AN ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH ASSOCIATED PHYSICAL FITNESS STATUS OF MALE AND FEMALE BASKETBALL AND HANDBALL PLAYERS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF UYO)
This research is An Assessment Of Health Associated Physical Fitness Status Of Male And Female Basketball And Handball Players In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Uyo). To achieve this purpose, five (5) purposes of the study, five (5) research questions and five (5) hypotheses were used to guide the study. Quasi – experimental research design was used in this study. In the study 102 players are the total population; 80 players were eligible and sampled purposively for this study. The eight, (80) selected by sampling procedure were administered physical fitness test. The test items determined muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardio – respiratory endurance, flexibility, and body comparison. The muscular endurance was determined by the number of sit – ups, the cardio – respiratory endurance was determined by the performance of the subjects in 12munites distance run walk. Flexibility was determined by sit and reach test and muscular strength was determined using standing broad jump. Body composition was determined by sum of skin folds measurement by chest, abdomen, and thigh the descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and standard error, and the paired or two sample t – test are used to analyzed the data collected. The findings of this study revealed significant differences between test results of muscular endurance, muscular strength, flexibility, cardio – respiratory endurance and body composition. The study recommended that, physical fitness test should serve as recruitment criteria for players of basketball and handball in any sport competition; also, this study recommended that training programme should be designed to develop more speed and cardio – respiratory endurance for female players in all team sport.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Table of Contents viii
Operational Definition of Terms xiii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 5
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Hypotheses 6
1.7 Delimitation 7 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
|2.2 Concept of Fitness and Physical Fitness||8|
|2.3 Components of Physical Fitness||15|
|2.4 Components of Health-Related Physical Fitness||17|
|2.4.1 Cardiovascular/Respiratory Endurance||21|
|18.104.22.168 Problems common to Cardiovascular Fitness Testing||25|
|22.214.171.124 Factors affecting Flexibility||28|
|2.5 General Guidelines for Flexibility Testing||30|
|2.7 Muscular Strength
2.7.1 Strong Muscles: 40
|2.7.2 Health benefits of Muscular Strength||40|
|2.7.3 Muscular Endurance||41|
|2.7.4 Muscle Strength and Muscle Endurance Tests||42|
|2.8 Body Composition||44|
|2.8.1 Measurement of Body Composition||47|
|2.8.2 Body Composition Estimation||48|
|2.9 Physical Fitness among Male and Female Basket Ball and Hand Ball Players 49|
|2.10 Performance Related Physical Fitness Component of Female Handball Players||54|
|2.11 Components of Speed
2.12 Muscular Power 57
|2.13 Volume of Oxygen Uptake||59|
2.15Empirical Review 62
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 73
3.2 Research Design 73
3.3 Population 74
3.4 Sample and Sampling Procedure 74
3.5 Test Instrument 74
3.6 Test Procedures 75
3.7 Test Description 76
3.7.1 Cooper’s Twelve Minute Distance Run/ Walk Test 76
3.7.2 Sit up Test 77
3.7.3 Sit and Reach Jump 77
3.8 Research Assistants 78
3.9 Test Conditions 78
3.10 Statistical Techniques 79
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 80
4.2 Result 80
4.3 Hypotheses Testing 82
4.4 Summary of Major Findings 93
4.5 Discussion 93 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 96
5.2 Conclusion 97
5.3 Recommendations 97
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 98
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Health Related Physical Fitness:-State of wellbeing that allows individuals to perform better in any exercise.
Health Related Physical Fitness Status:-One`s level of wellness to exercise.
Physical Fitness:-Ability to do any physical activities above expectation.
1.1 Background to the Study
The maintenance of physically active leisure oriented lifestyle has become increasingly significant in developed societies. In this electronic age, technological advancement often minimizes physical effort in most aspects of life. Sport and physical activity touch many aspects of peoples’ lives, yet many are unaware of how powerfully sport affects them. Basketball and hand ball are intermittent sports whereby a large number of different activities and situations are developed. Basketball and handball are characterized by speed and repeated changes in the direction of activities and movement which require physical fitness to endure and become a more active member of the society (Williams, 2007).
Physical fitness is probably the most popular and frequently used term in physical education. The most important objective of physical educators is to develop physical fitness. According to Maud and Foster (1995), it was the desire to establish a scientific approach to the development of physical fitness that formed the basis of the first meeting of physical educators in 1885 when the profession of physical education originated. The physiological composition of human body is structured for diverse form of exercise such as running, hunting and waging of wars in order to survive, which required a physical fitness to make effective use of each physical ability (Sharkey, 2010). General fitness requires the ability of a person to live most effectively with his or her potentials, which depend upon the physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual components of fitness that are highly interrelated.
