, guidance and protection, so as to sustain them. This has to be so, if the University is to promote its own final goals and objectives of proper teaching, learning and research as well as to produce happier, healthier, well groomed and adjusted graduates.

Basically, the presence of learners is crucial to the existence of all the components of the University. Substantially, the presence of the students in the University is to acquire knowledge which they say “is power”. It has also been noted that learning is a continuous process. This process can only be meaningful and successful with healthy and determined minds of both the learners, teachers

(Lecturers) and all that combine to energise the institution known as the University (Adesina, 1981:86).

Records show that in the 1950s to 1970s most universities in the three geo-political zones in the Northern part of Nigeria as well as all universities in Nigeria could effectively provide welfare facilities and services like feeding, hostel and classroom accommodation, medical and library facilities, as the population of students was relatively manageable. Universities could not complain of inadequate funding since they were few. But with the steady increase in the number of the universities, from the only one University College, Ibadan an offspring of Yaba Higher College, to six ‘Ashby’ or first generation universities;

Nsukka (1960), Ile Ife (1961), Akoka Lagos (1962), Ahmadu Bello (1962), Ibadan

(1962), UniBenin (1970) then followed by second generation universities at Jos,

Kano, Maiduguri, Sokoto, Ilorin, Calabar and Port Harcourt in 1975 and to about 48 Federal and State Universities with a student population of 526,780 the provision and maintenance of student welfare services can no doubt be very cumbersome. (Okebukola 2002:3-8).

For instance when Ahmadu Bello University took off in 1962 the welfare of students from all indications was given serious attention. There was a well coordinated arrangement for decent feeding and accommodation. This was perhaps due to small population of students which stood at 400 at inception, coupled with the excitement, desire and anxiety to initiate and provide a University education particularly being one of the first generation universities in the Country and the first of its type in the Northern part of Nigeria then. In Mahadi’s (1998:20) words there was a feeling of “new brooms sweep the cleanest”. Some services stood out. In those days feeding was free and each student had a whole room to himself or herself, laundry services and all cleaning materials were served free.

However as the population increased gradually over the years, from 400 in

1962 to about 8,000 in 1970, 12,000 in 1980 and to over 14,000 in 1986 to about

20,000 in the 2001/2002 session, (Mahadi 1988:20), Mohammed (1989:15) and Management and Information Services (MIS) (2001), the University’s capacity to continue providing the basic welfare services such as feeding, decent accommodation and basic facilities which could enhance learning became a problem as these were impinging on the universities level of funding. Similarly,

University of Maiduguri one of the second generation universities established in

1975 had a student population of sixty-four (64) at inception and increased to

1,825 in 1979/80 session. This number was very easy to feed and accommodate. With the increase to over 20,000 in the preceding sessions provision of adequate student welfare in terms of accommodation, feeding and other facilities and amenities became stressful and impossible.

Bayero University Kano had same phenomenon. When it took off in 1977 as full fledged University it could conveniently cope with a student population of 846 students. Although the feeding was Pay-As-You-Eat with 10k for breakfast and 20k for lunch and dinner, students felt satisfied. Gradually when the students’ population exploded to over 3,000 in the 1980’s the students’ welfare facilities started degenerating. The story was the same all over the universities and this situation was viewed as a big threat to the smooth management of the students’ welfare services in the  University system.

In Kwanashe’s view (1999:586) Universities in Nigeria in general have been frustrated by various constraints “ranging from crisis of students’ population, crisis of funding, crisis of relevance, disruption of students’ and staff unions to crisis of confidence”. And due to inadequate fund and poor planning there was a total breakdown in the provision and management of basic facilities and amenities, particularly facilities for students’ welfare services.

In May 1978 a meeting of the Chairman of Council and Vice-Chancellors of all Universities in Nigeria with the Chief of Army Staff, Supreme Headquarters was held in Lagos. At that meeting some of the crucial decisions taken included the government’s’ intention to withdraw the subsidy on University students’ feeding and allow an increase in University Boarding and lodging fees from N150 to N490 per session. The simple reason given for the withdrawal of feeding subsidy as reported in the Nigerian Herald of Friday 19th May 1978 was that “the primary responsibilities of the Universities are teaching and learning and not students’ catering”. Consequently, all Universities were advised to arrange means of managing the students’ feeding as from 1978 to date.

