TOLERABILITY OF ALTERED TRADITIONAL ‘ASO-OKE’ IN CREATING OUTFITS FOR MODERN-DAY YOUTHS IN OYO STATE, NIGERIA

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TOLERABILITY OF ALTERED TRADITIONAL ‘ASO-OKE’ IN CREATING OUTFITS FOR MODERN-DAY YOUTHS IN  OYO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to determine the acceptability of adapted traditional ‘AsoOke’ in constructing garments for contemporary youths in Oyo-state, Nigeria. Four objectives were stated which were to use fine industrial yarn to produce ‘Aso-Oke’ fabric in a way to reduce weight. The use of fine industrial yarn to produce ‘Aso-Oke’ fabric in a way to improve the texture (feelings). Adapt the produced ‘Aso-Oke’ to make garments for contemporary use, lastly to determine the level of acceptability of the produced ‘Aso-

Oke’ fabric for special occasion among the youth in Oyo state. The research was also guided by four research questions and four null hypotheses. Experimental research design was used for the study. The population for the study comprises of all students of Federal College of Education (special), Oyo and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo. Total of 47640 students and a sample of 30 respondents were randomly selected by proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Hedonic card seeking for observation of respondents on appearance, texture and weight of the articles produced was used to collect data for the study. Descriptive statistics was used, mean were used to answer research questions, while Analysis t-test were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that six plies of yarn used for warp and six plies of yarn used for weft of the conventional ‘Aso-Oke’ fabric escalated the weight and this brought about the heaviness, making the fabric uncomfortable to the weaver. In view of the findings, it was concluded that reduction in yarn count, using two plies for warp and four plies for weft with plain weave had dropped the weight of adapted ‘Aso-oke’ and it was accepted. Base on the findings of the study, it was recommended that yarn counts should be reduced to two andfour plies and plain weave should be used while weaving ‘Aso-Oke’ to reduce the weight and improve the texture for acceptability.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. i

Declaration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

Certification……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii

Dedication……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iv

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………………………………. v

Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii

Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii

List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… xii

List of Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xiv

Operational Definition of Terms………………………………………………………………………………… xv

 

CHAPTER ONE : INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..1

1.2         Statement of the Problem …………………………………………………………………………………..4

1.3         Objectives of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………………..6

1.4         Research Questions …………………………………………………………………………………………..6

1.5         Hypotheses ………………………………………………………………………………………………………7

1.6         Significance of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..7

1.7         Basic Assumptions of the Study …………………………………………………………………………8

1.8          Delimitation of the Study …………………………………………………………………………………..9 CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1         Theoretical Framework ……………………………………………………………………………………11

2.1.1     Satisfactory Theory by Maslow (1943) ……………………………………………………………..11

2.2         Concept of Garments ………………………………………………………………………………………14

2.3          History of Garment Construction………………………………………………………………………16

2.4         Styles of Garments ………………………………………………………………………………………….19

2.4.1     Trims …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….20

2.5        Fashionable Garments ……………………………………………………………………………………..21

2.6        „Aso-Oke‟ as Traditional Fabric ……………………………………………………………………….21

2.6.1      Yarn………………………………………………………………………………………………………………23

2.6.2     Woven Fabric …………………………………………………………………………………………………24

2.6.3     Textile …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..25

2.7        Uses of „Aso-Oke‟ Traditional Fabric ……………………………………………………………….26

2.8         Contemporary Garment Construction ………………………………………………………………..28

2.8.1    Adaptation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..29

2.8.2      Colour …………………………………………………………………………………………………………..29

2.9         Contemporary Youths ……………………………………………………………………………………..30

2.10      Pattern Constructions ………………………………………………………………………………………30

2.10.1 Knock-off Design Method ……………………………………………………………………………….31

2.10.2 Modeling or Draping Method …………………………………………………………………………..31

2.10.3 Traditional or Free Hand-Cutting Method ………………………………………………………….31

2.10.4 Modifying from a Set of Pattern (Pattern Grading) ……………………………………………..31

2.10.5 Flat Pattern Method…………………………………………………………………………………………32

2.10.6 Computer Aided Design Method ………………………………………………………………………33

2.11      Empirical Studies ……………………………………………………………………………………………33

2.12      Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….38

CHAPTER THREE : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1          Research Design……………………………………………………………………………………………..40

