ADMITTANCE AND OPERATION OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION ASSETS BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

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ADMITTANCE AND OPERATION OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION ASSETS BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined Access and Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students in University Libraries in Gombe State, Nigeria. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the type of electronic information resources; what types of electronic information resources are available for undergraduate students in university libraries in Gombe State; to what extent undergraduate students access electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe state, to what extent are undergraduate students satisfied with electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State, what are the challenges faced by undergraduate students in accessing EIRs in university libraries in Gombe State. A Cross- sectional survey research design was adopted for the study, a total of 2,970 registered undergraduate students were used as the population and 297 registered undergraduate students library users were selected for the study. Questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. The data collected were presented and analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and T-test for the hypotheses. The study found among others that types of electronic information resources available in university libraries in Gombe State are E-books, TEEAL, HINARI, AGORA, etc with electronic books having the highest response rate; undergraduate students in the Universities in Gombe State accessed Electronic Books, CD-ROMs, Science Direct, Emagazines, etc to the high extent. The study concluded that the types of electronic information resources available in university libraries in Gombe State are: E-books, TEEAL, HINARI, AGORA, JSTOR, E-journals, OARE, Science Direct, CD-ROMs, E-newspapers, E-magazines. Lastly, this study recommended among others that, Since electronic books are available in all the universities studied, the university libraries management in Gombe State should intensify the availability of other types of EIRs especially CD-ROMs by supplying more through purchase or library consortium between the two libraries.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page……………………………………………………………………………………………i

Declaration…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii 

Certification………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii 

Dedication…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv 

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. v

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii 

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. viii 

List of Tables………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi 

List of Appendixes………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xii 

List of Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiii 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study ………………………………………………………………..1

1.2         Statement of the Problem………………………………………………………………..6

1.3        Research Questions………………………………………………………………………..7

1.4         Research Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………7

1.5        Objectives of the Study.…………………………………………………………………7

1.6        Significance of the Study………………….…………………………………………….8

1.7        Scope and Delimitation of the Study…….………………………………………………9

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms…………………………………………………………..9 References………………………………………………………………………………..11  CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1        Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….13

2.2         Concept of Electronic Information Resources…………………………………………13

2.3        Types of Electronic Information Resources……………………………………………16

2.3.1  Online Databases……………………………………………………………………….16

2.3.2  Digital Information……………………………………………………………………..17

2.3.3  Electronic Journals……………………………………………………………………..18

2.3.4  Compact Disc-Read Only Memory…………………………………………………….19

2.3.5  Electronic Books……………………………………………………………………….20

2.3.6  Online Public Access Catalogue……………………………………………………….21

2.4        Access to Electronic Information Resources……………………………………………..21

2.5        Utilization of Electronic Information Resources………………………………………….24

2.6        Satisfaction with Electronic Information Resources……………………………………..29

2.7        Challenges Faced in the Use of Electronic Information Resources……………………30

2.8         Summary of the Reviews………………………………………………………………31

References………………………………………………………………………………..33 CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1        Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….38

3.2        Research Method Adopted for the Study…………………………………………………38

3.2.1  Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………..38

3.3        Population of the Study…………………………………………………………………..39

3.4         Sample Size and Sampling Technique…………………………………………………40

3.5        Instrument for Data Collection…………………………………………………………41

3.6        Validation of the Instrument……………………………………………………………41

3.7        Reliability of the Instrument……………………………………………………………42

3.8       Procedure for Data Collection…………………………………………………………….42 3.9 Procedure for Data Analysis……………………………………………………………42

References………………………………………………………………………………..43 CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

4.1        Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….44

4.2        Response Rate of the Respondents …………………………………………………….44

4.3         Descriptive Analysis and Discussion……………………………………………………45

4.3.1  Types of Electronic Information Resources for Undergraduate Students in the

University Libraries in Gombe State …………………………………………………..45

 

4.3.2  Extent to which Undergraduate Students Access Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State…………………………………47

 

4.3.3  Extent to which Undergraduate Students Utilize Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State…………………………………50

 

