ANTIDIARRHOAEL EFFECT OF METHANOL STEM BARK EXTRACT OF HYMENOCARDIA ACIDA (EUPHOBIACEAE) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

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ANTIDIARRHOAEL EFFECT OF METHANOL STEM BARK EXTRACT OF HYMENOCARDIA ACIDA (EUPHOBIACEAE) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS
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Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of the methanol stem bark extract of Hymenocardia acida in some laboratory animals. They methanol stem bark extract of Hymenocardia acida (MEHA) was prepared from the freshly collected stem bark of the plant. The stem bark was collected from Galadimawa village, Giwa local government area of Kaduna State. The plant material was identified and authenticated by a botanist in the herbarium section of the Department of Botany Faculty of Life Sciences Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Nigeria and a voucher specimen (1275) was deposited for future reference. The plant material was washed, shade dried, pulverized and sieved to obtained fine powder. The powdered plant material was extracted with 70% v/v methanol by cold maceration for three days with occasional shaking and agitation. The mixture was then filtered using whattman No 1 filter paper and the filtrate was later concentrated over a water bath at temperature of 40 to 450C to obtained dried extract. The dried extract was kept in a bottle until needed for used. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out using thin layer chromatography analysis (TLC). Acute toxicity study was carried out using the method described in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines 423. Invivo antidiarrheal screening of the extract at the doses of 600, 300 and 150 mg/kg body weight was conducted using castor oil induced diarrhea model, castor oil induced enteropooling and gastric transit in mice model. In vitro study was carried out on isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea pig ileum using ugo basile microdynamometer, at extract concentration of (8 x 10-2 to 640 x 10-2 mg/ml) and thereafter interacted with spasmogens; acetylcholine and histamine at concentration of (2 x 10-5 to 16 x 10-5). Alkaloids, glycoside, saponin, tanins, triterpenes, flavonoids, and steroids were detected from the extract. The result of the acute toxicity study revealed the LD50 value to be in excess of 2000 mg/kg. The methanol stem bark extract of Hymenocardia acida at all doses investigated significantly (p≤ 0.05) and dose dependently delayed the onset of diarrhea in all the investigated groups in castor oil induced diarrhea model compared to the control group. The extract at the doses of 300 and 600 mg/kg also reduced the frequency of diarrheal feces compared to the negative control group. Significant reduction (p≤0.05) in the propulsive movement and transit of charcoal meal was observed at 600 mg/kg dose of the extract in gastric transit time in mice model. All extract treated groups produced significant reduction (p≤0.05) in the volume of fluid accumulation compared to the deionized water treated group in fluid accumulation test. The methanol stem bark extract (8 x 10-2 to 640 x 10-2 mg/ml) produced significant reduction in the tone and rate of spontaneous contraction of rabbit jejunum and relaxes guinea pig ileum. The extract upon interaction with the spasmogens; acetylcholine and histamine (2 x 10-5 to 16 x 10-5) inhibited contraction induced by both Acetylcholine and histamine in a concentration dependent manner. The result of this study suggests that the methanol stem bark extract of Hymenocardia acidapossess antidiarrheal activity that justified its ethnomedical use in the treatment of diarrhea by herbal practitioners

ANTIDIARRHOAEL EFFECT OF METHANOL STEM BARK EXTRACT OF HYMENOCARDIA ACIDA (EUPHOBIACEAE) IN LABORATORY ANIMALS

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