3.2         Population for the Study ………………………………………………………………………………….41

3.3         Sample and Sampling Procedure ………………………………………………………………………41

3.4         Instrument for Data Collection …………………………………………………………………………42

3.4.1     Validity of the Research Instrument ………………………………………………………………….55

3.4.2    Pilot Study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..55

3.4.3     Reliability of Research Instrument ……………………………………………………………………57

3.5         Procedure for Data Collection ………………………………………………………………………….57

3.6         Procedure for Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………….58

CHAPTER FOUR : DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

4.1        Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………59

4.2         Answering Research questions …………………………………………………………………………59

4.3          Hypothesis Testing………………………………………………………………………………………….62

4.4         Summary of the Major Findings of the Study …………………………………………………….66

4.5         Discussion of Major Findings …………………………………………………………………………..67

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1         Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….70

5.2         Contribution to Knowledge………………………………………………………………………………71

5.3         Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………….71

5.4         Recommendations …………………………………………………………………………………………..72

5.5         Suggestion for Further Studies………………………………………………………………………….72

References …………………………………………………………………………………………………….73

Appendices ……………………………………………………………………………………………………78

 

 

             

LIST OF TABLES

Table                …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. Page

3.1:       Population for the Study ………………………………………………………………………………….41

3.2:       Sample size for the study …………………………………………………………………………………42

3.4:      Summary of the Laboratory Experiment on the weight of „Aso-Oke‟ ……………………46

3.5:        Obtaining Body Measurements for female student ……………………………………………..48

3.6:       Obtaining Body Measurements for Male Student ……………………………………………….49

3.7:        Hedonic Scale ………………………………………………………………………………………………..54

3.8:      The result of Pilot Study Conducted ………………………………………………………………….56

4.3.1: Descriptive statistics on differences between the Weight of Conventional

and adapted „Aso-Oke‟ ……………………………………………………………………………………59

4.3.2: Descriptive statistics on differences between the Texture (feel)of Produced

„Aso-Oke‟ and Conventional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric …………………………………………………..60

4.3.3: Descriptive statistics on differences between the of Conventional and

adapted „Aso-Oke‟ ………………………………………………………………………………………….61

4.3.4: Descriptive       statistics    on    difference    between    the    Acceptabilityof

Conventional and adapted „Aso-Oke‟ fabrics for special occasion by

contemporary youths in Oyo State …………………………………………………………………….61

4.4.1: Independent Sample t test statistics on difference between the Weight of

Conventional and produced Aso Oke ………………………………………………………………..62

4.3.2: Independent Sample t test statistics on difference between the Level of

Texture (feel)of Conventional and Produced „Aso Oke‟ ………………………………………63

4.3.3: Independent Sample t test statistics on difference between the Design of

Conventional and Produced „Aso Oke‟. …………………………………………………………….64

4.3.4: Independent       Sample    t-test    statistics    on    difference    between    the

Acceptabilityof Conventional and produced „Aso-Oke‟ fabrics for special

occasion by contemporary youths in Oyo state. ………………………………………………….65

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Page

I:         Letter of Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………… 78

II:        Research Questionnaire …………………………………………………………………………….. 79

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Alaari  A rich red „Aso-Oke‟
‘Aso-Ebi’  Uniform, seen as strong expression of communal, solidarity and love
‘Aso-Ofi’ Fabric ofthe loom
‘Aso-Oke’: Is a Yoruba traditional cloth.
Agbada: A large embroidered flowing gown for men
Buba :  A Yoruba blouse for females with long sleeve free to the body up to wrist.
Coarse: Hard and rough to feel
Density: A standard measurement of thickness in fabric weight. Yarn size, amount of warp ends and weft picks determine the density
Egungun: (Masquerade) an ancestral worship among the Yoruba
Ere-Ibeji: Twins idol worship in the olden days
Esiki:  A short flared gown used by men
Etu:        A dark bluecolour „Aso-Oke‟
Fila:      Yoruba traditional cap
Gele: Head- gear
Girdle: Known as „Oja‟ in Yoruba, is a strap for baby stripe.
Ipele:  Shawl or Vailused to cover after dress.
Iro         Yoruba traditional wrapper

Kaftan            A long loose gown

Kembe:           A big trouserssew withAso-Oke‟ for special occasions.

Ply:                 The number of yarns twisted together to make a composite yarn.

Sanyan:          A brown and usually light brown „Aso-Oke‟

Sampled-Garment:These arethe garments sewed for pilot study.

