A SURVEY ON THE INFLUENCE OF TERRORISM ON SOCIAL STUDIES PERFORMANCE IN PLATEAU STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION, NIGERIA
This study surveyed student opinion on the impact of Terrorism on performance in social studies in Colleges of Education, Plateau state, Nigeria. Three objectives, research questions and hypotheses each were developed for this study. The population covered all the NCE social studies students constituting 2117 students in Plateau state. Samples of
324 respondents were randomly selected based on Krejcie and Morgan‟s (1970) sample selection. The instrument used for data collection in this research was self developed questionnaire titled “Terrorism on Performance of students” (TPS), which was a 40 item modified 4 Likert scale instrument designed to identify the student‟s opinion on the impact of terrorism on performance in social studies. The Statistical package for Social Sciences was used to analyze the data. Frequencies and percentages were used for the demographic variables. Descriptive statistics of frequencies mean and standard deviations to answer the three research questions while the inferential statistics of Independent sample t- test was used to test the research hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findings revealed that there was no significant difference in the opinion of students in State College and Federal College on the impact of terrorism on performance of Social Studies students in plateau state colleges of education. Also no significant difference in the opinion of N.C.E II and III, as well as in the opinion of male and female Social Studies students. Based on the findings, the study recommended that NCE curriculum content should be uniform irrespective of college ownership as depicted in the findings. Furthermore, the study also recommended that there is the need for sensitization and awareness campaign on the negative impact of terrorism on performance of NCE students in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education. This will help in finding enabling environment conducive for students performance in the study area;
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES iv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS x
LIST OF APPENDICES xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 9
1.3 Objectives of the Study 10
1.4 Research Questions 10
1.5 Research Hypotheses 11
1.6 Significance of the Study 11
1.7 Scope of the Study 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Theoretical Framework 15
2.2.1 Sociological Theories of Terrorism 15
2.2.2 Psychological Theories of Terrorism 16
2.3 Concept of Social Studies 19
2.3.1 Objectives of social studies 21
2.3.2 Scope and Nature of Social Studies 24
2.3.3 History and Justification for the Teaching of Social Studies. 25
2.3.4 Challenges of Social Studies in Nigeria 28
2.3.5 Concept of Performance 39
2.3.6 Concept of Terrorism 39
2.3.7 An Overview of Terrorism in Plateau State 44
2.3.8 Stages of becoming a terrorist 45
2.3.9 Causes of Terrorism 49
2.4 Review of Related Empirical Studies 54
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 62
3.2 Research Design 62
3.3 Population of the Study 63
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 63
3.5 Instrumentation 64
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 64
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument 65
3.6 Data Collection procedure 65
3.7 Statistical Analysis Procedure 65
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction 67 4.2 Demographic Variables of the Respondents 67
4.3 Results Analysis 69
4.3.1 Answering Research Questions 69
4.3.2 Hypotheses Testing 71
4.4 Summary of major Findings 73
4.5 Discussion of Findings 74
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 76
5.2 Summary 76
5.3 Conclusion 77
5.4 Contribution to knowledge 78
5.5 Recommendations 78
5.6 Suggestion for further studies 79
Appendix A 85
Appendix B 86
Appendix C 90
Appendix D 91
Table LIST OF TABLES
|1:- Distribution of population of the study||63|
|2:- Distribution of the sample size of the study||64|
|3: Distribution of students by their gender||67|
|4: Distribution of students by School||68|
|5: Distribution of students by Class Level
6: Means and Standard deviations for State and Federal N.C.E Social Studies
| Students‟ opinion.