Physical fitness is comprised of many different components. These components can be classified into two categories, one of which is health-related and the other is to skill performance related-fitness. According to Amusa (2012), physical fitness is concerned with the development and maintenance of the fitness components that can enhance health through prevention and remediation of disease and illness. Health related fitness among basketball players enhances their ability to function efficiently and maintain a healthy lifestyle. Thus, health- related fitness is important to all individuals throughout their lives especially to basketball players. Health-related physical fitness is based on the assumption that an adequate level of body development is required for health. There are five components of health-related fitness namely muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardio respiratory endurance, flexibility and body composition.
Physical fitness of a player depends on the nature of his game and also external conditions.There are a number of fitness elements that need to be developed. These include speed, endurance,agility and strength to correct and maintenance of body weight (Tukur, 2012). Basketball and Handball are almost similar games. Some of the standards the fit player attains to meet the demands of the gamesare strength, power, speed etc. fitness components (Purath, 2009).This research is therefore meant to compare the health related physical fitness status of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Physical fitness has been the desire of professional team managers, coaches and sport scientists all over the world in the selection of players. Many male and female basketball and handball players have been disqualified in the process of selection of professional players due to lack of adequate health related and performance fitness status.
The world is becoming a technological world where everything is done with technology and the selection of players is done by experimentation of height, blood pressure, endurance and fitness.
Many trainers and coaches train sportsmen and women, basketball and handball players in order to improve their performance with inadequate observation or monitoring of player’s level of physical fitness through practical physical fitness. It has been difficult for basketball and handball players in Uyo State to follow the scientific principle of training, which will improve their performance. The basketball and handball players in Uyo State have been finding it difficult to qualify and participate in the National league competition organized by the federation. This has been major a problem worth studying by the
researcher to investigate the reasons for this.
Enduring to the end of the game is another major constrain of female basketball and handball players in Uyo State which perhaps one can say has contributed greatly to their inability to progress by qualifying in any of the female league at the national level. Furthermore, many of the female basketball and handball players in the study area find it difficult to be selected to represent the country at international competitions.This prompted the researcher to compare the male and female basketball and handball players in the study area to see if they have similar attributes which contributed towards their inability to perform well to the point of qualifying in matches and selection. Indeed, many works have been done in regards to physical characteristics of basketball and handball male and female players. However, little has been done with comparison of health related physical fitness status of male and female basketball and handball in the study area.Therefore this study is set to fill in the gap in knowledge.
Partly, insufficient participation in physical exercise and the increase in sedentary behaviour among students has reallyreduced the health status of the students. This research willcompare the physical fitness status of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study is to make a comparison of health-related physical fitness status of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State. While the specific objectives are:
- To compare the cardiovascular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
- To examinethe flexibility of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
- To analyse the muscular strength of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
- To explicate the muscular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
- To highlight the body composition of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the difference between the cardiovascular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State?
- What is the difference between the flexibility of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State?
- What is the difference between the muscular strength of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State?
- What is the difference between the muscular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State?
- What is the difference between the body composition of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is of great significance as it provides physical education to coaches on the norms to grade their players on the basis of their performances in the physical fitness tests. It will also help the players to know their own level of achievement in relation to the group, thus to motivate the player, to raise themselves to higher performance levels in comparison with their fellow players.
This study would provide norms to determine the fitness status of the players and help the coach to plan physical fitness programmes accordingly. No two individuals are alike. Individual differences make every physical education class a heterogeneous group. Therefore, no one programme of physical education can be ideal for all unless the strength and weakness of the individuals are known to the teachers.With the availability of norms, the coaches cannot determine the fitness status of the players and know the exact needs of each individual. Thus, a norm serves the purpose of a parameter to indicate the state of affairs with respect to physical fitness of the player.
The results of this study will serve as a guide for the other players to assess their physical fitness status and provide proper health related physical fitness programme.
This study will also provide an opportunity to physical education teachers andcoaches, to spot-out the latent talents of the students and to selectpotential students for different sports and games, and also will be more useful in planning educational curriculum.
H1 There is no significant difference between the cardiovascular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
H2 There is no significant difference between the flexibility of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
H3 There is no significant difference between the muscular strength of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
H4 There is no significant difference between the muscular endurance of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State
H5 There is no significant difference between the body composition of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.
This study is delimited to comparison of health related physical fitness status of male and female basketball and handball players in Uyo State.