Tex: This is unit measure for the linear mass density of fibres and is defined as the mass in gram per 1000 meters.
Warp: Yarn place straight on a beam and enter into a loom.
Weft: These referred to as “filling”. It is the yarn that transverses the warp yarn

horizontally during weaving operation.

Yarn Count: Is the measurement in various units of textile yarn. It also expresses the thickness of the fabric.

 

 

CHAPTERONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The production of traditional hand crafted textiles among the people of Africa is long rooted in their culture. These textiles are produced from locally sourced fibres they range from cotton, local silk, and hair of animalsto raffia, and are commonly used in weaving. „Aso-Oke‟ whichis a traditional hand woven fabric of the Yorubas who are the people of the south-western political zone of Nigeria. States in this zoneare, Oyo, Ogun,

Osun, Ondo, Ekiti, and Lagos States; few of them are found in parts of Kwara and Kogi

States. (Ojo,2007).Makinde, Ajiboye and Ajayi, (2009) defined „Aso-Oke‟ asthe Yoruba traditional hand woven fabric, whichis a strip of cloth. Similarly, Alejo, (2012) stated that „Aso-Oke‟ means„Aso-Ilu Oke‟, meaning cloth from the up-country.„Aso-Ofi‟, being a rare name to the youths, means clothes from the loom. It is a fabric woven from traditional materials in Yoruba land. The weaving of ‟Aso-Oke‟ started centuries ago amongst the Yorubas, but predominantly amongst the people of Iseyin in Oyo-State. The cloth is made of pure cotton yarn, with the additional threads of heavy texture with contrasting colours to achieve decorative effect.  

The female youths are reluctant in wearing it and not appealing to them especially when presented as a garment, being coarse in texture, they feel uncomfortable in it. Makinde, Ajiboye and Ajayi(2009) further stated that „Aso-Oke‟ is also used to produce other articles like handbags, designer‟s shoes, ties and trims to design man‟s garments which can attract the youths and despite all these facts, they were not convinced to accept or appreciate „Aso-Oke‟ fabricfor frequent usage so there is need for its improvement, so as to be accepted by the youths for casual and special occasions. „Aso-Oke‟is used in a number of ways such as casual or ceremonial. Yoruba women use„Aso-Oke‟as girdle (Oja) to strap babies, wrapper (Iro), head-tie (Gele), blouse (Buba) and shawl (Ipele orIborun). While the men use it for Jumper (Dansiki) and Big Gown (Gbariye).  

Meanwhile, adaptation is a composition that has been recast into a new form. Williams, (2010) defined adaptation, as the changes in behavior of a response to a new or modified surroundings, is process of adjusting or make a garment different in sizes, it is modification of individual or collective behavior in adjusting to cultural surroundings, it is to make suitable to or fit for a specific use or situation, it is changed in order to improve or made more fit for a particular purpose. Adaptation is the process of changing a position to suit the new situation. In clothing construction, adaptation means transfer of basic pattern to another paper for alteration to construct styles. Okeke, (2009) stated that adaptation involves addition of details to the basic block pattern which include seams allowance, allowance for fullness such as pleats, gathers, tucks, shirring etc. position of  surface enrichment like pocket position, position for openings.

There is a dare need to preserve the Yorubaculture in terms of bringing back the use of „Aso-Oke‟for the purpose of job creation, cultural identity, economic improvement and reserved for ceremonies and special events. „Aso-Oke‟should be preserved for other generations through adequate use of it such as „Aso-Ebi‟and commemorative cloth at any relevant traditional and modern ceremonies. Toward attaining this, adaptation will have to be employed in its process and uses.

Youth is a person within the period of childhood and adult age. It is a state of quality of being young especially as associated with vigor, freshness or immaturity, etc.DeGenova and Rice, (2002) explained that youth is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood‟s independence and awareness of our interdependence as members of a community. However, age is often significant in employment. Therefore “youth” is often indicated as a person between the age where he/she may leave compulsory education, and the age at which he/she finds his/her first employment. Employment age keeps increasing as a result of unemployment and the cost of setting up an independent household puts many young people into a prolonged period of dependence. They are those persons between the ages of 15-24 years. The African youth charter defined youth as every person between the ages 15-35 years.

Wingate(2005),sawfabrics as textiles that are woven or knitted, braided, crocheting, with any textile fiber, or a bounded web. Fabrics are manufactured for their different function, purpose or use, for instance, for keeping the body cool warm or for protection against rain or wind or merely adornment. Until early last century fabric could only be produced from natural fibers, but with the knowledge of chemistry and extensive research the fabric technologists and scientists, man-made fibers came into being to augment the shortage of natural fibres and reduce production expenses (Giles 2007).Most fabrics are made from yarns that are produced from fibers twisted together or laid side by side, knitting.