7: Means and Standard deviations for NCE II and N.C.E III Social Studies
| Students‟ opinion
8: Means and Standard deviations for male and female N.C.E Social Studies
| Students‟ opinion
9: Independent Samples t-test for State and Federal N.C.E Social Studies
| Students‟ opinion
10: Independent Samples t-test for NCE II and N.C.E III Social Studies
| Students‟ opinion
11: Independent Samples t-test for male and female N.C.E Social Studies
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
- P. C:- Oodua People‟s Congress
- C. E:- Nigeria Certificate in Education
N.P.E:- National Policy on Education
F.G.N:- Federal Government of Nigeria
- A:- United States of America
USAID:– United States Agency for International Development
SOSAN:- Social Studies Association of Nigeria
N.E.R D.C:- Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council
CESAC:- Comparative Educational Study and Adaption Centre
U.P.E.:- Universal Primary Education
U.N.:- United Nations
W.A.I:- War Against Indiscipline
MAMSER:- Mass Mobilization for Social Justice, Self Reliance, and Economic Recovery
DNA:- De-oxy Nucleic Acid
SPSS:- Statistical Package for the Social sciences
LIST OF APPENDICES
A: Introductory Letter 85
B: Students‟ Questionnaire 86
C: Analysis of Pilot Testing Result 90
D: Table for determining Sample Size 91
1.1 Background to the Study
There is no single, universally accepted definition of terrorism. Terrorism has a long history and several forms. Terrorism does not simply equal trauma. In general, the systematic use of violence and coercion to achieve some goal is taken as terrorism. Internationally, terrorism is defined as “the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to threaten or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment of political or social objectives”. In addition to the loss of life, terrorism has
affected the behaviour and psychological responses in humans. These psychobiological effects include physical and mental trauma. Currently some parts have been more affected by terrorism in the world, such as Nigeria. All walks of life have been affected; including the general population in various provinces of the country. Major cities in the country have been targeted. Men, women, children have lost their lives or have suffered mental, physical and social trauma which have affected their daily life and personality permanently. Any activity is now wrought with underlying tension of an unknown terrorist attack. The students have suffered in terms of their education, as schools, colleges and universities have been frequently closed due to the threat of terrorist attacks. Following these attacks the educational syllabus then has to be covered in a shorter duration of time and sometimes the educational institutions are opened on holidays, such as weekends to complete the curriculum in time. This has upset the routine of all students, their family life and social network. The tradition and culture of families is important for the development of the younger generations’ social and mental well-being, which may be adversely affected due to the long-term effects of terrorism. The parents are worried on a daily basis if and when to send their children to educational institutions. Socially also, these students are not able to enjoy or relax, due to the potential threat of terrorism. Their education may seriously be jeopardized. The effect on these youngsters which comprise 55 million of our population cannot be imagined.
The nation Nigeria has witnessed brutal confrontation and massive assault from terrorist group which is undoubtedly the most blood-thirsty and destructive, both in term of demonic brutality,
Mindless savagery and flagrant disobedience to the principles of peace and stability.
Nigeria has witnessed insurgency from this terrorist group called Boko Haram from 2009. They unleash terror and fear in the minds of every Nigeria. There is wanton destruction of government properties, bombing of churches, Mosques and other public places, assassination of prominent individuals, burning of schools occasioned by sporadic shooting of innocent citizens.
However, before 2009, Nigeria also witnessed several forms of terrorism which is a deliberate and systematic use of violence to destroy, kill, maim, and intimidate the innocent in order to achieve a goal or draw national or international attention to demands which ordinarily may be impossible or difficult to achieve under normal political negotiation or on the battlefield against a government army. British Journal of Education Vol.1, No 2. December 2013 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.ea–journals.org).
Obioma (2012) noted that some of these terrorists attacks are politically motivated even though some may have other ancillary motives such as religions, economic or social. Before the declaration of amnesty for Niger Delta youths by Presidents
Yaradua in 2005, the Niger Delta region had terrorist groups such as Movement for the Survival of Ogoni People (MOSOP), Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), Niger Delta People Volunteer Force, the Egbesu Boys and Niger Delta Vigilante with a long history dating. to the Adaka Boro Movement in the 1960‟s (Ayangase, 2010) and through to Ken Saro Wiwa‟s struggles. These militant groups launched agitation against environmental degradation, unemployment, poverty, deprivation and marginalization in the Niger Delta areas of Nigeria. In the east, the Bakasi Boys and the Bakasi Movement for the Actualizations of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) are also terrorist groups fighting for equal rights and security of N‟digbo true federalism, autonomy and political relevance of the Igbo people in Nigeria having been ravaged by the civil war and abandoned thereafter. The Odua people‟s Congress (OPC) is the militating wing and mouth-piece of the Egbe-Omo-Oduduwa for the Yorubas in the Western Region of Nigeria. It was used by dominant political parties in the West to advance their courses and achieve sanity. The Arewa people‟s congress in the Northern Region was also a formidable group. Several pockets of minor militant groups also arose in places like the Jos Plateau area, Igala, Idoma, Zaki, Ihiam etc there interest was mainly on land acquisition, boundary adjustment and grazing rights.