4.3.4  Extent of Undergraduate Students Satisfaction with Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State…………………………………53

 

4.3.5  Challenges Faced in Accessing Electronic Resources in Gombe State

Universities……………………………………………………………………………..56

 

4.4        Inferential Analysis and Discussion……………………………………………………59

4.4.1  Null Hypothesis One……………………………………………………………………..59

4.4.2  Null Hypothesis Two……………………………………………………………………..59

4.4.3  Null Hypothesis Three………………………………………………………………….60

References………………………………………………………………………………..62 CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1        Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….63

5.2        Summary of the Study………………………………………………………………….63

5.3         Summary of the Major Findings……………………………………………………….64

5.4        Contributions to the body knowledge………………………………………………….65

5.5        Limitations of the Study………………………………………………………………..65

5.6        Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………..66

5.7  Recommendations………………………………………………………………………..66 5.8 Suggestions for Further Studies………………………………………………………..67 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………68

Appendixes……………………………………………………………………………..75

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Population of the Study of Registered Undergraduate Students…………………….39

Table 3.2 Sample of the Study of Registered Undergraduate Students………………………..40

Table 4.1 Response Rate of the Registered Undergraduate Students………………………….44

Table 4.2 Types of Electronic Information Resources for Undergraduate Students

in the University Libraries in Gombe State…………………………………………….46

 

Table 4.3 Extent to which Undergraduate Students Access Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State…………………………………..49

 

Table 4.4 Extent to which Undergraduate Students Utilize Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State ………………………………….52

 

Table 4.5 Extent of Undergraduate Students Satisfaction with Electronic Information

Resources in the University Libraries in Gombe State ………………………………….55

 

Table 4.6 Challenges Faced in Accessing Electronic Resources in University Libraries

in Gombe State …………………………………………………………………………..57

 

Table 4.7 Difference in the Extent to Which Undergraduate Students Access EIRs in

University Libraries in Gombe State …………………………………………………..59

 

Table 4.8 Difference in the Extent to Which Undergraduate Students Utilize EIRs in

University Libraries in Gombe State……………………………………………………..60

 

Table 4.9 Difference in the Extent of Undergraduate Students‟ Satisfaction With

EIRs in University Libraries in Gombe State……………………………………………..60

LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix I „A‟: Introductory Letter to the University Librarian, Gombe State

University………………………………………………………………………………74

 

Appendix I „B‟: Introductory Letter to the University Librarian, Federal University,

Kashere…………………………………………………………………………………76

 

Appendix II: Letter to the Respondents………………………………………………………..77

Appendix III: Research Questionnaire…………………………………………………………78  Appendix IV: Reliability Test Result…………………………………………………………..83

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

AGORA:                                               Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture

CD-ROM:                                             Compact Disc Read Only Memory

DVD:                                                    Digital Video Disc

EIRs:                                                     Electronic Information Resources

FUDMA:                                               Federal University, Dutsin-ma

FUK:                                                     Federal University, Kashere

GSU:                                                     Gombe State University

HA:                                                        Highly Accessible

HINARI:                                               Health Network Access Research Initiative

HS:                                                        Highly Satisfied

HU:                                                        Highly Utilize

ICT:                                                       Information and Communication Technology

JSTOR:                                                  Journal Storage

MLS:                                                     Masters of Library Science

NOUN:                                                 National Open University of Nigeria

OARE:                                                  Online Access to Research in the Environment

OPAC:                                                  Online Public Access Catalogue

RA:                                                        Rarely Accessible

RS:                                                         Rarely Satisfied

RU:                                                        Rarely Utilized

SD:                                                        Standard Deviation

SN:                                                        Serial Number

SPSS:                                                    Statistical Package for Social Sciences

TEEAL:                                                The Essential Electronic Agricultural Library TETFund:                                              Tertiary Education Trust Fund U:                                                          Undecided

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Library automation has greatly influenced the way information is being accessed and used.

Libraries and information centres are becoming more attractive as a result of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) that have broken every barrier that hinders access to information. It is obvious that some of the information resources in university libraries are accessed 24/7 and beyond the physical boundary of libraries. Abinew and Vuda (2013) opined that libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-magazines. This has increased the global dissemination of information.

