AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF POOR ORAL HYGIENE AMONG SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN OFFA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KWARA- STATE

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF POOR ORAL HYGIENE AMONG SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN OFFA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KWARA- STATE

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                              

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.5 Research Question

1.3 Aims and Objectives of the Study

1.4 Significance of the Study

1.6 Scope/Delimitation of the Study

1.7 Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 LTERATURE REVIEW

2.2 EFFECT OF POOR ORAL HYGIENE

2.3 PREVENTION OF POOR ORAL HYGIENE

2.4 BENEFICIAL FOODS FOR THE TEETH

2.5 HARMFUL FOODS FOR THE TEETH

2.6 ORAL HYGIENE GUIDELINES FOR CHILDREN AND BABIES

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2 STUDY POPULATION

3.3 SAMPLE SELECTION

3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION, AND CONCLUSION

5.1 SUMMARY

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

5.3 CONCLUSION

5.4 REFERENCES

APPENDIX, QUESTIONNAIRE

 

1.0    INTRODUCTION

Neglecting to adhere to proper oral hygiene guidelines can lead to further oral health complications that are much easier to prevent than they are to fix. Improper dental hygiene results in increased accumulation of plaque and debris around the mouth, teeth, and gums that can lead to gum disease. Gum disease, or periodontal disease is an infection of the tissues and bones that surround and support the teeth.

When plaque accumulates in your mouth the bacteria makes poisons, or toxins, that irritate the gums and cause the gum tissues to break down. If you don’t do a good job of removing plaque from your teeth by brushing and flossing, it can spread below the gums and damage the bone that supports the teeth. With time, the plaque hardens into a substance called tartar that has to be removed by a dentist or dental hygienist.

Gum disease is a direct result of poor dental hygiene and is preventable. If not detected early the condition of gum disease can lead to tooth abscess or tooth loss. Your gums will turn red and puffy and may bleed every time you brush. Gum disease can also lead to halitosis (bad breath), gingivitis, tooth decay, or teeth that are loose or appear to have shifted. To prevent the occurrences of gum disease or tooth decay the surfaces and areas between the teeth and under the gum line must be maintained and treated on a regular basis in order to ensure proper dental hygiene. These areas are still in need of professional dental care even if you regularly care for your teeth. Allowing your dentists and dental hygienist to perform professional teeth cleanings means that that they will be able to remove tartar from your teeth, check for other issues associated with oral health and prevent them, and identify other potential problems. Regular visits to your dentists are a good way to prevent oral health problems and should occur at least two times a year.

Oral hygiene, as well as genetics, exercise, nutrition, and personal habits all contribute to maintaining overall well-being and health. The mouth-body connection theory is based on many links to serious diseases due to poor oral hygiene.

 

1.2    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

 

There is an almost invisible epidemic in the United States of dismal oral health

that has implications for both individuals and society. While tooth decay rates are declining overall in the United States and more people are maintaining their teeth for a lifetime, low-income Americans have decay rates of twice those of the average American (Berry, 2005; Empery & Bradley, 2007). Poor oral health increases the progression of life threatening systemic disease for individuals (Kim et al., 2007). Poor oral health results in increased public and private health care costs due to increased urgent care appointments and increased morbidity. Poor oral health results from several factors, including lack of access to regular preventive dental appointments, lack of access to restorative care when dental diseases are treatable, low general health literacy, and inadequate knowledge of principles of oral health (American Dental Association, 2010).

In twenty-first century America, a healthy smile is considered necessary for social mobility and acceptance, interpersonal relations, employability, and a good self-image. Poor oral health may lead to pain and infection, absence from school or work, poor nutrition, poor general health, an inability to speak or eat properly, and even early death. Studies done in the late 1990s showed that poor oral health may also lead to low birth-weight babies, heart disease, and stroke. It is clear that oral diseases play a significant role in compromising health potential. Up until the late 1990s, when the new HIV medications became available, over 90 percent of persons with AIDS had HIV-related oral diseases.

There are many different types of oral diseases, but they are generally differentiated as being of hard tissue or soft tissue origin. Hard-tissue oral diseases are those of the teeth, supporting bone, and jaw; whereas soft tissue diseases affect the tissues in and around the mouth, including the tongue, lips, cheek, gums, salivary glands, and roof and floor of the mouth. Some oral diseases may result in both hard and soft tissue disorders and conditions such as cleft palate or oral-facial injuries. The major oral diseases and conditions are:

  • Dental caries (tooth decay, cavities)
  • Periodontal disease (gum disease)
  • Malocclusion (crooked teeth)
  • Edentulism (complete tooth loss)
  • Oral cancer
  • Craniofacial birth defects such as cleft lip and cleft palate
  • Soft tissue lesions
  • Oral-facial injuries
  • Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD)

 

