This study investigated Access and Utilization of Special Information Resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library by Postgraduate Students in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. In order to achieve this objective, seven (7) research questions were developed and answered. Survey research method was adopted to conduct the study. The population of the study comprised 8,087 postgraduate students and Head of RBSD who was the custodian of special information resources. A structured questionnaire was administered. The data collected for the study were presented and analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution tables, and percentages. The research findings revealed amongst others that postgraduate students have access and also utilize some special information resources provided by the Research and Bibliographic Services Division (RBSD) of K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria. The study revealed that postgraduate students were more aware of thesis/dissertations, Africana newspapers, and Africana books. Methods put in place in order to ensure access of special information includes, University Digital Repository, physical access by RBSD staff, use of Card Catalogue and use of Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC). The special information resources that were extensively used were thesis/dissertations, Africana newspapers, Africana books and scrap books. The study also found out that postgraduate students were also highly satisfied with the use of thesis/dissertations, rare books and Africana books. The study concluded that the effort made in giving qualitative resources to users can only succeed by creating an avenue for periodic seminars, workshops and lectures on the various special information resources that are available in Research and Bibliographic Services Division, K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria. It recommends that the library management should make available all types of special information resources for access and use of postgraduate students in line with global best practices.
Title Page ii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.1.1 Development of Special Information Resources in Nigerian
University Libraries 2
1.1.2 Special Information Resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria 4
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Research Questions 6
1.4 Objectives of the Study 7
1.5 Significance of the Study 7
1.6 Scope of the Study 8
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 11
2.2 Special Information Resources 11
2.3 Availability of Special Information Resources 14
2.4 Organization of Special Information Resources 16
2.5 Awareness of Special Information Resources 18
2.6 Accessibility of Special Information Resources 21
2.7 Utilization of Special Information Resources 24
2.8 User Satisfaction with Special Information Resources 28
2.9 Summary of the Review 31
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 38
3.2 Research Design 38
3.3 Population of the Study 39
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques 39
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 41
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument 42
3.7 Procedure for Data Collection 43
3.8 Procedure for Data Analysis 43
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 45
4.2 Response Rate (Head of RBSD, KIL) 45
4.3 Response Rate (PG Students) 48
4.4 Data Presentation, Analysis and Discussion 49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 57
5.2 Summary of the Study 57
5.3 Summary of the Major Findings 58
5.4 Limitation of the Study 59
5.5 Conclusion 59
5.6 Recommendations 60
5.7 Suggestion for further Studies 61
Appendix A 69
Appendix B 70
Appendix C 71
Appendix D 73
Table 3.1: Population of the study 39
Table 3.2: Sample Size 40
Table 4.1 Types of Special Information Resources Available in
K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 45
Table 4.2: Organization of Special Information Resources in K.I.L.,
A.B.U., Zaria 47
Table 4.3: Distribution of Respondents (PG students) in A.B.U., Zaria 48
Table 4.4: Gender Distribution of Respondents (PG students) based on
Table 4.5: Awareness on Special Information
Resources by Postgraduate Students in K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 50
Table 4.6: Procedure through which Postgraduate Students Access
Special Information Resources in K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 51
Table 4.7: Extent at which Postgraduate Students Access Special
Information Resources in K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 52
Table 4.8: Extent at which Postgraduate Students Utilize Special
Information Resources in K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 53
Table 4.9: Extent to which Postgraduate Students Derive Satisfaction
from the Utilization of Special Information Resources in
K.I.L., A.B.U., Zaria 54
|A.B.U.:||Ahmadu Bello University|
|CAS:||Current Awareness Services|
|DDC:||Dewey Decimal Classification|
|K.I.L.:||Kashim Ibrahim Library|
|LCC:||Library of Congress Classification|
|MARC:||Machine Readable Catalogue|
|RBSD:||Research and Bibliographic Services Division|
|SDI:||Selective Dissemination of Information|
1.1 Background to the Study
The primary purpose of university libraries is to support teaching, learning and research in ways consistent with, and supportive of the institution‟s mission and goals. In addition, library resources and services should be sufficient in quality, depth, diversity, and recency to support the institution‟s curriculum as posited by Oyewusi and Oyeboade (2009). As a result of this, university libraries are often considered the most important resource centre of an academic institution. As such, both staff and students have realized that the library has great roles to play in the provision of special information resources necessary for their day- to- day research needs or activities. The library acts as a medium of getting the latest scientific and technological information either in print or in electronic form, for accessibility and use of the library patrons.
