CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION IN A POWER GENERATION PLANT IN NIGERIA

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CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION IN A POWER GENERATION PLANT IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study focused on Carbon footprint Reduction in a Power Generation plant in Nigeria. The study population comprised of selected workers of Ibom Power Plant Akwa Ibom State. Primary a and secondary data were used for the study. Convenience and simple random sampling technique were used for this study. A total number of 100 questionnaire were distributed to all the respondent. Descriptive statistical tools of analysis such as tables, frequency distribution, figures and percentage were used in analyzing the data collected. The findings revealed that Combustion of fossil fuels to generate heat needed to steam turbines was the major cause of Carbon emission in the area. The findings also revealed that enacting of legislative laws that will protect the environment is the most viable method of controlling Power Generation induced Carbon emission in the area. It was recommended that the government should make laws that will protect the environment, also this laws should have punishments and penalties to be made by violators.

 

CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION IN A POWER GENERATION PLANT IN NIGERIA

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1    Background of the Study 

In Nigeria, the shortfall of electricity leads to the overuse of generators for energy. It is estimated that about 30% of power generated is produced in this manner (US Energy Administration, 2013). Currently the only plan the government has in place to help solve the power generation crisis is to expand the fossil fuel burning sector (US Energy Administration, 2013). Nigeria has a reputation of having one of the most corrupt governments in the world (Ejiogu, 2012). It is rich in natural resources, which should and does create billions of dollars of revenue, the production of the oil is not shared with the rest of the country. About 70% of people in Nigeria live below the poverty line and the unemployment rate is 21% (Ejiogu, 2012). Alternative forms of power generation are not used probably because of availability of oil in Nigeria, as it has the world’s seventh largest oil reserves (Ejiogu, 2012).

Currently Nigeria uses four different types of energy sources for power generation and they includes natural gas, oil, hydro and coal (Aliyu, Ramli & Saleh, 2013). The power generation sector is heavily dependent on petroleum as a method for electricity production which has slowed down the development of alternative forms of energy (Aliyu, Ramli & Saleh, 2013). Three out of the four above resources used for energy production in Nigeria are linked with increasing greenhouse gas emissions: coal, oil and natural gas, with coal emitting the worst of the three (Middleton 2013). The effectiveness of the six power generation companies (GENCOs) in Nigeria has been questioned by stakeholders in recent times. The concerned authorities has continued to blame the failure of these generation companies on the activities of pipeline vandals and other agitating groups sabotaging the efforts of government. However, all these has greatly affected the economic growth of the nation negatively.

Electricity and heat production is the most important source of CO2 emissions (around one-third of all CO2 emissions) and is the largest and second largest source respectively of SO2 and NO2 emissions (the largest for the latter being transport). There are generally four ways of reducing the environmental pressures from producing a given output of electricity and heat, i.e. not accounting for a reduced demand: Increasing the share of non-fossil fuels, as power production from renewable energy sources and nuclear produce no harmful emissions at the point of electricity production (with the exception of thermal renewables that involve combustion, such as certain types of biomass and wastes; and nuclear waste).

Given the need for energy consumption in Nigeria, combined with the current global clamor for environmental protection especially in areas of climate change mitigation, this research intends to investigate Carbon footprint Reduction in a power Generation plant in Nigeria.

 

1.2    Statement of Problem

In this 21st century, energy consumption in urban areas in Nigeria is on the high-intensity (Akpan & Akpan, 2012). increased energy consumption leads to improvement in standards of living, manifested in increased food production, increased industrial output, the provision of efficient transportation, adequate shelter, healthcare and other human services (Oyedepo, 2013). This implies that the efficient exploitation and development of a nation’s energy resources is of great importance to the progress and well-being of the populace and the overall growth of the economy, (Akpan and Akpan 2012). Thus, inadequate development and inefficient management of the energy sector has resulted in a serious demand-supply gap experienced in the country. Notably among them is the demand-supply gap in the electricity sector. Electricity is one of the most demanded energy sources in the country, but its supply has been very erratic due to mainly poor management and the issue of population size of the country.

Power generation is the hub of both economic and technological development of any nation. The electricity industry in the Nigeria has gone through quite a lot of metamorphosis. Power generation and electricity supply is a very sensitive issue with several political and economic sophistications in many countries which most of the time define the industry’s effectiveness. Thus, it has continuously drawn great attention from both the industrialists and the political class. As a matter of fact, it has become a veritable avenue to gaining more votes during elections. More important is the fact that every other sector of the economy depends on adequate supply of electricity through effective power generation.

Increasing the efficiency with which electricity and heat is produced from fossil fuels. Advances in engineering technology and operational procedure have all resulted in improved efficiencies (EUEA, 2018). The use of combined heat and power increases efficiencies dramatically as much of the heat produced is used to provide useful energy services at other points of the system. Changing the mix of fossil fuels used for electricity and heat production. Coal, lignite and oil all naturally contain significant amounts of carbon, Sulphur, nitrogen, which react with oxygen during combustion to form the oxides that cause damage to the environment. Natural gas contains significantly less of these chemicals, thus a switch from coal or lignite to natural gas leads to an environmental improvement. Hence, the need for this study to investigate carbon footprint Reduction in a power Generation plant in Nigeria.

 

1.3    Aim and Objectives of Study      

This study is aimed at assessing Carbon footprint Reduction in a power Generation plant in Nigeria.

The specific objectives are as follows;

  • To identify the various causes of environmental Carbon emission in Nigeria.
  • To examine the effects of Power Generation induced Carbon emission in Nigeria.
  • To identify the strategies used in the control and management of Power Generation induced Carbon emission in Nigeria..

1.4 Research Questions

The following are the research questions :

  • What are the various causes of environmental Carbon emission in Nigeria?
  • What are the effects of Power Generation induced Carbon emission in Nigeria.
  • What strategies are used in the controlling and managing of Power Generation induced Carbon emission in Nigeria.

 

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study is limited to Carbon footprint Reduction in a power Generation plant in Nigeria. The study would be restricted in scope to workers in Ibom Power Plant, Ajwa Ubom State, Nigeria.                          

1.6                   Significance of Study        

The significance and importance of this research lie in the following scores:

It would also unearth some facts that could aid the government in its policy and decision-making formulation that will be aid in the reduction of carbon footprint in power generating plants in Nigeria.

It would help the stakeholders involve in energy  generation in Nigeria to establish what they have wrong in the past which has led to Carbon emission damage function regulation and implementation and how best to do it now and in future in order to sustain  and protect the environment.

It will serve as a reference material for students and practitioners of public relations and other related fields.

It would provoke further studies on this subject matter from other students and researchers alike.

1.7 Limitations of Study

Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

Availability of Research Material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.

1.8 Operational Definitions of Terms

Carbon Footprint

a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted through the combustion of fossil fuels. In the case of a business organization, it is the amount of CO2 emitted either directly or indirectly as a result of its everyday operations.

Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge

Power generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

Power Generation Plant

A power station, also referred to as a power plant and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power. Power stations are generally connected to an electrical grid.

CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION IN A POWER GENERATION PLANT IN NIGERIA

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