This decision sparked off protests and massive demonstrations on all campuses which led to open confrontation with the police and military and massive destruction of lives and property. Sequel to the chaotic rampage, it was later resolved that in the interest of peace and harmony “a new schedule of fees for the Universities was to be reviewed and recommended from previous decision of N490.00”. A new schedule of N90.00 per bedspace and 50k per meal was recommended and approved. In 1981/82 session due to the inability of the universities to find enough funds to maintain even this arrangement, the Federal

Government withdrew the feeding subsidy and discontinued putting more structures for accommodation in the Universities. Consequently, the universities were advised by the government to arrange for students’ feeding and try to house at least one third of the students’ population. This was the beginning of yet another trying experience in student’s lives throughout the nation. Hence more violent and devastating riots ensued by students in 1981.

It is on the basis of this prevailing predicament that the study sought to examine the provision and management of types of students’ welfare services in the universities in the three geopolitical zones in the Northern part of Nigeria.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

It is generally accepted that students’ welfare services are indispensable for the effective and efficient management of any university in the world.   Towards realizing these objectives, the Government and University Management must uphold the need to seriously provide all the necessary welfare services to students at all times.  To stress this point, scholars like Kwanashie (1999.5), Oladapo (1987.75), Adamu, (2003: 16-17) and Okebukola, (2002) revealed that all Universities in Nigeria in the 1950s were funded adequately by the Government towards the upkeep of the University education, particularly for the improvement and management of students’ welfare.  Based on the availability of adequate funds to take care of the manageable size of students’ population then, students’ welfare services in terms of feeding subsidy, Hostel accommodations, academic facilities and other facilities were taken care of properly.

However, with the rapid increase in student’s population in the late 1970s and 1980s the Government could no longer cope with allocating adequate funds to the University sector.  Subsequently, Government withdrew feeding and declined in putting up more students’ hostel, and accommodation structures on the University campuses.  Consequent upon this development, students’ hostels and academic structures as well as other facilities became chocked up,

overstretching the facilities there in.  This prevailing state of affairs coupled with the unending increase in students’ admission with little or no increase in the welfare facilities seemed to have contributed to the rampant students’ unrest, uprisings, crises, violent demonstration, cultism and general deteriorating standard of morality and academic performance as exerted by stakeholders and even members of general public.

This conviction was further supported by Ifade,  (1988) that the management of students’ welfare services in Nigerian Universities ‘has deteriorated so much so that problems resulting from lack of adequate basic amenities which constitute students’ welfare has a far reaching implication, which may consequently contribute immensely to students’ untold hardships, physical and emotional distress, frustration, persistent conflicts, unrest and general depressing academic conditions.  Under such poor and unconducive atmosphere students cannot perform academically well.’

It is against this background that the researcher was motivated to direct this study towards exploring, assessing and establishing the level of commitment of the government and the University Management in the provision and management of the social, academic, medical and environmental services to students for enhancement of better performance in students’ social and academic pursuits, in the Universities in the Three Geo-Political Zones in the

Northern part of Nigeria.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study were to

  1. Identify the types of students’ welfare services available in the Universities categorized as social services, academic services, Medical/Health services and Environmental service.
  2. To determine the availability and adequacy of each category of the services.
  3. To examine the impact of the diverse services on students’ welfare services in the Universities in the three geopolitical zones in the Northern part of Nigeria in respect of social, academic, medical/health and environmental services. These are:
    1. The impact of feeding on students’ welfare services.
    2. The impact of hostel accommodation on students’ welfare.
  • The impact and effect of Guidance and Counselling services on students’ welfare.
  1. The impact of sports and recreation services on students’ welfare.
  2. The impact of security and communication services on students’ welfare.
  3. The impact of transportation services on students’ welfare. vii. The impact of religious services on students’ welfare.

 

  • The impact of bank and telecommunications services on students’ welfare.
  1. The impact of library services on students’ welfare.
  2. The impact of classroom, lecture halls, laboratories, workshops, field works etc services on students’ welfare.
  3. The impact of Information Technology services on students’

welfare.

  • The impact of Medical/Health services on students’ welfare.
  • The impact of environmental services and xiv. To seek to know and recommend perceived strategies for effective provision and management of students’ welfare services in the

Universities in the three geopolitical zones of Northern part of

Nigeria.

1.4    Research Questions

The study attempted to find answers to the following questions.

  1. What types of students’ welfare services are available in these

Universities?