Special information resources according to Akintunde (1995) are a collection of information resources, which are distinguished by their age, rarity, value, uniqueness, subject matter, provenance, or some defining characteristic. Special information resources in Libraries includes not only traditional print-on-paper medium like books, journals, newspapers, and maps, but also audio visual materials like cinematograph film records, cartographic materials, moving mega materials, born digital materials, microforms, artefacts, online databases, electronic books, and electronic journals and other media via the Internet (Love and Feather, 1998).
Moreover, Hasley (2006) added that libraries collections include not only printed materials but also art reproduction, maps, photographs, etc. For the library to advance knowledge, it must not only provide resources but ensure their effective access and use (Williams-Osula, 1999). The growth of research in all fields of human endeavour is becoming increasingly detailed and sophisticated. University libraries collect a variety of materials (including special information resources), for access and use by the library patrons. These resources include not only traditional print- on-paper media like books, journals, newspapers, and maps, but also audiovisual materials like records, audiocassettes and projectors, art reproductions, electronic books, e-journals and other media (Oyewusi and Oyeboade (2009).
Universities are institutions concerned with teaching, learning and research. Since library‟s objective is to assist what transpires in the parent institution, it has to provide special information resources in relation to demands of various levels of programmes. Of these levels, the postgraduate programme has the largest research components. These researches are usually organized in some sort of order according to their degree of likeness, by subject or form. Okore and Ekere and Eke (2009) noted that resources are organized using specific types of classification scheme to collate materials in a given subject together. However, university libraries in most cases provide and organize separately another category of collections called special information resources. Special information resources like thesis/ dissertations are created by individual universities who own them.
1.1.1 Development of Special Information Resources in Nigerian University Libraries
The development of special information resources in Nigerian University libraries dates back to the establishment of the first university, namely the University College Ibadan, in 1948. Being the highest institution of learning and because there was no national library in existence, the university library was designated the national depository for Nigerian publications (Nigerian Publications Ordinance of 1950). It thus became compulsory for all publishers in the country to deposit two copies of their books, journals, pamphlets, gazettes, sheets of music, maps, plans etc. in the university library. These deposits form a substantial part of the University special information resources. It played this role fully till 1964 when the then Northern Region designated Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria as the legal depository for all publications emanating from that region. In 1970, the National Library Decree (Decree
29 of 1970) was promulgated and this transferred the role of legal deposit from the Ibadan University Library and Ahmadu Bello University Library to the National Library in Lagos. It stated that three copies of all books published should be deposited with the National Library with one copy to be re-directed to the University of Ibadan. Thus, these two university libraries (Ibadan and Zaria) were able to acquire materials that formed part of their special information resources. Aguolu (2000) reported that, since independence in 1960, there has been an upsurge in the establishment of educational institutions at all levels, especially university education. Successive Nigerian governments have continued to invest strongly in education. It must be realized that university libraries, being integral academic parts of universities, generally emerged simultaneously with their parent institutions.
University libraries, including the A.B.U. Library Complex Zaria extend their specialized information resources/services beyond just making resources available for access and use, they also offer special assistance to users such as Advisory Services, Reprographic
Services, Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI), Indexing and Abstracting Services,
Short Term Loan Services, Current Awareness Services (CAS), User Education Programme,
Carrels Services, Online Services etc. (Echezona and Edoka, 2009).
1.1.2 Special Information Resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A. B. U., Zaria
Special information resources are housed in the Research and Bibliographic Services Division of the Library. The collections of the Division are on closed access in order to monitor their use. the Research and Bibliographic Services Division (RBSD) where special information resources are housed is one of the nine principal divisions of the Library. The Division is housed in a closed access room on the first floor of the main library building. The division is then subdivided into three units, namely the Africana Unit, Government Documents and Archives/United Nations Organization Documents Unit and Arabic
Collections Unit. The division also houses other small collections such as the Clarent Holt Collections and Rare Books Collections. Due to the rarity of special information resources, resources in the division are placed on closed access, postgraduate students and faculty members are the categories who are granted access to the special information resources. The Africana collection is solely for reference, and items in it may not be borrowed. Readers are requested to ask for materials they require from the assistants at the counter as they enter the reading area. Nearly all academic libraries including the Kashim Ibrahim Library, A. B. U., Zaria have some part of their resources which are treated in a special way.
Special information resources in K. I. L. comprises Africana newspapers and
journals, rare books, valuable donations, university archives, theses/dissertations, conference papers, biographies, business organizations (multinational organizations, indigenous private companies, financial institutions), Africana (Africa –General, Nigeria, local history), United Nations and its specialized agencies, other specialized agencies, ephemeral, manuscripts, etc. In many cases, special information resources are resources of national importance; the qualities that are unique to special information resources according to Scham (1987) set this division apart from the rest of the library and frequently from the library administration as well. According to Scham (1987), the decision by libraries to substitute the term‟‟ Rare Books‟‟ with‟‟ special information resources‟‟ has been of great significance to both libraries and their users. Therefore, if ‟‟Rare books‟‟ traditionally include mainly old, rare, unique and valuable works, then the change and expansion of such holdings offered by the term „‟special information resources‟‟ becomes obvious immediately.