Dissemination of timely and up-to-date information is made easier with the advent of these technologies which aid the transmission of electronic information resources. Swain and Panda (2009) states that rapid advancement of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has brought revolutionary changes in the information scenario giving rise to a number of options for the user community to handle varied information resources conveniently and effortlessly. Advancements in technology have enabled new forms of handling information and have created more dynamic and flexible tools for managing and making it accessible than the print formats. This has created a major shift from the traditional set up of library which focuses on the physical collection of information resources, to a stage where information is predominantly stored in digital formats. This advancement has caused changes both in the way users access information and the way libraries provide and manage resources. (Luka, 2015)

Electronic information resources are information materials in the library that can only be accessed electronically, with the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) facilities (Ukachi, 2013). Electronic information resources that are often consulted in the University libraries include: Internet, CD-ROM databases, online databases, Online Public Access Catalogues (OPACs), electronic journals, electronic books and digitized materials. Multiple access speed, richer in content, reuse, timeliness and anywhere access are some of the features of electronic information resources.

Electronic resources refer to those materials that require computer access, whether through a personal computer, mainframe, or handheld mobile phone device, (Dongardive, 2015). They may either be accessed remotely or locally. Some of the most encountered types include ejournals, e-books, databases, indexing and abstracting databases, reference databases (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias etc.) e-images, etc.

According to Ani, Ngulube and Onyancha (2014) Electronic information resources refer to as electronic resources or e-resources; they are information stored in electronic format on computer or computer related facilities (CD-ROMs, digital libraries or the Internet). This is consistent with the description of electronic information resource by Thanuskodi (2012) as a generic term for electronic information stored both offline or online.  These resources are slowly replacing the use of print media as a result of their ability to provide one with timely and up-to-date information. Electronic resources such as e-journals, e-books, e-databases, web resources, e-serials amongst others are easily accessible in remote areas.  Electronic resources have become an increasingly important part of university libraries collection. The library patrons prefer to use more electronic resources and computerized services compared to conventional materials for their needs. The advent of computer networks and the worldwide web, the availability of digital libraries and the transition from print to electronic publishing have brought about increased use of electronic resources. Electronic resources provide access to information that might be restricted to the user because of geographical location or finances. Such electronic resources include electronic books, electronic journal articles, newspaper, theses, dissertations, etc

Access and utilization of electronic information resources is a factor that is considered to be largely influenced by the nature of electronic information environment that is available and prevalence in a given university. The electronic information environment is enabled by widespread application of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the university, towards effectiveness and efficiency in research process. Angello and Wema (2010) simply define information and communication technologies as tools used to access electronic information resources. Access and utilization of electronic information resources is enabled by the state of ICT or electronic information environment in a given university.

Swain and Panda (2010) states that owing to the technological revolution and advent of modern information and communication technologies (ICT), the student community no longer relies upon the traditional library services. They are, however, encouraged to trust in electronic resources with a presumption that the wealth of information available in electronic formats can utterly accomplish their scholastic needs as a better substitute to traditional print services. The use of Electronic Information Resources (EIRs) is necessary for undergraduates mainly because they provide better, faster and easier access to information than information accessed through print media. Electronic information resources help to expand access, increase usability and effectiveness and establish new ways for students to use information to be more productive in their academic activities. Tella, Tella, Ayeni and Omoba (2007) emphasize that electronic information has many functions and benefits that are capable of positively influencing the academic performance of both students and researchers in the university as well as other higher educational institutions. However, it is imperative that the students should be familiar with the use and exploitation of the resources for a quicker and more effective usage.

Electronic information resources available in university libraries play a prominent role in facilitating access to required information by the users in an easy and expeditious manner.

