AN ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF SCHOOL STRUCTURE AND ENVIRONMENT ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT PERFORMANCE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The school is a social and learning agency that creates an environment in which a kid can be officially educated and achieve educational goals. Humans have an infinite potential to learn, but their ability to do so may be restricted by the behavior patterns and resources available in their immediate surroundings. Nature simply gives the raw materials in the form of potentials, according to Umoh (2006), but the environment decides the amount of development. Both the government and stakeholders have been confronted with the threat of academic failure among young school graduates. There is widespread agreement that education has deteriorated to the point that it is posing a serious threat to the Nigerian nation’s future manpower resources. The majority of secondary school pupils struggle with academic issues that present themselves in low academic performance. Many researchers have attempted to determine what is causing the decline in secondary school pupils’ academic performance. According to Adesehinwa (2013), the type of family and lack of funding have an impact on students’ academic achievement. Aiasa (2013) identified a lack of a good home foundation for students as a cause of poor student performance; Achieng (2012) identified home factors, student factors, and institutional capacity as causes; and Aremu (2010) proposed that factors residing in the child, family, society, government, and school may be composite causative effects for these downtrends; they, however, concluded that each of these variables must be thoroughly considered, hence the focus of this study. Other research have found that family cohesiveness (Caplan, 2002 quoted in Diaz, 2004) can predict performance. The government, parents, instructors, and even students themselves have been concerned about kids’ low academic performance in Nigeria. The quality of education is determined not only by the performance of instructors in their tasks, but also by the successful coordination of school factors. In terms of school size, construction, ownership, location, and kind, it is thought that school physical aspects have a link with student academic success. A school with a large number of students may cause teachers to be unable to monitor the students’ performance, lowering the students’ academic performance. Furthermore, research has suggested that there is a severe relationship between the ownership of a school and the academic performance of its students, i.e. public school and private school (Ogbemudia, 2001). In addition, the location and availability of educational resources at the students’ disposal in terms of school variables have an impact on their academic success. Environment is a system in which living creatures interact with physical elements, whereas education environment is a learning environment in which students study and engage with learning facilities in order to socialize and meet the difficulties of society. Environments, according to Agusiegbe (2004), are made up of all elements that exist around man and have some influence on him. Physical, biological, and social characteristics are among them. The term “environment” refers to the sum of all external conditions and influences that affect an organism’s life and development. 4 In this study, the term “environment” refers to all external conditions and influences in the school that have an impact on a student’s academic achievement, such as laboratory equipment, library facilities, qualified teachers, furniture, school building, good administrative management, teacher-student relationships, and school location. The government, parents, teachers, and even students themselves have been concerned about students’ low academic performance in Nigeria. The quality of education is dependent not only on teachers’ competence in their tasks, but also on the successful coordination of the school environment (Ajao, 2001). Education is a critical component of every country’s growth, including Nigeria’s. Nigeria’s western education is heavily oriented on individuality, socioeconomic growth, and globalization, all of which are directed toward national progress. As can be seen from the preceding, the school environment has a significant impact on a child’s academic progress. This problem of low performance is exacerbated in under-resourced schools, necessitating research into the impact of the school environment on students’ academic accomplishment in Delta State’s public secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue under investigation is the inadequate state of Nigeria’s educational system. The creation of government/community schools has resulted in a scenario where some schools are preferred over others in terms of providing a rich environment. The government has found it difficult, if not impossible, to standardize the school environment (Okoli, 2000). As a result, the atmosphere differs from one school to the next. Some schools have adequate school buildings, a decent library with appropriate texts, competent administrative leadership, properly prepared instructors, enough laboratory equipment, and a desirable location. While some schools have few or none of these, others have none at all. As a result, Chike (1997), in agreement with Ikediashi (2002), has said that bad teaching experience, insufficient or poor physical infrastructure, and unsuitable building design are likely to induce physical pain for pupils, hence influencing their academic progress. The study’s problem, expressed as a question, is: What is the impact of school facilities and equipment on the academic accomplishment of students in Delta State’s public secondary schools?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study’s major goal is to examine the impact of the school environment on students’ academic progress in Delta State’s public secondary schools. The following are the particular objectives:
i. Determine the impact of school physical facilities on secondary school students’ academic progress.
ii. To determine the extent to which the physical school environment, particularly school buildings, influences the academic outcomes of public secondary school pupils.
iii. To examine the impact of school location on public secondary school students’ academic success.
iv. To determine the extent to which school facilities influence public secondary school students’ academic success.
1.4 RESEARCH QUSTIONS
i. What are the impacts of school physical facilities on secondary school students’ academic progress?
ii. What is the extent to which the physical school environment, particularly school buildings, influences the academic outcomes of public secondary school pupils?
iii. What are the impacts of school location on public secondary school students’ academic success?
iv. What is the extent to which school facilities influence public secondary school students’ academic success?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research will expose instructors and act as a guide to help them understand their pupils and know what technique or method to employ in teaching to bridge the gap in academic performance, as well as how to arrange to ensure that every student succeeds regardless of his or her family’s circumstances. Furthermore, the findings and recommendations will aid policymakers, curriculum planners, and examination bodies in developing educational strategies for Nigerian students. Finally, this study will serve as a roadmap for future researchers who wish to do research in this field. It will raise further questions about the home environment and its impact on secondary school pupils’ academic achievement, as well as offer up new areas of research.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research includes schools in Delta state, although samples were gathered from the Okpe local government region of Delta state owing to time and money constraints.
1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are numerous elements that influence kids’ academic success in Nigeria, but this study focused solely on the school environment. Furthermore, this study only looked at secondary schools in the Okpe local government region of Delta state.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effect: the ability to impact someone’s or something’s character, growth, or behavior.
Environment: The surroundings or conditions in which a human, animal, or plant lives or works.
Performance refers to how well a student, instructor, or institution has met their short- and long-term educational objectives.
Secondary school is a school that sits halfway between elementary and high school.