EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH AND SOUTH LGA OF KADUNA STATE

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EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH AND SOUTH LGA OF KADUNA STATE

 

ABSTRACT

 

This study is entitled: Effects of Instructional Materials on Performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna North and South L.G.A of Kaduna State The study was guided two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted in this study. The target population of the study was all the JSS three students in Kaduna North and South L.G.A in Kaduna state. A sample of 236 students was drawn from the population of 600 through simple random procedure. The selection of the sample was based on the recommendation of Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of determining sample size. A test items was used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analyzed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The study found difference exists between the pre-test and post-test scores of the respondents in the experimental group which indicate that the performance of students improved when instructional material was introduced in the lesson. The study recommends that at all time teachers school employ instructional material during lesson.

 

KEYWORD: EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH AND SOUTH LGA OF KADUNA STATE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

COVER PAGE……………………………………………………………………………… Error! Bookmark not defined.

 

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………………………………………. Error! Bookmark not defined.

 

DECLARATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii

 

CERTIFICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv

 

DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………… vi

 

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii

 

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………………………………. x

 

LIST OF APPENDICES……………………………………………………………………………………….. xi

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS…………………………………………………………. xii

 

CHAPTER ONE……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

1.1     Background to the Study……………………………………………………………………………. 1

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………. 3

 

1.3     Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………………………………. 3

 

1.4      Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………………… 3

 

1.5     Null Hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………………… 4

 

1.6     Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………. 4

 

1.7     The Scope, Delimitation of the study……………………………………………………………. 5

 

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

 

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE………………………………………………………………… 6

 

2.1     Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

 

2.2     Learning Theories about Instructional Materials…………………………………………….. 6

 

2.3     Meaning, Nature and Scope of Social Studies……………………………………………… 11

 

2.4     Types and Classification of Instructional Materials………………………………………. 15

 

2.4     Principles Necessary in Selection of Instructional Materials…………………………… 28

 

2.5     Availability of Instructional Materials in Schools…………………………………………. 29

 

2.6     Usefulness of Instructional Materials………………………………………………………….. 32

 

2.7         Intrinsic and Extrinsic Value of Instructional Materials……………………………… 35

 

2.8     Problem of using Instructional Materials in Social Studies Classroom…………….. 40

 

2.9     Instructional Materials and Students Academic-Performance………………………… 41

 

2.10       Instructional Materials and Teachers Performance…………………………………….. 44

 

2.11   Review of Related Empirical Studies:…………………………………………………………. 47

 

Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50

 

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

 

METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

 

3.1     Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51

 

3.2     Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………. 51

 

3.3     Population of the Study……………………………………………………………………………. 51

 

3.4     Sample and Sampling Procedure………………………………………………………………… 52

 

3.5     Instrumentation……………………………………………………………………………………….. 53

 

3.5.1      Validity and Reliability of Instrument…………………………………………………….. 53

 

3.6     Data Collection Procedure………………………………………………………………………… 54

 

3.7     Statistical Analysis Procedure……………………………………………………………………. 55

 

CHAPTER FOUR………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56

 

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA……………………………………………………. 56

 

4.1     Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 56

 

4.3      Summary of Major Findings……………………………………………………………………… 59

 

4.4      Discussion of Findings…………………………………………………………………………….. 60

 

CHAPTER FIVE…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION………………………………….. 62

 

5.1     Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

 

5.2    Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

 

5.3     Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63

 

5.4      Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………. 63

 

5.5     Contribution to Knowledge……………………………………………………………………….. 66

 

5.6      Suggestion for Further Study……………………………………………………………………. 66

 

References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

 

APPENDIX I………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Instructional resources which are educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum. It has been defined as learning resources associated with objects, persons or other aspects of the environment which can be used to impact, or help in any learning activity (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials are befits the teacher as it make instruction easier and the learners as it make the learning objectives clearer (Iyunade, 2014). Instructional materials if effectively used are capable of captivating students‟ interest; stimulating desires in learning and make them participates in the lesson (Mba, 2004). In a situation like this, students‟ academic performance could be positively influence. Instructional materials include both the printed and audio-visual materials and as well resource places and person. Printed instructional materials include, but not limited to textbooks, journal articles, instructor manuals and guides, student workbooks, assignments, and other reference materials. Audio-visual materials consist of electronic videos, audiotapes, slides, filmstrips, radio and/or television (Onyilagha & Nnajiofor 2016).

Social Studies is given a core status and made compulsory subject for all students in Junior secondary school in Nigerian educational system due to its relevance in enabling citizens acquire skills, knowledge, attitude and values with which they will use to explore their environment so as to have a comfortable and fulfilled life (Olayinka, 2016). To enable the acquisition of skills attitude, values and knowledge and development of self-

confidence and self- actualization of the younger generation as envisage by the Nigerian Policy of Education (2004) which is in line with the objectives of teaching Social Studies in Junior Secondary schools in Nigeria, the use of instructional material becomes necessary and needed tool which cannot be over emphasized. This implies that for effective achievement of Social Studies objectives, teachers most employ instructional materials in Social Studies instruction at all times. It on this fact, that researcher such as Olayinka (2016) and Agreement and Ontiretse (2011) conduct empirical studies.

Academic performance is a major aspect of school system. It has been conceived as the reflection of students‟ ability in academic work (Okeke, & Attah, 2010) which shows how well a student performs in test and examination (Olibie, & Ezeoba, 2013). Academic performance of students is an area that is given wide research over the years. This is due to the poor performance students observed in public and school examination (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011). Instructional materials therefore, are essential and significant tools needed for teaching and learning of school subjects to promote teachers‟ efficiency and improve students‟ performance. Studies on influence of instructional material on academic performance of students in Social Studies available to this researcher are conducted in Bostwana (Agreement, & Ontiretse, 2011) and Ekiti state ( Olayinka, 2016). There is therefore, the need to carry out similar study in Kaduna state thus this informed the present research with the hope that it will fill up the gap in literature and attempts to find out if the use of instructional materials could improve the performances of students in this subject at the junior senior secondary school.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The desire to carry out this research was due to the problem of poor examination performance by the junior secondary schools students, in Kaduna North L.G.A. This poor examination performance has been recorded for some years by the State Education Management Board. It was observed that, some concepts in secondary school social studies curriculum are difficult for students to learn. There is no doubt that children performance can be substantially improved through the application of simple practice and the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation. Therefore, the problem of this study hinges on the determination of the extent to which the use of instructional materials enhances students‟ performance in Social Studies at junior secondary school.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study was based on the following objectives which are to:-

Determine the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts with the use of instructional materials.

Determine the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts without the use of instructional materials.

1.4 Research Questions

What is the difference in the mean of pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts with the use of instructional materials?

 

What is the difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts without the use of instructional materials?

1.5 Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested in this study.

There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts with the use of instructional materials.

There is no significant difference in the mean pre-test and post-test performance scores of JSS III students when taught Social Studies concepts without the use of instructional materials

 

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study is expected to be relevant to the following:

Help to bring awareness of teachers on the need to at all time used instructional materials in class room instruction.

The study will stimulate school administrators to ensure that teachers make use of instructional materials effectively

This study would enable the State Education Board to appreciate the relevance and provides instructional materials in teaching-learning not only in social studies but in all subject areas; and

This study will be a material in which other research can make reference to.

1.7 The Scope, Delimitation of the study

The study is limited to two schools with 234 sampled students broken into two groups of experimental group and control group in Kaduna North and Kaduna South local government areas of Kaduna state.

 

EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA NORTH AND SOUTH LGA OF KADUNA STATE

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