Other fabric construction includes nonwoven fibers such as lace and nets, bonded, laminated gusted and stretch fabrics, (Weber 1990).Fabrics in Nigeriaare producedeither traditionally or mechanically by textile industries. The traditional textile industry produces fabrics such as “Adire” (tie and dye),Adire-Eleko (cassava-paste), Batik,“AsoOke”“Akwete,”“Akwa-Ocha”, “Okene”, “Ota-Ochi”“Anger” and “Atu”. Veritable wax, guinea brocades, lace, damasks are products of the modern textile industries which are referred to as contemporary fabrics.

Oguntona, (2008) remarked that fabric construction is a method of weaving by interlacing two yarns (warp and weft) at right angles to each other which is normally carried out on a loom or weaving machine. This is referred to as plain weave. There are of course, many different effects that can be created in the course of interlacing yarnsas a result of the number of warp and weft threads used to interlace. Many varied designs can be produced such as twill, satin, and tabby weave. The plain weave was what was used to produce the fabric“Aso-Oke”. As the craft advanced restructuring and information,varied patterns were introduced. For example some designed weft threads are arranged to give small oval holes like button-holes on the finished fabric, Rayon threads slightly thicker than the yarn are inter-woven in the fabric to produce designs. Okeke,(1990), explained that traditionally woven fabricsare named according to pattern and type of yarn used: for example, metallic „Aso-Oke‟, silk „Aso-Oke‟, and air conditioner.

Contemporary is defined as living or occurring at the same time. Oxford University Press (2015) stated that the contemporary is experience of living that happening, existing or coming into being during the same period of time and acting across cultural borders marked by characteristics of the present period.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

„Aso-Oke‟ fabric is associated with a lot of problems that makes it unacceptable totheyouths. The researcher observed that „Aso-Oke‟ is heavy; this may be because of the multiple yarns used in its weaving. This weave has double set of yarns which has about six plies in a yarn, in both warp and weft and any material made in such a way seems to be heavy. ‟Aso-Oke‟ cloth is made of cotton, local silk, goat wool to raffia which are not mercerized to reduce weight, and the addition of decorated pattern and effects with threads of heavier texture for contrasting colours, make the fabric heavier. (National Museum Liverpool, 2008). Furthermore, the researcher conducted a market survey in Oje market Ibadan and Oja-Oba market in Ilorin, the two most popular „Aso-Oke‟ markets in

Yoruba land, dealing with this fabric and assessed the physical property of „Aso-Oke‟, by handling and feeling the texture, it was discovered that this „Aso-Oke‟ is actually heavy.

The weight of the cloth always discourage the youths from wearing it often for special occasions.

„Aso-Oke‟ fabric is coarse and harshon the skin. The researcher has it in mind that since the fabric is woven with plainweave which helps in its compactness, that couldnot allow air flow into the body when worn, as a result, one feels hot and uncomfortable in it.

Also from the researcher‟sinteraction with some youths who wear it for special ceremonies as uniform, said they felt very uncomfortable in the fabric because of its harshness on the skin. This is also as a result ofits coarse texture and weight.

Meanwhile the researcher also conducted an interview among the youths in Ibadan, Oyo and Ilorin, the same answer were given. However, some of the youths said that, if there is a way the „Aso-Oke‟ can be made lighter in weight like Ghana Kente, then it can be used for office wear, classroom for teaching and other informal occasions.Moreover, „Aso-Oke‟ has different traditional woven fabrics with varieties of designs and colours, used for different purposes and ceremonial wears. Makinde, Ajiboye and Ajayi (2009) noted that some of the styles in „Aso-Oke‟such as „Gbariye‟ (big-gown) and „Kembe‟ (big-trousers) for men. „Iro‟(wrapper)and „Buba‟(blouse) for women are stereotype and therefore unacceptable by youths in Oyo state. These challenges have created the low patronage of the traditional fabric „Aso-Oke‟ hence its extinction in production. The researcher observed that, the traditional fabric „Aso-Oke‟ has been replaced with foreign textiles like veritable wax, brocade (shedda), lace and other industrially made materials.This has led to the traditional weavers not being able to weave in bulk, leading to low production, hence affecting the transfer of heritage to the younger generation, (Van 1994). Another factor leading to its extinction isthe weight and texture.To solve all the above problems, the researcher believes that„Aso-Oke‟ when weaved lighter will solve the problems of weight and coarseness in texture.  It can be used to make other styles apart from the traditional styles, „Aso-Oke‟ canonly reduce in weight when adapted„Aso-Oke‟, is weaved with industrial thread, hence the study intended to determine the acceptability ofadaptedtraditional „Aso-Oke‟ for making  garments (skirt and blouse, jumper and trousers) for contemporary youths in Oyo