Abiye (2011) noted that domestic terrorism arose in Nigeria because emergent militant groups took advantage of government‟s inefficient action and inactions in dealing with the fundamental elements of nationhood. Such as internal security, resource control, injustice, corruption, ethnicism, sycophancy, favouritism, over lordship, and marginalization. These factors have made terrorism be ethniced in
Currently the nation is witnessing high spate of insecurity especially in the northern
Nigeria by a group of terrorists known as Boko Haram. The Jama‟atu Ahlus-Sunnah lid-da wal Jihad popularly knowns as Boko Haram is a strong terrorist group which has its base in Northern-eastern Nigeria. Musa, (2011) stated that the Boko haram has been in existence since 2001 but did not become popular until 2009 when they participated actively in the sectarian violence which occurred in the Northern Nigeria. The name Boko Haram is a Hausa statement, which upon translated into English mean “Western education is sinful”. This group is opposed to everything that is of Western origin, more especially Western education; its ideologies and systems.
Etymologically “Boko in Hausa language means Animist, western or otherwise non Islamic education, and the Arabic meaning of Haram figuratively means „sin‟. Boko Haram opposes not only western education but western culture and modern science as well. Yusuf (2009) stated that the belief that the world is a sphere is contrary to Islam and should be rejected along with Darwism and the theory that rain comes from water evaporated the sun.
This group was founded in 2002 in Maiduguri by Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf. In 2004, it moved to Kanamma, Yobe State where it set up a base called “Afganistan”. This base was used to attack nearby police outposts, killing police officers, burning Churches and schools with a vow that the war will continue as long as the political and educational system was not changed. The Boko haramists prefer the Sharia Law applied all over the country and this will be difficult for the government to comply. They vowed that they would rather have a separate Islamic state carved out of Nigeria where they can practice their religion unhindered. The Federal Government of
Nigeria saw these demands as treasonable, unreasonable and unaccepted and in an attempt to purge the group of its excesses, Mohammed Yusuf the leader was killed in 2009. Adamu (2009) stated that from that year and following the assumption of a new leadership headed by Abubakar British Journal of Education Vol.1, No 2. pp. 1-9,
December 2013 Published by European Centre for Research Training and Development UK (www.ea-journals.org)
Shekau, Boko Haram reinvented violence and began what can best be described as the bombardment of northern Nigeria, with such frequency and intensity that are quite unprecedented in the in the history of violence in Nigeria Ajayi (2011) enumerated the following activities of the Boko Harams in Nigeria.
- In January, 2010 the group struck in Borno State killing four people in Dala Alemden waid in Maiduguri metropolis.
- On September 7 2010, Boko haram freed over 700 inmates from a prison in Bauchi
- In December, 2010 Boko haram were blamed for a market bombing, following 92 of its members arrested by police.
- On Friday January, 28 2011, a gubernatorial candidate was assassinated along with his brother and four police officers.
- On March 29, police thwarted a plot to bomb an ANPP election Rally in Maiduguri,
- On April I 2011 suspected Boko Haram attacked a police station in Bauchi.
- On April 15, 2011, the Independent National electoral commission was bombed in
- April 22, 2011, Boko Haram freed 14 prisoners in Yola
- May 29, 2011, multiple bombing in Northern Nigeria.
- June 26, 2011, bombing of a beer parlour in Maiduguri, 25 people died.
- June 16, 2011 Bombing of the Police Force Headquarter in Abuja.
- August 12, 2011, killing of prominent Muslim cleric Liman Borno.
- August, 26 2011 – Bombing of the United Nations (UN) House in Abuja 23 died – November, 2011 – Attack on the convoy of Borno Governor, Kashim Shettima on
his return trip abroad.
- November, 2011 – coordinated bombing and shooting attacks on police facilities in Potiskum and Damaturu in Yobe state, 150 died.
- December 25, 2011 – Multiple bomb attacks. Killed dozens including 35 worshippers at St. Theresa Catholic Church Madala.
- January 5 & 6, 2012 Multiple bombings in Kano.
