A STUDY OF ROLE PERFORMANCE OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATORS IN THE SUPERVISION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA 

0
161

A STUDY OF ROLE PERFORMANCE OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATORS IN THE SUPERVISION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA 

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the Role Performance of District Supervisors in the Management of Primary Schools in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study developed five objectives, which are set to examine the roles performance of District Supervisors on staff development, assess the roles performance of District supervisors on the provision of school instructional guidance, determine the roles performance of District Supervisors on school community relationship, identify the role performance of District Supervisors on awakening the school administrators on effective leadership and examine the role performance of District Supervisors on curriculum development and classroom management in Katsina state. The research questions, hypotheses and review of related literatures were in line with formulated objectives. Survey research method was adopted and the population of the study consisted of 21,985 teachers and educational administrators of Katsina State. But, cluster sampling technique was used to derive the population of the study from the three Educational Zones; 3,955 teachers and 286 educational administrators were randomly selected from six local governments of the State; which are Daura, Zango, Katsina, Kaita, Funtua and Danja. The total number of sampled respondents was 432 teachers and educational administrators. The data for the study were collected through the use of self constructed questionnaire; the validity of the instrument was determined through vetting of the content by expert in educational administration and English language. The reliability coefficient was obtained at 0.77. The data collected were presented by the use of frequency and percentages. The formulated hypotheses of the research were tested using non-parametric statistics of t-test at 0.05 significant levels. The findings of the study indicated that there were regular staff development programmes due to the roles and function of district supervisors in Katsina State. While, there was no proper school instructional guidance due to the poor function of district supervisors in Katsina State. In view of the findings, conclusions and recommendations were made to improve the situation in Katsina State, and Nigeria at large

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents ……………………………………………….……………………..Page

 

  1. Title page …………………………………………………………………………………………ii
  2. Declaration ……………………………………………………………………………….iii
  • Certification ………………………………………………………………………………iv iv. Dedication  ………………………………………………………………………………..v
  1. Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………..……………vi vi. Abstract  ………………………………………………………………………………….vii
  • Table of Contents………………………………………………………………………..viii
  • List of Tables ……………………………………………………………………….…….xi ix. List of figures……………………………………………………………………………..xiii
  1. Abbreviations ….………………………………………………………………………..xiv

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study…….…………….………………..……………….….….1

1.2        Statement of the Problem ………………..……..……………….…………………5

1.3        Objectives of the Study…………….….…………..………………….…….………7

1.4        Research Questions……………….…….……………..……………………..……8

1.5         Research Hypotheses …………….…….………………..…………………….….8

1.6        Basic Assumptions…………….………….…………………………………….. …9

1.7        Significance of the Study ……..…………………………………………………..9

1.8        Scope of the Study…….………….…………..………………………………….10

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1        Introduction …….………………………………………….……….………… …11

2.2        Conceptual Framework…….……………………………………….…………… 11

2.2.1 Concept of role……………..……………………………………….…………… 11

2.2.2 Concept of performance .……………………………………….………………….12

2.2.3 Factors Affecting Supervisors‟ Performance ……………………….……………13

2.2.4 Concept of Supervision …….……………………………………….……………14

2.2.5 Meaning of Educational Supervisor ….…………………………….……………16 2.2.6 Types of Supervision …….……………………………………….……………..20

 

2.2.7 Objectives of Supervision …….……………………………………….………..22

2.2.8 Duties of District Supervisor ……………………………………………………23

2.3        Roles performance of district supervisors on staff dev. in primary schools ……..24

2.3.1    The need for supervision …….…………………………………….…….………27

2.4       Roles performance of district supervisors on the provision

of instructional guidance…………………………………………………………28

2.4.1     Local Education Authority Chart ……………………………………………….29

2.5        Roles performance of district supervisors on school-community

relationship in primary schools ……………………………………………………………….32

2.6        Roles performance of district supervisors on wakening school

administrators ……………………………………………………………………36

2.7         Roles performance of district supervisors on curriculum development .………..38

2.8        Empirical Studies…………………………………………………………………41

2.9        Summary …………………………………………………………………………42

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1         Introduction ………………………………………………………..……………43

3.2         Research Design…………………………………………………………………43

3.3         Population …………….…………………………………………………..……..43

3.4         Sample and Sampling Technique ………………………………………….……44

3.5          Instrumentation …………………………………………………………………45

3.6         Validity of the Instrument….…………………………………………………….46

3.7         Pilot Study……………………………………………………………………….46

3.8         Reliability of the instruments……………………………………………………46

3.9         Methods of Data Collection …………..…………………………………………47

3.10       Methods of Data Analysis……………………………………………………….47

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF DATA ANALYSIS

4.1        Introduction……………………………………………………………………….48

4.2       Bio Data………………………………………………………………………….49

4.3       Opinions of Respondents on the Roles performance of District

Supervisors in primary schools in Katsina State…………………………………50

4.3.1 Roles performance of District Supervisors on Staff Development

primary schools in Katsina State…………………………………………………51

4.3.2 Roles performance of District Supervisors on the Provision  of Instructional Guidance in Primary Schools in Katsina state …………………55

4.3.3    Roles performance of District Supervisors on School Community

Relationship in Katsina state……………………………………………………59

4.3.4    Roles performance of District Supervisors on awakening the school  administrators on effective leadership in primary schools in Katsina state……..63

4.3.5    Roles performance of District Supervisors on Curriculum Development

and Classroom Management in Primary Schools in Katsina state………………67

4.4.       Hypotheses Testing …………………………………………………….…………71

4.5        Summary of Major Findings………..……………………………………………78

4.6        Discussion of the Findings………..……………………………………………….78

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1        Summary of the study…………..………………………………….….…………84

5.2        Conclusions…………………………………………….….………………………86

5.3        Recommendations……..……………………….…….……………………………88

5.4        Suggestion for Further Research …………………………………………………91

          References………………………………………………………………..………………91

Appendix A………………………………………………………………………………. 95

Appendix   B……………………………………………………………………………………………..97 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Contents…..…………………………………………………………………………Pages

Table 3.1:   Population of the study.……………………………………….……………………44

Table 3.2:    Samples of the Study …..……………………………………………………………45

Table 4.1:    Status of the respondents in frequency and percentage ……………………49

Table 4.2:    Gender of respondents in frequency and percentage…………………………49

Table 4.3:    Age of respondents in frequency and percentage……………………………49

Table 4.4:    Qualification of respondents in frequency and percentage……………….…50

Table 4.5:     Years of experience of respondents in frequency and percentage….……….50

Table 4.6:   Opinions of Respondents on the Roles performance of District

Supervisors on Staff Development in Katsina State ………………………..52 Table 4.7:   Opinions of Respondents on the Roles performance of District

Supervisors on the Provision of Instructional Guidance in Katsina state ……57

Table 4.8: Opinions of Respondents on Roles performance of District

Supervisors on School Community Relationship in Katsina state……………61

Table 4.9:  Opinions of Respondents on Roles performance of District  Supervisors on awakening the school administrators

on effective leadership in Katsina state………………………………………62

Table 4.10: Opinions of Respondents on the Roles performance of District  Supervisors on Curriculum Development and Classroom Management

in Primary Schools in Katsina state………………………………………….69

Table 4.11: Summary of t-test Analysis on there is no Significant Difference  in the Opinions of Teachers and Educational Administrators on the roles  and Functions of District Supervisors on Staff Dev. in Katsina State……….72

Table 4.12: Summary of t-test Analysis on There is no Significant Difference  in the Opinions of Teachers and Educational Administrators on the roles  and Functions of District Supervisors on the Provision of Instructional

Guidance in Primary School in Katsina State……………………………….73

Table 4.13: Summary of t-test Analysis on there is no Significant Difference  in the Opinions of Teachers and Educational Administrators on the roles  and Functions of District Supervisors on School Community Relationship

in Katsina State……………………………………………………………..74

Table 4.14: Summary of t-test Analysis on there is no Significant Difference  in the Opinions of Teachers and Educational Administrators on the roles  and functions of district supervisors on Awakening the School

Administrators on Effective Leadership in Katsina State……………………75

Table 4.15:  Summary of t-test Analysis on There is no Significant Difference  in the Opinions of Teachers and Educational Administrators on the roles  and Functions of District Supervisors on Curriculum Development

in Katsina State………………………………………………………………76

Table 4.16:  Summary of Hypotheses Testing……..……………………………………..77 FIGURES

Fig. 5.1: A proposed Model of roles performance of district supervisors in the school…89  GLOSSARY OF ACRONYMS

NCE: Nigeria Certificate in Education
SSCE: Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination
UNESCO: United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization
UBEC: Universal Basic Education Commission
NPE: National Policy on Education
FRN: Federal Republic of Nigeria
PhD: Doctor of Philosophy
M.ED: Master of Education
FCT: Federal Capital Territory
NTI: National Teachers Institute
B.ED: Bachelor of Education
PGDE: Post Graduate Diploma in Education
LVT: Long Vacation Training
SUBEB: State Universal Basic Education Board
LGEA: Local Government Education Authority

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

      1.1       Background to the Study

A district supervisor is responsible for providing management and oversight of service staff within a specific geographic area. This role has three primary responsibilities: manage staff, provide training, and resolve conflicts. District supervisor is not a sales-related position, but is instead one that focuses on the level of service being provided by staff working in the district. The qualifications required to become a supervisor varies widely by education management. In most cases, the candidate is promoted from within, after completing many years of working experience. Typically, the candidate is promoted to local supervisor first, and then is eligible to apply for positions as a district supervisor. This type of career growth takes time and requires consistently high quality performance (Wenger 1991).

The primary role performance of a district supervisor is to manage the staff, depending on the size on the organization, there may be local supervisors or perhaps all the field staff report directly to the district supervisor. It is the responsibility of the district supervisor to follow up with staff, reinforce policy, monitor performance, and provide support. In addition to managing existing staff, the district supervisor often has full human resources management responsibilities such as training, termination, discipline, and even recruitment. The district supervisor is responsible for setting the standards, working with staff to increase their skills, and encouraging career development.

In the school system, district supervisor is changed with many responsibilities; these include teachers‟ development, utilization of teaching and learning new techniques, and research that disproved old methods of school management. This means that district supervisor is responsible for arranging staff training to ensure everyone keeps skills up to date and continues to learn. Conflict resolution is an important part of being a district supervisor in the school organization. Staff will escalate issues that cannot be resolved through normal channels, and clients will approach the supervisor with issues. Excellent listening and communication skills are critical to success in this aspect of the role.  District Supervisors are often required to work long hours and be available outside standard school hours to resolve issues. At this level, district supervisor is typically paid a flat salary, but performance bonuses may be included. Merit or performance-based pay structure helps to keep teachers motivated and working to their potential.

The person in this role usually reports to the Education Authority or Ministry of Education. Some time he may be a member of the senior management team, depending on the size of the management. People who enjoy this type of work are naturally assertive, problem solvers, and have a high energy level. The immediate roots of what we have come to know as role performance of district supervisor in the school lie in the development of social work and casework. We see this, for example, in the concern for the needs of teachers; and the taking up of ideas and practices that owe much to the emergence of psychoanalysis.

However, to make sense of supervision it is necessary to look to the various forms of apprenticeship that have existed in different societies. In ancient China, Africa and Europe (feudal and otherwise), for example, there are numerous examples of people new to a craft or activity having to reveal their work to, and explore it with, masters or mistresses i.e. those recognized as skilled and wise. This process of being attached to an expert, of „learning through doing‟ allows the novice to gain knowledge, skill and commitment. It also enables them to enter into a particular „community of practice‟ such as teaching, tailoring or midwifery (Wenger 1991).

It is the essential duty of district supervisors to ensure teachers‟ development and productivity. Thus, the progress and development of teacher is regarded as the most priority if the quality of education is to be enhance. This is the primary responsibility of the supervisor whose efforts are focus towards improving the quality of education generally in the schools. Seminars and inductions curses are usually arrange during the long vocation for teachers of all grades and in all subjects. All these are aimed at finding solutions to problems and at the sometime making available to teachers modern techniques both in the art of teaching and in the preparation of teaching aids. This also will enable the teachers to be very much conversant and up-to-date with the ways and techniques of the contemporary world.

However, purpose of supervision entails helping professional growth and cooperation thereby making teachers become self directive, creative, and more productive. In addition, it is to ensure that each individual teacher within the school system has been performing the duties for which he was scheduled. In his elaboration of the purpose of supervision, Adesina (1981) said that it also include the understanding of the performance of teachers employed to teach in the school system, coupled with the evaluation of their suitability for promotion, to also provide a guide for staff development and to know the effectiveness of classroom management by the teachers; to comprehend the direction, assess the tone and identify some of the most urgent needs of the school.

An important skill for teachers, particularly beginning teachers to acquire, is that of the selection of appropriate instructional materials to mach their style of teaching. The supervisor should be able to assist the teacher in this respect. UBE programme (2002) stated that, good teaching materials can make big differences on the outcome of

instruction.

Senior Inspector of Education (SIE) is the next to the PIE. His main duty is to look to the quality of schools within the district. He is also responsible for the distribution and proper utilization of teaching equipment and materials in his area. Meanwhile, he is to see the repairs of school buildings in his area by his recommendations and submit reports and furniture‟s requirements for schools to the PIE.

It is one of the major responsibilities of the supervisor is to help the administrator, other personnel and community to provide the best possible ways of teaching and learning for pupils and school maintenance. In view of this, supervision could be viewed under three main processes namely: social process, psychological process and educational process. “The changing of behaviour is dependent upon the learning process which is another aspect of psychology. Successful supervisors must know how to assist teachers to eliminate undesirable behavioural pattern and to learn more appropriate teaching techniques based on a good learning process”. Render all possible assistance at their disposal to teachers in maintaining educational progress and development; ensure educational progress and development through the compilation of pamphlets and handbooks on general or particular aspect of education; assist the teacher in the use of materials and books, in the planning and organization of extra-curriculum activities coupled with informing them about contemporary research on new teaching methods; supervises, assess, and report on the arrangements for the training and re-training of teachers etc.

In view of the above, coupled with the deterioration of primary education in particular and the educational situation in general, the Katsina State Government organized numerous consultative forums to mobilize public opinion on how best to revive the ailing educational sector. These in which many people were contacted, gave birth to a new educational policy tagged the “The Education Advancement Programme” (KEAP), Babajo (2001). The broad out look of the programme is appraising all education subsectors from primary to the tertiary. Also to tackle the deteriorating condition of primary schools, the Primary Education Board was given the directive to resuscitate the subsector. The board, State Primary Education Board (SPEB) in collaboration with other concerned establishments rehabilitated dilapidated structures. Thus, primary school inspectorate unit was created in Katsina State Ministry of Education in order to bring about better foundation at the primary schools level. Meanwhile to upgrade the standard of teachers, through in service training, seminars and workshops in various professional courses were held.

 

      1.2       Statement of the Problem

The role performance of district educational supervisors in promoting the positive change and innovation in an educational organization or school is beyond any doubt an important one. This study focused on the role performance of District Supervisors in the management of primary schools in Katsina State.

The problems of district supervision become more apparent because of the complexities and expansions in the number of primary schools. It is therefore, the opinion of the researcher that, the increasing number of primary school in the state may possibly pave way for the employment of teachers who were unqualified and untrained to form the teaching force. In addition, several challenges are posed to supervision looking at the size of the population of the supervised district.

For instance, it was believed that the appointment of District School Supervisors in the Local Education Authorities or in the state level indicates the recognition of the supervisor‟s importance in order to maintain their existence throughout the state. But unfortunately the states have lowered the level of supervision which as a consequences lead to the unqualified out put of education managers.  From all indication, the lack of qualified supervisors could be one of the major factors that lead to the collapse of primary education throughout the state. In fact, the acute shortage of textbooks and other essential teaching materials had characterized the primary school system. But in realizing the importance of primary education, the Primary Schools Management Board (PSMB) too established an inspectorate and supervision unit and also created the office of District School Supervisor. To complement this effort, monitoring and education unit should be created to charge with the responsibility of overseeing the activities of the supervisions.

Despite all the said efforts, the general publics in Katsina State were still crying on the deplorable condition of primary education. This indicates that there is low or lack of qualitative supervisors. Matazu (2001) lamented that; “The problems of education in this state are known by many of us. The cause of this is no doubt includes, irregular staff development programmes for teachers academic performance, shortage of school facilities, weakness of educational administrators, school community problem, the supply of teaching and learning materials have been inadequate and even the little supplied are highly under utilized by in-experience and under qualified teachers, the present condition in most of our schools in the state is nothing to write home about”.

Absence of adequate supervision facilities in Katsina State Primary Schools contributes gigantically to the problems. The situation is worst in rural areas, where many blown off roofs exist, which have not been replaced; doors and windows have fallen-off. Kabir (2001) stressed that; “poor district supervision make the environment very difficult for teaching, where our teachers and pupils are exposed to serious hazard”.

 

      1.3       Objectives of the Study

The study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. examine the role performance of district Supervisors on staff development in primary schools in Katsina State.
  2. assess the role performance of district supervisors on the provision of school instructional guidance in primary schools in Katsina State.
  3. determine the role performance of district Supervisors on school-community relationship in primary schools in Katsina State.
  4. identify the role performance of district supervisors on awakening the school administrators on effective leadership in primary schools in Katsina State.
  5. examine the role performance of district supervisors on curriculum development and classroom management in primary schools in Katsina State.

 

 

 

 

1.4      Research Questions

The research work asked the following questions to guide the study:-

  1. Examine the role performance of district Supervisors on staff development in primary schools in Katsina State.
  2. Assess the role performance of district supervisors on the provision of school instructional guidance in primary schools in Katsina State.
  3. Determine the role performance of district Supervisors on school-community relationship in primary schools in Katsina State.
  4. Identify the role performance of district supervisors on awakening the school administrators on effective leadership in primary schools in Katsina State.
  5. Examine the role performance of district supervisors on curriculum development and classroom management in primary schools in Katsina State.

 

      1.5       Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and educational administrators on the role performance of district Supervisors on staff development in primary schools in Katsina State.
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and educational administrators on the role performance of district supervisors on the provision of school instructional guidance in primary schools in Katsina State.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and educational administrators on the role performance of district Supervisors on schoolcommunity relationship in primary schools in Katsina State.
  4. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and educational administrators on the role performance of district supervisors on awakening the school administrators on effective leadership in primary schools in Katsina State.
  5. There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and educational administrators on the role performance of district supervisors on curriculum development and classroom management in primary schools in Katsina State.

 

      1.6       Basic Assumptions

  1. It is assumed that if school inspectors will perform their duties effectively it will likely to change teachers‟ behaviour and develop teaching and learning process in Katsina State.
  2. Dedicated district inspectors improve instructional management and provide instructional guidance to schools in Katsina State.
  3. District supervisors identify the strengths and weaknesses of school with appropriate recommendations for improvement of school community relationship.
  4. Adoption of democratic leadership style by school administrators improve teaching and learning process in Katsina State.
  5. School curriculum will be developed if district supervisors play significant role performance within schools in Katsina State.

 

      1.6       Significance of the Study

The place of educational supervisors is very important in the school administration. For instance, teachers‟ development for quality and productivity enhance through their assessment and recommendations on training and re-training of teachers. They also, play vital role on the improvement of instructions in schools. This is so because, there should be a system of checking and controlling what is being taught in schools. In fact supervision of school enhances the sustenance of educational standard.

Moreover, district supervisors enhance and encourage cogent school community relationship as well as contribution toward the curriculum development in Katsina State. Based on the said fact, the District School Supervisor plays an important role performance in the maintenance of education in all educational institutions. In addition, supervisors help to provide the climate and conditions that are best for learning. Meanwhile, it evaluates the specific learning situations to ascertain the needs of children and efficiency of instruction. Due to the significant of supervisor, he or she is considered as a leader because he/she guides the actions of others.

 

1.7   Scope of the Study

This study is limited within the scope of Katsina State. It intended to look into the role performance of the District Supervisor in the State towards the progress and development of learning teaching process in primary schools. Katsina State has 34 Districts with 201 District school supervisors spread all over the districts, Education

Officers and Chief Inspectors of Education in the 34 Local Government Education Authorities. And a research of this nature could not cover the entire of these officials. In view of this, a sample was selected to represent the whole population. This in order to ensure that each and every group is adequately represented.

A STUDY OF ROLE PERFORMANCE OF DISTRICT ADMINISTRATORS IN THE SUPERVISION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KATSINA STATE, NIGERIA 

Leave a Reply