EVALUATION OF MODIFIED FINGER MILLET STARCH (Eleusinecoracana L.) AS FILLER/BINDER IN DIRECT COMPRESSION

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EVALUATION OF MODIFIED FINGER MILLET STARCH (Eleusinecoracana L.) AS FILLER/BINDER IN DIRECT COMPRESSION

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Abstract:

Starch modifications are a means of altering the structure and affecting the hydrogen bonding in a controllable manner to enhance and extend their application. There are different methods for modification of starch such as chemical modifications which include stabilization, cross linking, conversions and physical modifications which include annealing and pre-gelatinization. The methods that were chosen to modify Eleusinecoracana starch was by pregelatinization and acid hydrolysis, for the formulation of metronidazole tablets by direct compression. Pregelatinization and acid hydrolysisof the native starch (ORS) was carried out by standard procedures. Acid hydrolysis was allowed for 6h,12h and 18h respectively. Acid hydrolyzed starch was labelled as AHS and pregelatinized starch as PGS. Physicochemical characterization of the native and modified forms of the starch was carried out by several tests. The flow properties of the materials were evaluated by determining the angle of repose, flow rate, Carr‟s index and Hausner‟s ratio. Compaction studies were carried out using Heckel and Kawakita plots to elucidate the mode of deformation of the materials. Dilution potential was carried out for all modified starches to estimate the optimum drug-excipient ratio. For drug-excipient compatibility studies, analytical technique Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used. The Percentage yields of starches hydrolysed for 6,12 and 18 h were%, 62.2 % and 55.6 % respectively. Gelatinization temperature was 66ºC and percentage yield for the Pregelatinized starch (PGS) was 19.4% . Powder characterization indicates that modified starches of Eleucinecoracana possessed good flow properties because they had low angle of repose (26˚-30˚) and good flow rate of 2.0 to 7.8 g/s .The values obtained from flow indices suggest that the acid hydrolysed starch(AHS) performed better than PGS which in turn gave a slightly better property than the original native starch (ORS). PGS had the highest hydration and swelling compared to other modified starches. The Phvalue for all modified starches were neutral and this indicated that they are safefor oral consumption. Decrease in amount of protein and lipids with increase in time in acid hydrolysis indicated that they were denatured by acid hydrolysis. Microscopicalexamations showed all particles were spherical with size ranging from 100-172 μm. Photomicrographs revealed an increase in the size of particle in PGS due to swelling of particles as a result of uptake in water. There was an increase in void spaces between particles with increase in time in acid hydrolysis indicating particles that had been denatured. All modified starches had moisture content within specified limit, tablets containing 40:60 or 50:50 blend of metronidazole starch gave the best physicochemical characteristicsinterms of tablet strength/friability profile.The AHS treated for 12h gave the best tableting characteristics among the acid hydrolyzed starches. From Heckel and Kawakita analysis, the modified starch (AHS &PGS) were found to have low yield values compared to native starch (ORS). The Kawakita parameters were consistent with Heckel analysis as the modified starches performed better in terms of deformation. According to Heckel and Kawakita, all modified starches showed improved compression profile compared with the original starch. FTIR results revealed no interaction of these excipients with the metronidazole tablet. These results suggest that tablets with optimum properties can be formulated by direct compression using AHS modified for 12h as filler-binder.

 

EVALUATION OF MODIFIED FINGER MILLET STARCH (Eleusinecoracana L.) AS FILLER/BINDER IN DIRECT COMPRESSION

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