According to Negahban and Talawar (2009), electronic information resources, in reality have become the backbones of many university libraries. They serve as a motivating factor to students as they provide them opportunity to transmit, acquire or download process and disseminate information on any subject of interest. They can be used by any user through online access via networks or authentication methods at any time by comfortably sitting at home or in a class. They indeed play significant roles in academic libraries as they are mostly used for the promotion of academic excellence and research. Electronic Information Resources open up the possibility of searching multiple files at one time, a feat accomplished more easily than when using printed equivalents.

Electronic resources are now used to supplement printed information resources in university libraries. The major benefit of electronic resources in the libraries besides ease of access to the needed information is that access can be done remotely without physical visit to the library. Thus, electronic resources promote efficiency in dissemination of information for learning, teaching and research purposes in the universities (Thanuskodi, 2012). Again, e-resources are more easily updated than the print resources. The act of providing access to electronic resources by the university libraries to the patrons is referred to as electronic information services. Appleton (2006) perceives electronic information services as delivery of information tools/products to “requesting users electronically” usually by computer mediation.

Access to information is important because except an information source is made accessible to users, it cannot be used. Accessibility of information materials is one of the prerequisites of information utilization. Resources may be available in the library and even identified bibliographically as relevant to one‟s subject of interest, but the user may not be able to lay hands on them because of accessibility problems. Obviously, accessibility constraints that could be experienced in the use of EIRs include: inadequate provision of infrastructure, Internet connection problem, online database subscription problem, library electronic resources use policy and indifference behaviour of staff towards assisting users. Bhatia (2011) opines that electronic resources available in a library play a prominent role in facilitating accessed to required information to the users in an easy and expeditious manner. Electronic resources have become more popular for meeting the instant desire of users, having quick access to information and efficient retrieval facilities. Bankole, Ajiboye and Otunla (2015) posited that information could be accessed through a range of information and communication technology tools. These tools include the computers, digital libraries, the Internet, electronic networks and the

CD-ROMs. The computer has been a major tool that enables access and use of e-resources. Hawthorne (2008) asserts that library profession has recognized the potential of computers to make library resources more accessible early in the development of computer technology. Dadzie (2007) states that electronic resources are invaluable learning tools that complement the print based resources in a traditional library setting. Their advantages include: access to information that might be restricted to the user due to geographical location or finances, access to more current information, and provision of extensive links to additional resources related contents. This rapid emergence and development of electronic information technologies, therefore, makes it possible to envision radically different ways of organizing the collections and services the library has traditionally provided. Vasishta and Jyoti (2007) opines that EIRs are commonly available under two major categories:

  • Subscribed Electronic Information Resources: To access this category of EIRs, some subscription amount/fee has to be paid to the publisher/owner.
  • Free Electronic Information Resources: Such resources are freely available on the Internet and can be divided into sub-categories like Open Access journals/Free journals; Information available at Institutional Repositories; Organizational or Individual‟s websites; Individual Blogs/Professional

Discussion Forums.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Electronic information resources have brought new innovations in librarianship where library users can now access information and resources beyond the physical library space. According to Sharma (2009) the advent of information and communication technologies such as the Internet, electronic resources have brought a widely accepted scholarly resources for both students and teachers. Technological advances have brought about radical changes in the way modern organizations operate, and the library is no exception. It has influenced the way libraries gather, store, organize, retrieve and disseminate information. Electronic Information Resources (EIRs) play vital roles in teaching and learning process in the academic environment and provide assistance to users. EIRs like e-books, e-journals, e-magazines, databases etc have indeed become more important for the academic community in accessing up-to-date information at the right time and in the right format. They enable users have access to firsthand information characterized by being timely, current, easy to access and, even from remote places (Ukachi, 2013).