It is important for library services to focus more on the access and use of special information resources provided for their patrons. Popoola (2008) affirmed that the special information resources and services available in institutional information systems must be capable of supporting research activities among the students and faculty members.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is a common knowledge that effective and informed learning relies on access and utilization of information resources including special collections, (Adeyemi, 2012). Ultimately, without the necessary preconditions for information access and use, it is doubtful that researchers can build on the work of others and this could jeopardize the goals and objectives of learning, teaching and research efforts of academic libraries.
According to Olusanya (2014), preliminary investigation revealed that postgraduate students do not access and make adequate use of special information resources in Nigerian university libraries to satisfy their information needs as they ought to. To support this assertion, Popoola, (2008) revealed that if faculty staff and postgraduate students are to make maximum use of library special collections and services and derive greater benefits from them, they must be informed of their availability and how to access and utilize these resources, they must be sensitized about it and their benefits must be explained to them.
According to Adeyemi (2012), access and use is the operational language of modern librarianship and for special information resources to be accessible, application of technology to its management and digitizing these resources would preserve their research values, enhance use, and promote their lifespan. This view is in agreement with Igbeka and Ola (2010). One is therefore left wondering with the question of could this lack of adequate access and utilization of some special information resources be attributed to lack of awareness of some of these resources among postgraduate students, this motivated the need to investigate the access and utilization of special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim
Library by Postgraduate Students in A.B.U., Zaria.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What types of special information resources are available to postgraduate students in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- What methods are used to organize special information resources for easy access and retrieval in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- To what extent are the postgraduate students aware of special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- How do the postgraduate students access special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- To what extent the postgraduate students access special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- To what extent the postgraduate students utilize special information resources in
Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
- To what extent are the postgraduate students satisfied with utilization of special
information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives guided the study:
- To find out the types of special information resources available to postgraduate students in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria.
- To find out the methods used in organizing special information resources for easy access and retrieval in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria.
- To find out the extent to which postgraduate students are aware of special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria.
- To determine how postgraduate students access special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria.
- To find out the extent to which postgraduate students access special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria
- To find out the extent to which postgraduate students utilize special information
resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria.
- To find out the extent to which postgraduate students are satisfied with the utilization of special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U.,
1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of this research would be of great benefit to different scholars and University Library Administration. in knowing the factors that influence the accessibility and utilization of different types of special information resources in K.I.L. by postgraduate students. This knowledge would help the University Authority and Library Administration to determine how best to provide special information resources in respective disciplines. It will also help to know the types of special information resources postgraduate students do access and utilize most of the time so that adequate provision can be made in order to make the Research and Bibliographic Services Division more responsive.. Also, the university authorities would find the result useful as it would provide the reason why the provision of sufficient funds and manpower would bring about efficient provision, access and utilization of special information resources for better research output/ performance.
More so, the findings of this work will assist in delivering quality information in the field of Library and Information Science, particularly to special collection librarians as the study hinges on access and utilization of special information resources in K.I.L. by postgraduate students in A.B.U., Zaria. Moreso, it will add to the existing literature on special information resources in university libraries in Nigeria
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is restricted to utilization of special information resources in Kashim Ibrahim Library by postgraduate students in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The study focuses on special information resources like rare books, Africana newspapers and journals, valuable donations, university archives, conference papers, biographies, business organizations (multinational organizations, indigenous private companies, financial institutions), Africana (Africa–General, Nigeria, local history), United Nations and its specialized agencies, other specialized agencies, ephemeral, manuscripts, etc. The respondents were postgraduate students and the Head of Research and Bibliographic Services Division, Kashim Ibrahim Library, A.B.U., Zaria where special information resources are housed.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined as they are used in the study:
Access: Access is the right of entry to a library or its collections. In a more general
sense, the right or opportunity to use special information resources that may not be openly and freely available to everyone.
Awareness: Having the knowledge of the existence of special information resources in the
Special Information Resources: Refers to information resources collected because of their
special nature, value, age, uniqueness, rarity, type, subject and origin. Such as thesis/dissertations, manuscripts, Africana newspapers, Africana journals, Africana books, ephemerals, conference papers, rare books etc.
Utilization: Refers to the number of times special information resources is used profitably
and effectively by library patrons during a given period of time, including the number of times it is checked out.
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ACCESS AND APPLICATION OF DISTINCTIVE INFORMATION RESOURCES IN KASHIM IBRAHIM LIBRARY BY POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA