A CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON THE IMPACT OF TEACHER’S POOR ATTITUDE OF IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The most common method of teacher evaluation is through student evaluation. Other methods include teacher evaluation by the principal, peer evaluation, self-evaluation, and the use of test data. Students evaluating teachers imply that students who are being taught by a teacher are required to express their opinions and feelings about the effectiveness of their teacher’s instructional processes and activities over time, as well as the extent to which those processes and activities have benefited them. The ideas and sentiments of such pupils have been utilized as feedback data to improve instruction and teachers’ professional development. They’ve also been used as the foundation (or part of the rationale) for personnel decisions such as promotion, salary raises, dismissals, and other types of award/reprimand for the teacher being evaluated. As a result, Student Teacher Evaluation is a phenomena and practice that has thrived in the murky seas of controversy throughout the years. It’s one technique to hold the instructor accountable to his or her students.
Instructions are occasionally used as a measure of the instructor’s performance from the students’ perspective in student assessments of the teacher. Although they are most commonly used at the post-secondary (college) level, some authors have claimed that the ratings might be used at the secondary and even primary school levels. The use of student ratings in teacher evaluation is based on the assumptions that: (a) the student knows when he or she has been motivated to learn, (b) it is the student’s behavior that needs to be changed, (c) student ratings serve as feedback to the teacher, and (d) student recognition can help to promote or motivate good teaching. The majority of these assumptions are unquestionably correct.
It is relatively inexpensive to use kids to assess teachers, and some studies have discovered moderate correlations between students’ teacher ratings and their accomplishment scores. However, there are serious concerns about the validity, reliability, generalizability, utility, interpretability, and acceptability of student ratings as a means or evaluation of evaluating teachers on the job, particularly when the results of such evaluations are to be used for purposes such as promotion, tenure determination, dismissal, or other forms of reward or reprimand. Some research, on the other hand, have concentrated on addressing the shortcomings associated with using students to assess teachers (Darling-Hammond et al, 1983; Marsh, 1987; McKeachie & Lin, 1991; Joshua, 1998; Bassey, 2002).
Aleamoni (1987) outlined eight common concerns of students’ evaluation of instruction following a synthesis of thoughts and reports on student evaluation of the instructor/instruction: I faculty believe that only colleagues with excellent publication records and experience are qualified to evaluate their peers’ instruction; (ii) most student rating schemes are nothing more than a popularity contest, with the warm, friendly, humorous, and easy-going instructor emerging as the winner; (iii) most student rating schemes are nothing more than a popularity contest, with the warm, friendly, humorous, and easy-going instructor emerging as the winner; (iv) most student rating schemes are nothing more than a popularity contest, with the (iv) many professors feel that students cannot make accurate judgements on instruction or teacher until they have been away from the course (topic) and potentially the institution for several years; (v) There is a widespread condemnation of student rating forms, which many faculty members believe are both inaccurate and incorrect; (vi) a variety of extraneous variables or conditions (e.g., class size, student gender, teacher gender, course of major or area of specialization, etc.) can influence students’ ratings; (vii) the grades or marks that students expect or receive are strongly related to their ratings of both the course and the instructor; and (viii) faculty members frequently inquire about how student ratings or evaluations can be used to improve instruction.
Despite the fact that Aleamoni (1987) has presented well-researched views and study reports to address each of these eight concerns, SET remains a source of concern, which justifies the numerous studies aimed at assessing the attitudes of teachers and faculty (who are at the center of such evaluation programs), of which this study is one. However, Remmers, who is widely considered as the originator of research into students’ evaluations of instruction, drew the following bold findings in 1927, based on information gathered over more than two decades of research: (i) there is warrant for ascribing validity to students’ ratings, not merely as measures of students’ attitudes toward the instructor, but also as to what students actually learn from the content of the course; (ii) students’ judgment as a criterion of effective teaching can no longer be waved aside as invalid and irrelevant; (iii) teachers at all levels of the educational ladder have no real choice as to whether they will be judged by those they teach; the only real choice any teacher has is whether he/she wants to know what those judgments are, and whether he/she wants to use this knowledge in his/her teaching procedures; (iv) as higher education is organized and operated, students are pretty much the only ones who observe and are in a position to judge the teachers’ teaching effectiveness; and (v) no research has been published invalidating the use of student opinion as one criterion of teachers’ teaching effectiveness. he use of students’ judgments of the instructor/instruction as a criterion for evaluating the teacher’s performance or effectiveness has garnered studies, including this one, after more than 70 years after Remmers’ results. Some of the findings are positive and enlightening, whereas others are suspect in terms of dependability and validity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The increase in student poor performance has been linked to teaher’s attitude by some scholars. For example those of McKeachie (1983), Roe & McDonald (1983), Marsh (1987), and Marsh & Dunkin (1991) have found positive attitudes to students evaluation of teacher, Teachers’ attitudes can help or hurt student motivation, achievement and well-being. Recent studies found that negative teacher attitudes can impair academic achievement and increase students’ psychological disorders and physical symptoms of stress. The findings from these studies attest to the usefulness and accuracy of student evaluations and their positive relation to teaching effectiveness in comparison with other measures. Other studies, on the other hand, haven’t revealed similar enthusiastic attitudes. In a research by Kauchak et al (1985), student evaluation of teachers was placed seventh out of ten different ways in terms of perceived validity, whereas in a study by Newton & Braithwaite, this same methodology was ranked eighth out of nine offered evaluation methodologies (1988). Stark & Lowther placed student teacher ratings seventh out of six alternatives they studied (1984). Teachers from both primary and high schools were employed in all of these studies. The ranks aren’t really spectacular.
The fact that the majority of these studies were done abroad, mostly in the United States, is a fundamental flaw. Similar studies in the Nigerian context are urgently needed to determine the attitudes and perceptions of Nigerian teachers toward teaching. It is also vital to determine whether particular qualities of teachers have an impact on the attitudes stated by teachers. These are the issues that need to be addressed, and hence the study’s basis. Upon this premise that the study, therefore, presents a critical analysis on the impact of teacher’s poor attitude of in secondary schools and how these attitudes were influenced by certain characteristics (e.g. gender, geographical location, academic qualifications, teaching experience and professional status) in Nigeria.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The broad objective of this study is to presents a critical analysis on the impact of teacher’s poor attitude of in secondary schools. The specific objectives are:
- To ascertain the school environment factors affect teachers’ attitude towards teaching.
- To investigate whether teacher’s qualification and subject knowledge have any effect on his or her attitude towards teaching.
- To determine whether the teaching experience and professional status of a teacher have any influence on the attitude of teachers to teaching profession.
- To examine whether the teachers’ gender affect his or attitude to teaching profession.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following are some of the questions which this study intends to answer:
- Does the school environment factors affect teachers’ attitude towards teaching?
- Dopes teacher’s qualification and subject knowledge have any effect on his or her attitude towards teaching?
- Does the teaching experience and professional status of a teacher have any influence on the attitude of teachers to teaching profession.?
- Does the teachers’ gender affect his or attitude to teaching profession.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE O THE STUDY
The result of this research will obviously reveal the reasons affecting the attitude of and behaviour of teachers towards teaching. This in turn will help identify the main problems faced by teachers, students and the community in general with appropriate solution sought. Out. The study will therefore act as a guide to the educational administrators when deciding attitude of teachers towards effective teaching. The study will also serve as a reference material to scholars and student who wishes to conduct further studies in related field.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study borders on a a critical analysis on the impact of teacher’s poor attitude of in secondary schools and how these attitudes were influenced by certain characteristics (e.g. gender, geographical location, academic qualifications, teaching experience and professional status) in Nigeria. The study is however delimited to selected secondary school in Bwari area council in Federal Capital Territory Abuja
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that it is a new discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size covering only selected secondary school in Bwari area council in Federal Capital Territory Abuja. Thus findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary school in other States within Nigeria. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work will impede maximum devotion to the research. Finally, respondent could not return all the questionnaires distributed to the researcher and this has only made the researcher to only work with the ones that got to him. Howbeit, despite the constraint encountered during the research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Attitude: This refers to the general behaviour of teacher as a result of teaching. This outward expression of inner teaching reflects to total, disposition of the teacher which includes some actions and reactions affecting the general out-put of the teachers.
Teachers: Teachers are all those that are professionally skilled and certificated as a result of training in educational and related courses to improve knowledge to learners. They include N.C.E. AND Bachelor degree holders, B.Sc form recognized universities.