A lot of money is being invested by Tertiary Education Trust Fund (TETFUND) for library development intervention. For instance, TETfund disbursed one billion, three hundred and seventeen million and four hundred thousand naira (N1.3bn) to some universities as first tranche in December, 2017 for library development (TETfund Monthly Digest, 2017). However, statistics from the two university libraries in Gombe State shows the following records:

  • Between 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 academic sessions, the library records only 37.6% rate of EIRs access and utilization in Gombe State University (E-library‟s users book register, 2017)
  • Between 2015/2016 and 2016/2017 academic sessions, the library records only 21.4% rate of EIRs access and utilization in Federal University, Kashere (E-library‟s users book register, 2017)

Based on these facts, it is obvious that EIRs are under-utilize. This concurs with the assertion of Ferdinand, Eghworo, and Paul (2015) and Adeniran (2013) who reported a low utilization of EIRs by undergraduate students at the Federal University of Petroleum Resources Effurun and

Redeemer‟s University, Nigeria respectively. It is therefore on this basis that this study is set to investigate Access and Utilization of Electronic Information Resources in the University

Libraries in Gombe State.

1.3    Research Questions

The study answered the following research questions:

  1. What types of electronic information resources are available for undergraduate students in university libraries in Gombe State?
  2. To what extent do the undergraduate students access electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State?
  3. To what extent do the undergraduate students utilize electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State?
  4. To what extent are undergraduate students satisfied with electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State?
  5. What are the challenges faced by undergraduate students in accessing electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State?

1.4        Research Hypotheses

The study tested the followings null hypotheses:

HO1: There is no significant difference in the extent to which the undergraduate students access EIRs in the university libraries in Gombe State.

HO2: There is no significant difference in the extent to which the undergraduate students utilize

EIRs in the university libraries in Gombe State.

HO3: There is no significant difference in the extent to which the undergraduate students are satisfied with the EIRs in the university libraries in Gombe State.

1.5       Objectives of the Study

The study achieved the following objectives:

  1. To identify the types of electronic information resources available for the undergraduate students in the university libraries in Gombe State.
  2. To find out the extent to which the undergraduate students access electronic information resources in the university libraries in Gombe State.
  3. To identify the extent to which the undergraduate students utilize electronic information resources in the university libraries in Gombe State
  4. To determine the extent of the undergraduate students satisfaction with electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State.
  5. To find out the challenges faced by the undergraduate students in accessing electronic resources in university libraries in Gombe State.

1.6    Significance of the Study

The study examined utilization and access to electronic information resources by undergraduate students; the results could serve as a reference point in addressing the issue of electronic information resources usage and access by undergraduate students.

The findings are expected to inform management in decision making about effective electronic information resource provisions. The report will also serve as reference materials for the formulation and implementation of policies and directions on utilization and access to electronic information resources in university libraries in Gombe State and other university libraries around the globe. Also, the results of this study would provide policy makers and decision makers with a considerable knowledge on current issues of using EIRs so that appropriate measures and decisions can be taken to ensure maximum and efficient use. The outcome of this study is expected to bring about enhanced access and utilization of the libraries‟ EIRs by the undergraduate students thereby leading to improved academic performances and research output.

In addition, the findings would contribute to the existing literature on EIRs and other researchers, especially in the field of library and information science who will want to carry out further research in this area of study will also find this study very relevant.

1.7    Scope of the Study

The study focused on access and utilization of EIRs (both online and offline) in university libraries in Gombe State. Gombe State has four (4) Universities, namely: Federal University,

Kashere, Gombe State University, University of Science and Technology, Kumo and National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN).

The study was limited to Federal University, Kashere and Gombe State University, this is because as at the time of this study the University of Science and Technology, Kumo has not taken up and the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) was not included because is not a conventional university. The two Universities selected for the study have computerized libraries that provide electronic information resources service for the patrons.

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms are defined operationally within this study:

Access: Access means to obtain or retrieve information electronically.

Electronic Information Resource: Information resources like journal, book, database that can be accessed on the Internet, computer, CD-ROM, digital/virtual libraries or related computer/electronic networks.

Undergraduate Student: This refers to students pursuing first degree in a degree awarding

institution.

University Library: This refers to libraries established to support teaching, learning and research in a university environment.

Utilization: An act of making use of information in electronic format.

 

 

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Adeniran, P. (2013). Usage of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates at the Redeemer‟s

University, Nigeria. International Journal of Library and Information Science, 5(10),

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ADMITTANCE AND OPERATION OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION ASSETS BY UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES IN GOMBE STATE, NIGERIA

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