The prevalence of oral diseases varies due to differences in the host, agent, and environment. Some diseases have higher rates in certain population groups due to personal habits such as a sugarheavy diet or poor oral hygiene. Others may occur more frequently in individuals who put themselves at risk for injury by not wearing seatbelts or by playing contact sports without using proper mouth and head protection. Environmental and cultural factors may also affect the rates of oral diseases. For example, persons who live in a community in which the water supply is fluoridated would have much less tooth decay than those who live in a nonfluoridated community. Certain cultures, especially in developing countries, have diets almost completely devoid of refined foods that have high sugar content, and therefore have much less tooth decay compared to the average American. A 1997 report by the U.S. Department of Agriculture found that Americans consume an average of about 154 pounds of sugars a year (or 53 teaspoons a day) most of it in processed foods, drinks, and sweets. This was a 28 percent increase in added sugar or sweeteners since 1982. Tooth decay may be viewed as a disease of civilization.

A NEGLECTED EPIDEMIC

Oral diseases have been called a “neglected epidemic” because, while they affect almost the total population, oral health is not integrated into most health policies or programs. This is especially true in theUnited States, where, in the year 2000, there were 125 million Americans without dental insurance. In addition, many people who have dental insurance are underinsured. Under such conditions, people who are knowledgeable about oral health and have the resources to pay for it are much more likely to receive regular dental care than are the poorer members of society. This situation has resulted in major disparities in oral health status in the United States. Low-income children between ages two and five have almost five times more untreated dental disease than high-income children, and people without health insurance have four times the unmet dental needs of those with private insurance.

Vulnerable or high-risk population groups like children, the poor, the developmentally disabled, the homeless, homebound and elderly persons, persons with HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), and ethnic and cultural minorities are at greater risk for oral diseases, primarily because they do not have access to preventive services or treatment. In 2000, the first ever Surgeon General’s report on oral health stressed the importance of oral health as part of total health as well as the need to reduce oral health disparities in the United States.

Although there has been much progress in the improvement of oral health, both nationally and internationally, oral diseases are still epidemic in the United States and many other countries. The nation’s dental bill in the year 2000 was about $60.2 billion, or 4.6 percent of total health expenditures in the United States. In 1970, dental care accounted for 6.4 percent of total health expenditures. This 28 percent decrease is primarily due to the higher costs of hospitals and medical care.

 

1.3    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

While writing the project work, the researcher encountered many problems. Among which is the negative attitude of the students in the sense that they feel reluctant to give necessary information to help the written of the project, it also give out for a long time to gather some relevant information due to level of maturity of the students in various schools under study.

Another problem encountered in the process of writing this project is the financial constraint which is also one of the problems that affect the written of the research work. Finally time factor is also part of short coming in build-up of the project.

1.6    RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Does poor oral hygiene result to cancer?
  2. Does secondary school students engage in oral hygiene?
  3. Does poor oral hygiene result to tooth decay?
  4. Does poor oral hygiene lead to a bad odour from the mouth?
  5. Does secondary schools students know much about the importance of oral hygiene to their health?

1.4    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to carry out a research on an investigation into the causes and prevention of poor oral hygiene among the selected secondary school students in Offa local government area of Kwara state Nigeria.

  1. To investigate into the major causes of poor oral hygiene among the secondary school students in Offa.
  2. To also carry out a research to investigate the preventive measure of poor oral hygiene
  3. To investigate why some secondary school students failed to carry out a proper oral hygiene in their homes before coming to school
  4. To create awareness among the secondary school students on the importance of oral hygiene.

 

1.5    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is to show how poor oral hygiene has affected the teeth and wellbeing of the secondary school students in Offa local government area of Kwara state of Nigeria.

The main significance of this study to;

  1. Attempt to assess the effect of poor oral hygiene on the vocal cavity of the students in some selected secondary school in Offa
  2. Provide information to broader the knowledge and high degree of awareness about various means of preventive measure of poor oral hygiene among the secondary school students in Offa local government area of Kwara State Nigeria

 

1.7    SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The research was carried out only in Offa local government area of Kwara State, as geographical coverage, the writer intended to have studied more than that, but because of financial commitments of the writer and the extra time that would be allotted in attempt to assess the causes and prevention of poor oral hygiene among the selected secondary school students in Offa alone hindered a further study.

The content of the study focuses on the investigation into the causes and prevention of poor oral hygiene among selected secondary school students in Offa local government area of Kwara state.

1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINATION OF TERMS

  1. HYGIENE

A conditions or practices conductive to maintaining health and preventing disease, especially through cleanliness.

  1. CAVITY

Is an empty space within a solid object, cavities are small holes in your teeth that need to be filled.

  1. CANCER

Is a disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cell in a part of the body.

  1. GINGIVITIES

Inflammation of the gum(gingival)

  1. MANAGEMENT

The process of dealing with or controlling things or people

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF POOR ORAL HYGIENE AMONG SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN OFFA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KWARA- STATE

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