- January 20, 2012 – The Kano bombing
- February 8, 2012 – Suicide bombing at the army headquarters in Kaduna
- February 16, 2012 – Prison break in central Nigeria, 130 prisoners released.
- April 26, 2012 – 15 Church goers killed in Bauchi
- June 17 2012 – Suicide bombing attacks on three Churches in Kaduna 100 worshipers died.
- The list of the various attacks by this sect – Boko Haram in 2013 is endless. They have unleashed fear and terror in the minds of the people staying in these parts of the country thereby affecting every aspects of their social and economic life. Such insecurity has led to massive migration from such troubled areas to other parts of the country which is believed to be less vulnerable to Boko Haram attack.
Unlike other parts of Nigeria, which have experienced periodic outbreaks of indiscriminate terrorist activities with tragic regularity, Jos was always viewed as a place of peace and beauty until the early 90s. It was thus an easy haven for people fleeing violence in other neighbouring areas. This regular influx of populations bearing testimonies of the atrocities that they left behind from clashes in Kaduna, Bauchi, and Taraba states may have inadvertently contributed to an atmosphere of fear in inhabitants of Plateau State. The resulting increase in population in Jos escalated economic and demographic pressures, leading in turn to the scarcity of goods and increase in tension. Plateau State has a majority of Christian inhabitants with Muslims constituting a minority. The Jos metropolis consists of several ethnic groups, which fall into two broad categories: the “indigenes” or original inhabitants of the area, among them are the Berom, the Afitzere and the Anaguta and the “nonindigenes” or “settlers” composed of the Urhobo, Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa-Fulani, and members of other ethnic groups predominantly found in other parts of Nigeria. However, other ethnic groups except the Hausa-Fulani are not laying claim to Jos as their place of origin even though they too have settled in Jos for many years. The major causes of the Jos crises as reported by scholars like Danfulani, & Fwatshak (2002), Best (2007) and Umejesi (2010) centred around the politics of participation in government by both “indigenes” and “settlers” (mostly Hausa-Fulani). Issues here include elections to the Jos North Local Government Council and Chairmanship that were held in 1991, soon after the council was created; the appointment of the chairmanship of the Jos North Caretaker Committee in early April 1994; the attempted appointment in 1996 of Ado Ibrahim, to the post of Secretary of the Jos
North Education Authority; the appointment of the NAPEP Coordinator for Jos North Local Government by a Federal Government Agency in 2001; the 2008 Local Government elections. Other issues such as lopsided biased reportage of the crisis by both local and foreign media, cow rustling and religious affiliation only served as impetus to inflame the already tensed situation
On Christmas Eve 2010 as many as half a dozen bombs were detonated near churches and a market in two districts of Jos, Plateau state, killing scores of people. At the time it was not assumed to be a Boko Haram attack; it was thought to be a nasty twist to the long-standing ethno-political conflict there. Then, on New Year‟s Eve 2010 a bomb was detonated in a popular open-air fish restaurant and market inside the grounds of the Mogadishu barracks, just outside Abuja, killing ten people. While it sits very close to a military barracks,
The market is frequented mostly by civilians and was loosely protected.
Since the end of 2010 also, security has further deteriorated in Jos and other affected crises local Government areas because of terror attacks and suicide bombings which claims thousands of lives and properties worth millions of Naira, these crises kept occurring, concurrently in different parts of the state, the latest reoccurrence is the number of people fled their homes and were turned to refuges in neighboring states. Terrorism has had enormous negative consequences on the plateau. Thus, it is from this perspective that this essay intends to investigate on the assessment of student‟s opinion on impact of terrorism on performance in social studies in plateau state colleges of education.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The success of a nation is dependent upon how successful curriculum delivery in school is done properly. To realize the Nigerian agenda of tracking the high rate of crime, poverty, youth and graduate unemployment, over economic growth, security challenges among others must be addressed. A terrorist event can seriously interrupt the school routine and the processes of teaching and learning. There are usually high levels of emotional upset, potential for disruptive behavior or loss of student attendance unless efforts are made to reach out to students and staff with additional information and services. Students traumatized by exposure to violence have been shown to have lower grade point averages, more negative remarks in their cumulative records, and more reported absences from school than other students. They may have increased difficulties concentrating and learning at school and may engage in unusually reckless or aggressive behavior.