State.Therefore, the researcher producethe above garments with „Aso-Oke‟ for

acceptability.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

Major Objective

The major objective of the study is to determine the acceptability of adapted traditional„Aso-Oke‟in constructing garments for contemporary youths in Oyo state,

Nigeria.

Specific Objectives are to:

  1. Ascertain the difference between industrial yarns to produce contemporary „Aso-

Oke‟ fabricand conventional fabric in a way toreduce the weight.

  1. Ascertain the difference between texture (feel) of produce „Aso-Oke‟ fabric and conventional fabricin a way toimprove the texture (feel)
  2. adapt the produced traditional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric, to make garments for

contemporary   use.

  1. determine the level of acceptability of the produced fabric for special occasion among the youths in Oyo State.

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated forthis study:

  1. What is the difference between the weight of produced „Aso-Oke‟ and

conventional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric?

  1. What is the difference between texture (feel) of produced „Aso-Oke‟ and conventional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric?

3     To what extent could produce traditional „Aso-Oke‟ adaptto make garment for contemporary use?

4To whatextentis produced„Aso-Oke‟ acceptable by contemporary youths in Oyo State?

 

1.5        Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study

  1. There is no significant difference between the Weight of produced and

conventional traditional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric.

  1. There is no significant difference between the texture (feel) of produced and conventional traditional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric
  2. There is no significant difference between the produced traditional „Aso-Oke‟ fabricand conventional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric adaptsto make garments for contemporary use.
  3. There is no significant difference in the acceptability of the produced and conventional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric for special occasion by contemporary youths in Oyo- State.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be of great importance to the youths, the traditional weavers, the sellers of „Aso-Oke‟, the consumers of „Aso-Oke‟, Exporters of „AsoOke‟, the Home Economists and the Government of Nigeria in general.The grate benefit of this study goes to the youths who will use ‟Aso-Oke‟ as special occasion apparel. The use of industrial yarns for production of „Aso-Oke‟ will be of immense benefit to the local weavers who will adopt the established standardas their product to make diverse fashionable outfit that can be appreciated nationwide and internationally thereby promoting the Yoruba culture and boosting the economy of the „Aso-Oke‟ fabric.

The result ofthe research will be of advantage to all those who intend to establish cottage industry that specializes only in „Aso-Oke‟ fabric, applying the adapted new standard thereby being self-reliant and are able to generate income for their family through exhibition and sales.

The result will also be of benefit to the nation at large as these products will be exported thereby attracts tourism and at the same time promote the Yoruba culture. This study will be of a great benefit to the Home Economist and Industrial Designers teachers and students especially those in field of weaving as it will help in the use of fine industrial yarn and reduction of yarn count to produce light weight fabric.

The findings from this study will be of a great help to government in training youths for self-employment and man power development in the field of weaving.

 

1.7        Basic Assumptions of the Study

The researchwas based on the assumptions that:

  1. The weight and texture (feel) of traditional „Aso-Oke‟ can be reduced by

manipulating the yarns and changing the weave.

  1. After adapted the traditional „Aso-Oke‟,it can be used as special occasion outfit for contemporary youths and it was accepted by them.
  2. The local weavers accepted the established standard of weaving the adapted traditional „Aso-Oke‟ fabric thereby increasing their interest in the weaving profession.
  3. There will be high demand on the adapted fabric since these youths will accept it for special occasion.

1.8       Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to the studentsin Federal College of Education (special) Oyo and Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Oyo, because their response was used as inference to the reaction of other youths in Yoruba land. It is also delimited to production of four garments for male and female youths,made fromconventional „Aso-

Oke‟ fabricand produced „Aso-Oke‟ fabric.

TOLERABILITY OF ALTERED TRADITIONAL ‘ASO-OKE’ IN CREATING OUTFITS FOR MODERN-DAY YOUTHS IN  OYO STATE, NIGERIA

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