  1. What are the degrees of adequacy of the various types of services in terms of social academic, Medical and Health and environmental services in these Universities?
  2. What is the impact of feeding services on students’ welfare?
  3. What is the impact of Hostel accommodation services on students’ welfare?
  4. What is the impact and effect of Guidance and Counselling services on students’ welfare?
  5. What is the impact of sports and recreation on students’ welfare?
  6. What is the effect of security and communication services on students’ welfare?
  7. What is the impact of transportation services on students’ welfare?
  8. What is the impact of religious services on students’ welfare?
  9. What is the impact of Banking and telecommunication services on

students’ welfare?

  1. What is the impact of Library services on students’ welfare?
  2. What are the impacts of classroom, lecture halls, workshops, field trips services on students’ welfare?
  3. What is the influence of Information Technology on students’ welfare?
  4. What is the impact of Medical and Health services on students’ welfare?
  5. What is the impact of environmental services on students’ welfare?
  6. What strategies could be used for effective provision and management of students’ welfare services in these Universities?

1.5    Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were postulated for the study:-

HO1 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff with respect to the types and availability of

Students’ Welfare services in these Universities.

HO2 There is no significant difference in the opinions of the students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the availability and adequacy of social services in these Universities.
HO3 There is no significant difference in the opinions of the students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the availability and adequacy of academic services in these Universities.
HO4 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the availability and adequacy of

Medical/Health services in these Universities.

HO5 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the availability and adequacy of

Environmental services in these Universities.

HO6 There is no significant difference in the opinions of the students, service staff and top management staff with respect to the impact of the provision and management of diverse services in terms of social, academic, medical/health and environmental services on students’ welfare in these Universities.
HO7 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of feeding on students’ welfare services in these Universities.
HO8 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff

and top management staff in respect of the impact of Hostel

accommodation on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO9 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of Guidance and Counselling services on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO10 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of sports and

recreation on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO11 There is no significant difference in opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect to the impact of security and communication services on students’ welfare services in these

Universities.

HO12 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of transportation services on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO13 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of Religious services on these Universities.

HO14 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff

and     top     management     staff     in     respect     of     the     Banking     and

telecommunication services on the students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO15 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff with regards to the impact of Library services on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO16 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of classroom,

laboratories, workshops, field trips facility on students’ welfare services in the these Universities.

HO17 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff with respect to the impact and influence of

Information Technology services on students’ welfare in these

Universities.

HO18 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of Medical/Health services on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO19 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the impact of Environmental services on students’ welfare services in these Universities.

HO20 There is no significant difference in the opinions of students, service staff and top management staff in respect of the application of the perceived strategies for effective management of students’ welfare services in these

Universities.

1.6    Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions were made for the study:-

  • It is assumed that the types of welfare services provided to students in these Universities are inadequate.
  • It is assumed that lack of effective management of students’ welfare services such as social, academic, medical and environmental services in these Universities have great impact on students’ performance and behaviour.
  • It is assumed that the University being a complex system should apply some strategies for effective management of students’ welfare services.
    • Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to provide information and guide the

University administration in these Universities, particularly the Student Affairs Division with an insight into promoting and combating the factors responsible for the problems encountered in the management of the students’ welfare services in the Universities. It will also form the basis for further study and stimulate individuals and administrators alike to investigate and formulate constructive strategies with a view to reducing or eliminating the problems of management of students’ welfare services in the Universities in general.

  • Scope and delimitation of the Study

The research concentrated on four broad groups. These are:

  1. Social services like feeding, accommodation, sports and recreation, guidance and counseling, security matters, transportation, religious

activities etc.

  1. Academic services comprising, classroom facilities and equipment, library and laboratory, information technology services etc.
  2. Medical/Health services such as Health centers, health care delivery etc and
  3. Environmental services made up of all service actions, behaviours done to making a conducive atmosphere for academic activities in all sixteen (16) conventional Federal and State Universities. The study is limited to five (5) selected Universities in the three geopolitical zones in the Northern part of Nigeria because of time and geographical factors and limited financial resources of the researcher. The sampling is unbiased due to the understanding that all the conventional universities in the country share the same structure and characteristics since they are controlled and financed by the Federal Ministry of Education routed through the National Universities Commission (NUC) or the State Board of Higher Education and are under the same umbrella. The sampled Universities are Ahmadu Bello University, University of

Maiduguri, Bayero University, Kano, University of Jos and Usmanu

Dan Fodiyo University, Sokoto.

AN EVALUATION OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF STUDENTS’ WELFARE FACILITIES IN UNIVERSITIES IN THREE GEOPOLITICAL ZONES IN NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

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