Plateau state has in the last decade experience religious and communal conflict which has virtually engulfed some of the local Government area. Contest between different ethnic, religious, economical, political groups have in sporadic violence in which many lives and properties have been lost. The recent continuous terrorist activities in the state particularly in wase, Langtang north and south, Barikin Ladi, Riyom, Jos south Local Government Area are alarming to the state. The rate of terrorist activity in the state from 2010 to 2015 has relatively increased to the extent that students may likely be suffered psychologically. Some of these students in the conflict areas have lost their relations and are exposed to tension, fear, and stress, anxiety as a result of bombings, gun shots, wounds and killings. Their schools have become refugee camps and most of them are separated from their love ones left to defend for themselves.
Now, these have created disagreement, mistrust and hostilities in the environment. The nature of problem has religious, political and ethnic undertones which are detrimental to student‟s psychological stability and adjustment in school. The different experiences on terrorist activities are likely to affect student‟s performance and this may equally affect their school learning conditions. The problem of this study hinges on the determination of the extent to which terrorism impacted on student‟s performance in plateau state colleges of education as express by their opinions.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to investigate the student‟s opinion on the impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education. Specifically, the study intends to:
- investigate the opinion of N.C.E Social Studies students on the impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education based on gender; ii. find out the opinion of N.C.E Social Studies students on impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education based on level; iii. find out the opinion of NCE Social Studies students on impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education based on college ownership.
1.4 Research questions
Based on the above related objectives, the following research questions were answered;
- to what extent does the opinion of male and female N.C.E Social Studies students differ on the impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education?
- Is there any difference in the opinion of N.C.E. II and III Social Studies students on the impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education?
- To what extent does the opinion of Federal and State College of Education Social Studies students differ on the impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in
Plateau State colleges of education?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
This study stated and tested the following null hypotheses at p≤0.05.
Ho1: There is no significant difference in the opinion of male and female Social
Studies students on impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of Education;
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the opinion of N.C.E II and III Social
Studies student‟s on impact of terrorism on performance in Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education;
Ho3. There is no significant difference in the opinion of Federal and State College of
Education Social Studies students on impact of terrorism on performance in
Social Studies in Plateau State colleges of education.
1.6 Significance of the study
The significance of this research work is to learn effective strategies for protecting and promoting students living in terrorism affected areas of plateau state to recover from their developmental threats of terrorism to cope with their school activities. Other beneficiaries include:
Government; the findings of the study will be of immense benefit to government on how best to put mechanism in place aimed at curtailing terrorism in order to facilitate effective teaching and learning Social Studies at the two colleges of education in Plateau State.
The study will provide the relevant information to the curriculum planners which could be vital to curriculum content development. The educational planners will glum tremendously on the needed measures to be taken so as to ensure safety at their learners.
The study will provide to the colleges of education management on the impact of terrorism on students thereby given them a meaningful foresight to strategize plans that will reduce the chance at terrorist attack.
The study will provide the security agencies with facts on the affected population which will enable them to map out modalities to tract the culprits.
The findings from the study will provide the lecturers and teachers those set of population affected; this will pave way to base their student‟s assessment on the facts of damages done to students by terrorist attack.
The study will be beneficial to parents by making them knowing the ravage done by terrorism on their children thereby encouraging them to practice good parenting. The study will provide to researchers information needed by them for review during
Researcher and Ministry of Education will organize a seminar to sensitize teachers, counselors and parents on how to adjust with the occurrence as to find meaning in life. Publishing the findings in a Nigerian Journal of social studies and Civic Education will serve as a reference point for social studies experts and non- governmental organisation for peace building.
The counselors, school psychologist and NGOs will benefit from the material as a model for reviewing content about conflict and conflict resolution with a view of bringing peaceful co- existence among all citizens particularly plateau state.
1.7 Scope of the study
The scope of this study covers a survey of student‟s opinion on the impact of terrorism on performance in social studies in plateau state colleges of education, Nigeria. The study shall involve all the social studies N.C.E 11, and 111 students.
Thus, the entire NCE social studies student of College of Education Gindiri and
Federal College of Education Pankshin are involved in the research.
A SURVEY ON THE INFLUENCE OF TERRORISM ON SOCIAL STUDIES PERFORMANCE IN PLATEAU STATE COLLEGES OF EDUCATION, NIGERIA